«We need to look into the past in order to understand the present and foresee the future»

Mashkhur Zhussup and oral history

Mashkhur Zhussup and oral history
The world cultural heritage of the oral historical tradition of the Kazakhs is poorly investigated

In Soviet historiography, rich oral historical tradition of the Kazakh people was ignored and was not perceived as a source for studying the history of the Kazakh people. Western historians also were skeptical about the interpretation of historical sources. Among them are such well-known and recognized authors and compilers of written sources and archival materials, as Muhammad Shaibani Khan, Abu-l-Gazi Bahadur Khan, Kadyrgali Zhalayiri, Muhammad Haidar Dulati, Mashkhur Zhussip Kopeyev, Shakarim Kudaiberdiev, Kurbangali Khalidi etc. Therefore, there is every reason to believe that in reality, oral historical tradition in the history of the Kazakh Khanate in XV-XVIII centuries was recorded in writing.

The peculiarity of the written heritage of Mashkhur Zhussip is a detailed image, based on the historical facts of the life of the Kazakh khans (Kasim Khan, Yesim Khan, Tauke Khan etc.). This variation written on the model of the chroniclers of the East, possibly is a part of large labor of M.Zh. Kopeev "The roots of the Kazakhs", dedicated to the general history of the Kazakhs. Genealogy of the Kazakhs described in only 2 pages, historical dates, which are currently not used in historical science, considering that the facts do not specify where, when and by whom collected, we believe that this information of M.Zh. Kopeev connects the history of khans Abylai and Kenesary centuries. This manuscript is characterized by rich content of factual material.

Let us dwell on the dates of historical events described in the text. The date of Kasim Khan’s death Mashkhur shows year 930 (1524), this is not found in the works of M. Haidar Dulati, Sh. Kudaiberdiev, K. Khalid. Generally, the date of Kasim Khan’s death in the sources occurs in different ways: 1) year 1518 contains the writings of M.H. Dulati, Haidar Razi; 2) year 1521 - in Russian decrees; 3) year 1524 (1525) - in the Persian sources.

M. Haidar Dulati in his work "Tarikh-i-Rashidi" showed 1518th - the year of Kasim Khan’s death. After the death of Sultan Adil ruled Kasim Khan, because Burunduk Khan remained nothing but the name of Khan. Eventually Kasim Khan drove Burunduk Khan, who went to Samarkand, died in a foreign land. Kasim Khan after Zhoshy Khan took control of Deshti Kypshak into his own hands. Multi-million army of Khan glorified him. In 924 (1518), he established forever. This date later in the scientific writings of historians occurs more often. In Russian documents Kasim Khan’s death is associated with year 1521.

A. Issin based on actual materials and orders, preserved in the archives, clearly pointed out that the year of death of Kasim Khan is 1521 [1]. Scientists-Orientalists M.H. Abuseitova [2], T.I. Sultanov [2], E.D. Tursynov [3] show the two dates (1518/1524) in their writings. In addition, considering the fact that M. Kopeyev read in the original works of the Middle East, we can conclude that Mashkhur Zhusip ever used the works of the Persian historians, or relied on sources still unknown to anyone. Pay attention to the following names mentioned in the manuscript: Kasim Khan and Zhirenshe Sheshen, Yesim Khan and Tursun Khan, Khan Zhangir, Tauke Khan, Kazybek bi, Toktamys Khan, Orys Khan, Bukei Khan, his son Zhangir Khan. Changed names are given Tola bi (Tole bi), Folod Khan (Bolat Khan) Abu Al Mohammed Khan, or Abolmamet Khan (ruled Middle Zhuz Abilmambet Khan) Samike Khan (Sameke ruled Middle Zhuz) Nurgali Khan, Abulkhair Khan (known Abulkhair Khan Younger Zhuz). Among them information about Sardam Batuuly or Orda Batuuly. "White Orda" of Batuuly is not found in the historical and factual materials. We note that the Ak Orda - the name of a person. In the story or legend, presented in labor of Utemish Haji "Shygys name", which tells the story of who should be the Khan: Ezhen or Sayin, who were born to a daughter of Nuraly Khan. Together with seventeen brothers, born to the other wives, addressed to the Great Khan (Khan Shyngys), who built them Orda. White Orda with gold to Sain Khan, blue Orda to Ezhen, bright steel Orda to Shaiban.

According to legend, in the "Shyngys name", Ak Orda to Batu differed in color, and in the manuscript of Mashkhur, Ak Orda - alias of Batu son Sardam.

It is easy to see from the historical events that M.Zh. Kopeyev relied on two factual materials. On the first page of the manuscript information of Kasim Khan is taken from Persian materials, giving the date of the death of Khan year 930. The next two pages are written in Russian research works, which indicate the description of the historical period after Tauke Khan each separately. First, it states that Elder Zhuz ruled Tauke Khan. Then examines the situation of Middle Zhuz in 1722-1740. At the end of the manuscript says about vassalage of Russia (1731) during Abulkhair "Younger Zhuz". In this regard, we note that is not found until now in the scientists’ research information about political strife in Middle Zhuz and that Ablai Khan in the years 1734-1740 was the authoritative Sultan. M. Kopeyev wrote the second page of the manuscript on the model of the European researchers, adding his observation materials.

However, there is a common pattern - each manuscript begins with the title "Kazak tubi". Especially it is widely used in the beginning of the parable of Adam in "Genealogy of Turks" Abulgazi. Although the manuscript of the history of the region has a common chronology, they are different in content. "Kazak Tubi" of Mashkhur Zhussup Kopeev covers basic topics of description the history of the Kazakhs and the title of the manuscript is the starting point in the general category. The main aim of the author is to collect folklore and therefore most of the manuscripts used folklore samples. However, they talk about important historical events and play a big role. If we analyze, it turns out that 70-80 percent of the manuscripts from the folklore and literary forms.

Historical legends, songs, epics are arranged in strict chronological order and are subject to a common theme - "Kazak tubi". From this it follows that the author, collecting a certain material in a book, had two objectives: historical and literary. Along with this, in manuscript there are philosophical, medical and other topics. If we consider the manuscript, each material is a unit in the general scheme. Later, a few samples of units of this manuscript, united in one subject, were released in Kazan under the title "Who Owns Saryarka?" in 1907. In the study of manuscripts discovered that only the 20th year, the material was collected by the author in separate books. At the end of each was written the content with numeration of pages.

Considering that every single manuscript is written in different ink (red, blue, black), it can be assumed that they were previously separate units, and only later combined into a book. Mashkhur Zhussup Kopeyev was a living witness of the events of 1870-1920 years and therefore the description of this period can be taken as historical information. Even manuscripts of Kenesary Kasymov were written according to the recollections of witnesses who took part in this uprising, or according to the stories of the descendants of these people. Therefore, the historical events of the late 19th and early 20th century, described in the manuscripts of Kopeev, can be accepted as historical information.

The oral tradition of the nomadic Turks is the main as a historical source. And there are two groups of historical sources: internal and external. External sources are written mostly by authors of neighboring countries of Central Asia and Middle and Far East. These are works in different languages: Persian, Arabic, Chinese and so on. In this article, there are the sources of Muslim historical tradition. However, it has a strong biased, one-sided coverage of the past, a kind of a strange view of history.

Internal sources - it is basically a historical tradition of inhabitants. They, in turn, are divided into two parts: 1) a part which was fixed in written at a certain stage of history at different points of Turkish world; 2) a part which is still in the oral treatment.

The first part includes "Chingiz-nama" of Utemish-hajji, "Jami'at-Tawarikh" Kadir-'Ali Dzhala'iri "Shajara-yi Turk," Abu-l-Ghazi Bahadur Khan, "Turkish-Kyrgyz and Khan genealogy" Shakarim Kudaiberdiev and "Kazak Tubi" Mashkhur Zhussup Kopeev based on the oral historical tradition of certain tribal associations of that period. The structure of the second part consists of historical legends, genealogy (shezhire), heroic epics (dastan) etc. Monuments of the above parts constitute, in the words of the researchers, steppe oral historical tradition. Therefore, own historiographical tradition is important in that it had a decisive influence on the formation and evolution of social ideology. It is the memory of the very subject of the historical reality about itself, its past, told in the form of stories and songs the history of the people, the heroic deeds of ancestors, passed down by word of mouth by generations and set out for the most part on paper only in the late XVIII-early XX centuries. The oral historical tradition among other issues deals with the problem of historical continuity of state traditions of medieval societies in Central Asia.

In the modern sense the tradition of the state is historical and genetic continuity of the common, basic and essential features and state components, transmitted from one state to another. And tradition is manifested not only in the very activity-acts, but also in the form of representations about them.

From this point of view, great importance is the analysis of the so-called "channels" movement of state and political tradition. Taking into account the fact that the role of such "transmitter" may play ancient manuscripts, folklore, customary law, etc.

A special group of the group of written sources on the history of the Turkic nomads of Central Asia - sources that brought us the oral historical knowledge of nomads. In science, it was called "steppe oral historiography" or "steppe oral historiology".

Based on a unique data - data of the history subject of its past - steppe oral historiology no less, and in some cases, even more important for the knowledge of the socio-political processes. Here it should be specially mentioned the decisive role of steppe oral tradition to the written evidence. Moreover, they were fully confirmed by the written fixation or, more importantly, the principles of state of newly created entities. "Chingiz-nama" contains important information about the political institutions of medieval Central Asian states. Among them khans are determined as the supreme political power carriers, oglans and beks. Among the political structures the special role played the Majlis - meeting of Ghingisids and nobility. It should be noted that the conclusions of the decisive role of sources of a Turkic origin, which were dominated by oral tradition, the heroic epic, shezhire to study the history and culture of these peoples today universally recognized. Another important route of transmission of the Kazakh traditions was the very practice of the organization of power relations in the new ideological perception of the world, dating back to the early era of the Turks and the quickest restructuring in the era of the Mongol invasions. Central Asian school of historiography investigated the questions of influence of Genghis Khan conquests to the spiritual world and the period outlook, and through it - to statehood and the overall global order. This phenomenon in the historical fate of the Turkic and Mongolian peoples of Eurasia was named "Chingisism".

Chingisism was a powerful ideological system, in some ways approaching the religious outlook and had great practical importance. Chingisism had a direct impact on the socio-political system, the structures of social institutions, political and legal norms. It consecrated the right of Genghis Khan dynasty to the supreme power and title of Khan from that moment became the exclusive domain of Ghingisids. This was precisely its traditional character, freely perceived by consciousness of Turko-Mongol medieval society. Analogs conducted between Chingisism - a genealogical legend of Genghis Khan, included in the overall picture of the world, and Ogusism (cycle of legends about Oguz), as well as promising parallels with its subsequent modification (Edygeizm) lead to the conclusion of originality and at the same time the traditional character of the new ideological construction.

Analysis of the concrete event-history of Central Asia in XIV, "Chingiz-nama" gives reason to conclude that the transfer would be subject to not only the system of power and power relations, but the order of relations between the supreme ruler (Khan) with his subjects, more importantly, change of dynasty, and with it - the birth of the new state. This is confirmed by the analysis of the version of the death of the Ak-Orda Khan Urus described by Utemish Hajji. The version of the Urus-khan death during a battle with Tokhtamysh and murder of Urus by Tokhtamysh son Jalal ad-Din, as well as general historical context in which developed a tradition - the absence of centralized power of Khan, despite its external recognition; separatism of the tribes; lack of sufficient enforcement functions by Khan; carting away of "dissatisfied" tribes led by beks as a form of protest against the ruler, - evidence of stable traditions prevailing in the presentation of the nomads of the relationship with power. This fact is similar in the subsequent development of events among the nomadic tribes of Central Asia, in the history of which began carting away of Djanibek and Girei with the subservient tribes of Khan Abul-Khair and the creation of a new state.

To strengthen of internal principles of nomadic society, statehood were sent legislation of Khans Kasim (Clear right of Kasim), Haqq-Nazar (Ak Zhol), Esim (Eskі Joly), Tauke Khan (Zheti Zhargy), which are based on Yasa of Genghis Khan.

Statehood of Turkic nomads was characterized by the presence of traditional management methods, the military-administrative system, historical predecessors of Chingisids Empire.

In the political life of the countries conquered by the Mongols soon enough and well established the idea that Khan Chingisid-only, i.e. Chingisids right to rule. In this respect, it is very significant that, even in the XIX century in Central Asia and Kazakhstan origin of Genghis Khan and the title of Sultan was given the same value as the origin of the Prophet Mohammed and the title of Sayyid.

It is interesting to note that the ancient Mongolian custom of electing a new Khan retained approximately the same form as the Kazakhs, the Uzbeks of Central Asia until the end of the XIX century. When a candidate for the throne, received the consent of most of the sultans and nobles to the reign of the most influential persons of the Khanate of sultans and bies declared him that, put him on the "thin white felt" and triply lifted the felt at the ends, proclaiming "Khan, Khan, Khan! "This tradition was revived, for example, in modern Turkmenistan.

A clear expression of the understanding of belonging to a single ethnic culture, a peculiar concept of ethnic identity of the Turkic peoples arose among Turks the idea of "Bіrtutas Turki Eli" (Single Turkic El), initiated by another calling for unification under the blue flag of the Turks generals and rulers of Kutlug, Bilge Kagan, Cul-tegin, Tonyukuk, later extended by thinkers Balasaguni, Yasavi, Kashgari, Nava'i and revived the national intelligentsia in the early twentieth century.

Currently, we are working to expand the range of sources. However, of great importance at this stage is the development of methods of their study.

The oral historical tradition - a natural phenomenon in the culture of the nomadic people, it is a manifestation of historical experience, ideology, ideal, and the public traditions and aesthetics of the people. In later historical epos (Tarikhi zhyrlar) was described the relationship of the Kazakhs with the neighboring peoples - the war, the allied relations, the tribal structure of the inhabitants, life and traditions. We can assume that such oral historical knowledge was permanently. Over time, it formed the basis of written works on the history of the Kazakhs such as "Tawarikh-i-yi guzida-yi nusrat-nama", "Chingiz-nama" Utemish-hajji, "Jami 'at-Tawarikh" Kadir-'Ali biy-dzhalair.

Steppe oral historiography can be interpreted not only as a form of social memory of inhabitants of Central Asia, but also as a special form of oral folk literature, which are richly represented by tradition, legends connected with the history of certain tribes, the life of their brave leaders. All this is also seen in the works of foreign scientists Hudson A. [5], Krader L. [6], Su Beihai [7], Reichl K. [8], Bascom W. [9], Honko L. [10]

For example, the Kazakhs, most messages transmitted orally cleverly rhymed and allegorical speech. Many messages, due to its importance and the ultimate perfection of the literary form, long remembered by the people. The so-called verbal letter served playback method of the historical past and perpetuate the memory of outstanding personalities, known in particular for their witty sayings. They were the works of a particular oral genre.

Such a construction of material - not on political, ethnic or other grounds, but only on the basis of ideological continuity - not an end in itself and not the pursuit of originality, and the way to fix it feeds from the last centuries BC and up to modern times.

Summarizing the above opinion of scientists, it can be concluded that the manuscript is one of the actual material, which contributed to the history of Kazakhstan.

The above allows us to make the following conclusions:

-Central Asian Turkic nomads from ancient times had their own historiographical tradition, we can call it steppe oral historiography.

-Dominated among nomadic concept of their history received from time to time its reflection in the various written monuments, created at different stages of history in the neighbouring historic schools.

-In this regard, a comparative study of oral traditions and historical monuments of the external schools of historiography can become fruitful. However, it should be born in mind the influence of the traditions of these schools.

-As a core function of steppe historiography was sacralisation power of a dynasty. "Ogusism", "chingisism" and "edygeism" are some attempts in this direction.

-Learning oral historiography shows the power of steppe tradition of Islamic influence, it is manifested in Chingisid model of the supreme power as opposed of the Middle East Muslim tradition.



d.h.s., professor of PSU named after S. Toraigyrov


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9. Bascom W. The Forms of Folklore: Prose Narrative // ​​American Folklore. -1965. - P. 3-20;

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