25 years ago, in February 1992, "Kazakhstanskaya Pravda" published a large amount of material that one could not remain indifferent. The investigation in the case of GKChP completed and an interview with the Deputy Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation Evgeny Lisov, who headed the investigation team, got on the front pages of major newspapers. We published interview in reduction.
-Evgeny Kuzmich, on the events of August, there are several points of view, so the first question is whether the coup was?
-"Putsch" is not a legal concept, in the law on crimes against the state is a different definition - "plot to mount a coup d'etat". The answer is simple - the plot was. Analysis of all documents, testimonies of several thousand people suggested that those who were accused of seizing power, really developed the appropriate script and implemented it. Investigation materials prove that conclusively. One of the accused was found a whole collection of second copies of documents with described details that were to be done in the country to turn its development in the opposite direction. It was planned to abolish the existing structures of power and control by the Supreme Soviets to rural, to eliminate the executive power, to create a temporary committee of management of the country, the new Cabinet of Ministers (the head was to become one of the conspirators, but not Pavlov and Tizyakov). The economy should return to a rigid administrative, almost military control. There was a draft decree on the fight against crime, which instructed all localities to introduce patrols. During the arrest of those responsible for committing theft, robbery and rape, patrols shot on the spot without trial and to make relevant acts.
-Incomplete trust called suicides of Pugo and Akhromeyev that occurred immediately after the coup.
-No stranger had a hand in it. You can be astonished of Marshal Akhromeyev, he tried to pass the life twice, wrote in a suicide note that "I had to make a second attempt, the first time I failed suicide". Something slipped, he fell, ten minutes was unconscious. Then he woke up, wrote five or six notes: to the canteen - the money (debt) to pay, to a family, to someone else and large – to Mikhail Sergeyevich. All these documents are in the case.
We were almost witnessed the death of Pugo - he was shot five minutes before our arrival. The wife was not beaten, this interpretation of Yavlinsky, who also arrived there. When we entered, Valentina Ivanovna was nearly unconscious, in somnambular condition she sat on the floor, rocking from side to side. She was wounded and smeared blood with her hand on the face of what it became such a terrible. Pugo first shot her and then himself. To prove it was easy. The first thing the experts do - washes hands with the shooter (shot leaves a trace). Valentina Ivanovna had no trace, only Pugo. And two notes, his and her. She writes: "Do not blame us for anything, we have to".
-Why there was no connection to the world in Foros, when for example, in each "Volga" they had a radio?
-Yes, there were Volga equipped with communication with Moscow, but traffic was closed in a box, sealed, and secured by sentry, who did not obey Gorbachev. Flew security chief Generalov brought with him 5-6 people, he gathered together all his officers and ordered, "You obey me, without me, no action." Even Gorbachev's personal guard was put in that position and had no access to the machines. The road was blocked by cars, helipad closed by tractors.
-What is the overall role of Gorbachev in the August events, about it speak out directly opposite judgments?
-Either directly or indirectly to the plot and the actions of the conspirators, he was not involved. No blessing, no hint of "good", he did not give them.
-Why did not the assault on the White House take place?
-They were scared by the people. Plans of assault were discussed absolutely serious in KGB and other places. Schematically plan was to introduce internal troops, clearing the passage to the building, in the vacated space introduced group "Alpha". It hit walls with grenades, in addition, they had other means of destruction, even more power, which was not even in the military arsenal. "Alpha" suppresses any resistance, and only after it gunmen of the group "B" enter. It also belongs to KGB, but is designed for operations abroad. It had to carry out the final stage of internment. Experts who prepared the assault, went to the place for the reconnaissance. When they returned, said that they were ready to perform a task (it really would take about 20 minutes), but warned that "blood would be a lot." For such a slaughter someone would had to answer whatever the outcome of the coup.
-And how describes the situation of the White House Kryuchkov?
-He acknowledges that the operation was planned, but it was abandoned. Everything was done, it turns out, in order to protect the White House. Army was introduced for the same purpose. Kryuchkov said that it was known as the inside of the building, and outside there were armed men that could be extremely dangerous situation. And one more important fact. At the middle level in KGB, the Interior Ministry, to a lesser extent in the army, not all supported the conspirators, even in KGB apparatus. Were heard protests, voting against. The conspirators did not have full confidence that all of their people would support them.
-The press wrote that many important documents were destroyed. The investigation remained gaps, ambiguities?
-We found a dozen documents that were born in the depths of GKChP. The documents were found in the Defense Ministry, KGB, and the Ministry of Interior. These agencies were willing to work for the conspirators. They were willing to do anything, they received all the necessary instructions in the military districts. The troops of the army, the internal and committee were brought into a state of "heightened combat" - is ready for war.
Kazakhstanskaya Pravda on February 1, 1992.
Detained members of GKChP were in the detention center, "Matrosskaya Tishina", and from June 1992 to January 1993 were released on bail.
The trial of GKChP members began April 14, 1993 and continued on 1 March 1994. Each of the twelve defendants: Kryuchkov, Yazov, Scheinin, Baklanov, Pavlov, Varennikov, Plekhanov, Pugo, Janaev, Lukyanov, Starodubtsev, Tizyakov, delayed the process in any possible way: someone said about the disease, someone declared disqualification of judges and petitions. The judge in the case of GKChP Anatoly Ukolov noted that the defendants were protected by the most eminent lawyers - Henry Reznik, Genrikh Padva, and Dmitry Steinberg.
February 23, 1994 the State Duma announced an amnesty: "Stop all the criminal cases, which are in process on the events of August 19-21, 1991, associated with the formation of GKChP."
1 March 1994 the defendants were released. All defendants, except for Valentine Varennikov took amnesty. After 10 days, the head of state prosecutors group Denissov filed a protest: amnesty for those whose guilt was proved, and the judicial trial were not over. However, all defendants remained at large, and Varennikov was subsequently acquitted.
How was the fate of "masters of destinies"? Many of them did not survive to the present day.
Pavlov returned to financial activities, leading the "Chasprombank", worked as an advisor in "Promstroybank" was a member of a number of economic institutions, the deputy chairman of the Free Economic Society, March 30, 2003 he died of a stroke.
Kryuchkov was a member of the organizing committee of the Movement in Support of the Army, participated in the Council of State Security employees veterans, died November 23, 2007 of a heart attack.
Valentin Varennikov was the deputy of the State Duma, passed away May 6, 2009.
Gennady Yanayev withdrew from political life, he headed the department of national history and international relations of the Russian International Academy of Tourism, died on 24 September 2010.
Starodubtsev from 1997 to 2005, served as governor of the Tula region. In 2007 and 2011, he was elected to the State Duma. He died on December 30, 2011 of a heart attack.
Other members of the former GKChP live in peace.
Recently Baklanov served as Chairman of the Board of Directors of JSC "Rosobschemash".
Tizyakov Alexander co-founded a number of companies, led Board of Directors of the Investment Trust Board Company "New technologies", he was the president of the Kyrgyz-Russian enterprise "Technology".
Dmitry Yazov held positions in the Russian Defense Ministry, the General Staff Academy, he is a leading analyst (Inspector General) Service of Inspectors General of the Russian Federation Ministry of Defence. Russian President Vladimir Putin awarded Yazov the Medal of Honor to his 80th anniversary.
By Arman Suleimenov
Translated by Raushan Makhmetzhanova
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