«We need to look into the past in order to understand the present and foresee the future»
N.A.Nazarbayev

The Priceless Philosophy of Abai

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The Priceless Philosophy of Abai
Abai is a great Kazakh poet, a philosopher-humanist, and composer. He was born August 10, 1845 in Semey region on the slopes of Shyngystau mountains, near Kaskabulak.

Initially, the poet was given the name of Ibrahim. They say that the poet's name was preceded by the prophetic dream of his father Kunanbai. In a dream, he saw the great representative of the tribe Tobyqty - thinker and philosopher Anet baba, who pronounced the name of the holy son of Ibrahim. Grandmother Zere called her beloved grandson Abai, which meant 'cautious/careful.' Since then, others also begun to refer to the boy, but his real name, in fact, no one called him.

Abai comes from a noble and rich kind of biys and aristocrats. Abai's great-grandfather Yyrgyzbay was a batyr and beat the tribe of the kind. The word 'batyr' implies not only personal courage, courage and strength of man, but also participation in combat battles. Yyrgyzbay was the nephew of the famous Zhanibek batyr from the Kerey tribe who, for his services and military feats during the battles with the Dzhungar armies, received the blessing of Abylai Khan himself. Yyrgyzbay was born approximately in 1750. His son Oskembay is Abai's grandfather. Oskembai was beaten. When old, the head of the family - the famous Kengirbai bi educated and taught Oskembai to the science of management. Abai's grandfather Oskembai lived in 1778-1850.  Kunanbai as a large, colorful personality played a huge role in the development of Abai's character and his views, such personal qualities as humanity, purposefulness. Abai's life and work were to a certain extent conditioned by the attitudes and examples of his illustrious and sometimes hard but fair father. The second expensive name associated with the life of the great poet is his mother Ulzhan, a kind and wise woman.

He received his primary education in his native village, and in 1855 - 1859 he studied at the school-madrassah of the Semipalatinsk Imam Ahmet riza. At the same time, at his own request, he attended a parochial school to learn Russian. Also, Abai studied Arabic texts, works of eastern classical literature. However, the father considered that five years in the madrasah was enough to start preparing his son for the practical activities of the biys, and decided to stop his education. Then Abai begins to pay great attention to self-education, reading. From the age of 15, Abai was often present at court hearings, and at 20 he was already famous for himself as a good speaker and connoisseur of the customs of the Steppe. The authority of Abai is evidenced by the fact that he was repeatedly elected as a mediator-conciliator in the disputes of representatives of different counties.

She was from a rich and noble kind of Shanshar, coming from a tribe of Karakesek. This genus has always been famous for its sharp tongue, famous rallies. Great-grandfather of Ulzhan was Bertis bi. The word "bi" implies, first, oratory talent, intelligence and wisdom, the ability to solve complex disputes between tribes, and secondly - the leader of the tribe, the leader of the family. The post 'bi' is not inherited. Turpan, the father of Ulzhan, had two brothers. They stood out with a special predilection for jokes. Ulzhan did not yield to them in wit. Such qualities of the great poet as wit, ability in sarcastic form to ridicule human shortcomings, are inherited by Abai on the maternal line. The whole maternal line, the entire clan in relation to the nephew is considered nagashi, and the nephew in relation to the maternal line appears as a living.

The man who had the greatest influence on Abai's early attraction to the art of speech and knowledge was his grandmother Zere. A great connoisseur of the popular verbal treasury, she managed to instill in her grandson the desire and love for knowledge, became his first tutor and great teacher. In her maiden name, Abai's grandmother was called Tokbal. When she got married, she came to the house of the groom, with an earring in her nose, according to ancient customs. After that, she was called Zere. Grandmother was distinguished by kindness and subtle perception of the world around her.

Abai was very fond of his grandmother. Days and nights he spent next to her, constantly begging to tell a story or a story. Grandmother Zere, who was affectionate towards her grandson, delightedly revealed to him all the richness of oral creativity, cherishing and exciting Abai's imagination. Zere was a great master of the oral story, she was able to tell colorfully and interestingly. Ulzhan, too, paid serious attention to Abai. When his grandmother was tired, Abai turned to his mother. Ulzhan knew many old poems and aitys battles of poets. It was thanks to his grandmother and mother that Abai woke up early on his interest in creativity and poetry. In many ways, under their influence, Abai took the hard road of a fighter for human happiness. The next wonderful teacher and educator of young Abai became the Kazakh people themselves.

In his adolescence, Abai strove to master the high standards of oratory, the customs and rules by which the people lived, the examples of honest judging of complex and controversial issues between people and tribes. At all times, the art of speech, oratory, was very much appreciated among nomads. It can be assumed that Abai soon gained knowledge about the history of the steppe through folk wisdom, rather than through a systematic education in a madrasah (a madrassah is a religious institution). Folk tales, speakers, poets, masters of oral narration gave a great spiritual foundation to Abai's creativity. He realized that many cognitions and wisdom of life lie in people's dastans, stories about batyrs. From a young age, he listened with rapture to the akyns and storytellers, absorbing samples of folk poetry and, imitating them, began to compose his first poems.

Abai did not collect and did not store his creations, since during his time, there was no practice to publish his works. Therefore, many of his works written impromptu, sometimes hastily, sometimes just on a scrap of paper, for us forever lost. We have reached those verses that people knew by heart. The remainder were included in Mulla Murseit's manuscripts. Abai did not correct, did not process once written. He himself more than once admitted that if he were processing his creations, they would surely have become more perfect. But in that, the pristine form of Abai's creation are the highest examples of human genius.

Abai used to stay up all night, but got up early. He worked hard for future generations, for the sake of history. When he found inspiration, the poet with a pale face, tear-stained eyes, with increasing speed, took up the pen in his hands, and the poems themselves streamed. In such moments, the power and mystery of talent was revealed! His work was in some ways comparable with the illumination of poets-improvisers, immediately composing magnificent rhymes. "Do not know the author's name, but study his creations," claimed the great poet. First published his poems Abai published on behalf of his close friend. In 1886 Abai village was located on the bank of the river Bakanas. Moving to zhailau (summer pasture) after long hard days of winter, human love for mother earth, green grass and human joy deeply touched the heart of Abai. And he creates one of his masterpieces 'Summer is a sunny season'. This work was printed in 1889 in the 12th issue of the newspaper called Dala ualayaty. For the first time in his life, Abai was pleased with his creation. He paid Kokbai payoff and returned his own name to his poems. After this, Abai is aware of the power and power of poetry in a new way and will fully devote his life to the art of the word.

To poems about love and other compositions, Abai attaches a new form. Poems "Masgut", "The Story of Azim" - attractive and interesting stories are written in the spirit of oriental legends with elements of magic. A plot of Abai's poem "Eskendir" is also found in the works of Firdausi, Nizami, Navoi. But each of these four great poets has its own interpretation of this personality. The disciples and followers of Abai continued the creative path of the great poet, preserving and developing his traditions, original style and originality. Abai's village, his personality was at one time one of the original centers of Kazakh culture, the focus of talent. The poet collected around him a gifted youth, propagandized among her education, culture and art, introduced her into a large world of poetry. This initiative of Abai was enthusiastically supported by his children, relatives, relatives. They often gathered to listen to Muhamedjan, Almagambet, violinist Muk and other talented people. Many evenings in the village of Abai became festivals of poetry and art. Abai recognized and loved the creation of such folk composers as Birzhan sal, Akan Seri, Zhaiau Mussa, and Tattimbet. He particularly appreciated the performers of the kyus, and their singing art.

Abai composed many songs. Most of them were not written down and lost forever. Some of Abai's songs today are perceived as folk creations. Abai's children also loved songs and sought to learn to play musical instruments. Representatives of the poetic school that was established under Abai were his sons Akylbai, Abish, Magash, the son of Kudaiberdy's elder brother Shakarim, friends and pupils of Kokbai Zhanatayuly, Arip Tanirbergenov Aset Naimambetov and others.

Akylbai is the first child of Abai. Childhood and youth of Akylbay passed in the house of Kunanbai and his younger wife Nurgany. Since his youth passed away from his father, he did not receive Russian education. Subsequently, under the influence of Abai and poetic evenings in his house, the poetic talent of Akylbay developed. In addition to short works, he wrote three great poems. His first poem was called Zharah, but it was completely lost. His second poem was called Zulu. Here he narrates about the fascinating adventures taking place in Africa. Only the first couplets have survived from this poem. His third poem, entitled "Dagestan", narrates about the events in the Caucasus. It has a huge and historical value. When Magauia's younger brother married, he asked Akylbai to write a song for him. And he immediately composed it, later called "Song of Akylbay". The talented poet Akylbai died at a time when his poetic gift was in full bloom. He died in 1904 on the fortieth day after the death of Abai.

A lot of joy and grief was delivered to his father by his beloved son Abdirakhman. The poet hoped that Abdirahman would bring great benefit to his people. Therefore Abai gave both Abdirakhman and Magash to the Russian school, demanding from them not the career of an official, but true knowledge. Abdirahman is uploading the Real College in the city of Tyumen, then the Mikhailovsky School of Artillery in St. Petersburg. However, health did not allow him to enter the Military Academy. Unfortunately, Abdirakhman, who had high hopes and predicted a bright future, contracted tuberculosis and died in 1845 in the city of Verny (Almaty) when he was just 27. The great poet was very worried about his son's death. It seemed to him that all his dreams and hopes had collapsed.

Another son, who lived up to his father's great expectations, was Magauia, Abai's youngest son from Dilda. He was a receptive young man, with a brilliant mind and a gifted word. Abai taught him in the aul in the Muslim school, and then in the city school of Semipalatinsk. But after three years of studying Magauiya also fell ill. He was forced to leave classes and return to his native village. After that, he was constantly with his father and was brought up by him.Highly appreciated and understanding the significance of the poetic work of Abai Magash himself was carried away by poetry. At the insistence of his father, he wrote poems Enlik-Kebek, Abylai. The most voluminous and perfect of his work is the poem 'Medgat-Kasym'. It narrates about the distant countries, unfamiliar to the Kazakhs, about the heroes of other lands.

Magauiya in the last years of his life became a famous person among the people thanks to just judging decisions. He died early, in 1904 at the age of thirty-four, when his name and deeds just started to win people's hearts. For Abai, Abdirahman's death was a grave loss of fate. From these two sons he expected many glorious deeds and prophesied to them a brilliant future. Therefore, their loss was truly a disaster for Abai. After the death of Magash for Abai, "the world seemed to collapse, crashed." He could not recover from such a blow of fate. Forty days after the death of Magash in 1904, before the age of sixty, the great poet died. The name of the genius son of the steppe, the great poet of the Kazakh people, thinker, scientist, composer Abai is known to the whole world today. Verses and songs, philosophical views, words and thoughts of him find a response in the hearts of people with their humanity, love, depth. The colonial policy of the then Russia was aimed at suppressing, fragmenting the conquered peoples, in order to keep them in darkness and ignorance. In Abai's poems, there is an alarm for the fate, the future of his people.

Wise Abai used to repeat the words of the prophet Muhammad: "A good man is one that benefits people". 

The work of Gaqlia or Qara soz (The words in wisdom), occupies a special place in Abai's work, - under this name forty-five Words are united - small, carefully crafted, artistic-stylistic, finished fragments. The term "qara" (black) in combination with the term "soz" (word) is extremely significant: it is the designation of sadness, and the designation of prose, unlike rhymed speech and text, as well as the designation of something significant, important from the Turkic tradition , paramount. Words of wisdom is a direct appeal to the reader, like an interview, and a frank conversation, a peculiar fruit of "the mind of cold observations and the heart of woeful notes," and the philosophy of the life of an individual against the backdrop of the fate of the people. "Words of wisdom" by genre are close to what in tradition called - a well-known saying, a story about a life example that has the form of a pattern.

The title "Book of Words" or "Words of wisdom" of Abai does not exactly convey the genre of the composer's work. According to the European tradition, "Qara soz" refers to the genre of aphorisms and maxims, but in fact it is a confession, an extremely deep and responsible genre, demanding sincerity and utmost honesty from the writer, in fact, before us "exposure of the soul" of man, poet and philosopher.

Forty-five "Words of wisdom" - these are the philosophical reflections of the poet about the life problems that worry him and a deeply sad conversation "face to face" with his listener. And turning to him, the poet asks himself: maybe "to rule me by the people?", "Do I have to increase knowledge?", "To practice the rites of religion?", "To engage in the upbringing of children?". Finally, so Abai explains the decision to write down his "thoughts": "Paper and ink will now become my consolation. Maybe someone will like any of my words and he will rewrite it for themselves or just remember, if not - my words , as they say, will remain with me''.

Immortal became many lines from the Book of Words: "A man is born into the world with weeping and leaves grieving" (word four). "A man recruited his mind, remembering the words of the wise" (Word nineteen). "He who seeks praise from his relatives is sure to achieve it, praising and lifting himself to the skies" (Word twenty-first). "A scientist and a thinker is the pride of mankind. They are those who have more feelings and intelligence. And we do not invent science, it appears as a result of our sensations, observations and reflections about the world created around us and organized for us'' (Word forty-third). In the "Book of Words" Abai invests in Socrates' mouth what he himself had previously reasoned, polemicizing with Aristodim, the philosopher says: "You will agree, of course, with the fact that the top of the creator's creations is a man. But did the creator not endow him with the five senses, being sure of their necessity for man? Do you find random, irrational organs in a person? For example, we are given eyes to see. If they were not, how could we admire the beauty of the world? Eyes are gentle, and in order to preserve them, there are eyelids: they open and, when necessary, close their eyes from the wind and sorines, and the eyebrows divert the sweat draining from the forehead.

This kind of disagreement, obviously erroneous judgments in the interpretation of Abai's philosophical views, can be explained by the low level of historical and philosophical studies until the 1950s, the weak philosophical preparation of the researchers themselves, and the difficulty of the problem itself, due to the lack of clarity in the presentation of Abai's views on this matter. It is known that Abai does not have special philosophical works in which his views on nature and society were systematized, therefore he did not give a whole philosophical system. However, his immortal works contain profound philosophical thoughts, which give us the right to enroll Abai in the ranks of outstanding thinkers of the past.

Interpretations of the phenomena of the world in Abai are really contradictory, since materialistic judgments are often intertwined with the idealistic. But in most of his philosophical reflections, the materialistic stream clearly and unswervingly breaks its path. It manifests itself primarily in the recognition of Abai, the objective reality of the world, its existence regardless of people's consciousness. The mind, he regards consciousness as products of labor, derived from objective reality. "The mind and knowledge are already the fruits of labor," notes Abai. "Seeing with our eyes, listening with our ears, holding hands, trying to tongue, sniffing, a person will know the world. These feelings are strengthened in the mind of man in the form of positive and negative concepts."

From the arguments of Abai it is not difficult to see the materialistic nature of his understanding of reality. For him, consciousness and cognition are a reflection of the phenomena of the objective world in the person's mind, which seems to him a very complex process in which sensations become concepts. It is extremely important to note that Abai emphasizes the role of human activity in the process of knowledge of the world.

 If we consider that only dialectical materialism showed the decisive importance of industrial and practical activity in the cognition of the laws of the objective world by man, Abai's statement that "the mind and knowledge are already the fruits of labor" is a truly ingenious conjecture about the nature of cognition in prerevolutionary Kazakhstan. An educated person, said Abai, should know a lot about the outside world and vyle many things, "test them, learn them through educated, knowledgeable people. What you hear from others, you need to check. Take only what is right, discard what is wrong." Abai did not accidentally consider a person in close connection with his work activity. It is labor, according to Abai, that distinguishes man from animals and predetermines his ability to cognize.

"Look at all the animals, look at yourself," says Abai with interest. "Animals are spiritual, but is their soul like yours? Man, thinking about the present and the future, as well as about today, everything checks with feeling and mind. An animal dull presents the present, does not understand either the past or the future, but the present is not given to it either. Compare the animal's organism and the human body. The man leans on his feet, grows up, he covers his whole life with his eyes, checks it, and all the animals serve him. After all, some animals rely on their feet, others - on their wings, but they are not allowed to use the services of animals like them. If man were not created by man, but by an animal with that body given to him, he would be insignificant, and if the animal were given the mind of a man, then his body would not correspond to reason. Animals can not build cities, produce tools, make weapons and reach the boundaries of art and knowledge."

Thus, Abai draws attention to a certain natural connection between the human body organization and its mind. Noting that if a person with an animal's body was not fit for work, he would be unimportant, incapable of anything, even if he had consciousness, Abai spontaneously expressed the conjecture that the body and mind of man are the result of labor activity. It is through labor, as Abai correctly noted, that the human body took an appropriately necessary form.

The study of Abai's works touching upon philosophical problems shows that in the knowledge of the laws of the surrounding world the philosopher stands on quite materialistic positions. In the forty-fourth word he speaks of the objectivity of the cognizable reality. He writes: "We do not lose knowledge, we know about the things that have arisen and are formed, only after seeing with our eyes and knowing with the mind." In this case, Abai not only states the fact that the content of our knowledge has nothing but the objects of the external world, but also immediately emphasizes the essence of the cognitive process, which is expressed primarily in sensations through the eyes and comprehension of the mind. But Abai, as already noted, is not limited to a visual sensation. He also recognizes that sensory cognition is based on auditory, tactile, tasteful and olfactory sensations. As for 'knowledge of the mind', Abai's content is revealed in the forty-third word. Such cognition he calls "the attractive force of the homogeneous", writing it in Russian.

According to Abai, this power is expressed in the fact that "you will compare everything, learn new, you will remember homogeneous, check whether it seems like new to the old completely or only partially, you will ask about the incomprehensible, study it from books and you will not rest until those until you learn everything you want."

In this case, Abai refers to the second stage of the cognitive process, on the basis of which a generalization of the phenomena of reality takes place by distinguishing among them a homogeneous, general, essential synthesis, by means of analysis, and other methods of cognition. Although the works of Abai clearly do not talk about the two stages of knowledge - sensory and logical, their presence is actually recognized and even an attempt is made to explain their essence. But the historical limitations of Abai's worldview did not allow him to rise to understanding and, therefore, to the exposition from scientific positions of the place and significance of these steps in the cognition of the world.

The Kazakh enlightener in conversations drew attention to the so-called "third property of knowledge", which, in his opinion, is expressed in the "heart sense". "Keep your heart pure of boastful arrogance, selfishness, frivolity and carelessness," he says. "If the heart becomes contaminated with vices and dulls, the world reflected in it will be distorted and become all vague, inaccurate."

Obviously, Abai meant moral purity: honesty, a person's readiness to serve truth and justice. This assumption is confirmed by the statements of the thinker about the role of the three factors of cognition - will, heart, mind - in his other moralistic words.

The concept of "heart" in his sense coincides with sublime feelings, virtue. About this we learn in the "Seventeenth word" edification. Here, Abai discovers the role of will, thanks to which, in his opinion, it becomes practically possible to know the world. It "removes laziness and persistently seeks to know the world, it forces people to act, work hard, warns them against easy gain and evil habits." She directs "people on the right path when they leave it." By interpreting the concept of mind, the enlightener argues that the mind allows a person to know the meaning, the essence of phenomena, to distinguish what is useful and what is harmful in reality.

However, Abai notes, the will can push a person equally to justice and injustice, lead to good and evil. And the mind looks at good and evil indifferently. He gives birth to "tricks and tricks", he can become the leader of "good and bad people". Only the heart, according to the enlightener, is a source of kindness, humanism, nobility. It makes people think about the destitute, their plight, encourages to do virtuous deeds. According to Abai, from the heart comes "all the good - modesty, justice, mercy, responsiveness." If the heart is kept clean and impeccable, there will be no resentment between people, people will rebound from evil as from snakes."

Abai considers it necessary to unite will, mind and heart. In this case, the leading role should belong to the heart, the source of good. It must warn the will and the mind of cruel and malicious acts and direct them to achieve noble goals. "Only in the heart," said Abai, "is the whole sweetness of life." "If there was no strength in the heart," he notes elsewhere, "our thoughts would not be set in motion."

As we see, under the conditions of the domination of predatory laws of feudalism and colonialism, the cruel oppression of the defenseless dark masses of the village for Abai, virtuous deeds and the readiness of people to fight bravely and selflessly for the interests of the underprivileged were of paramount importance. The source of this readiness was considered by Abai as a human heart, since people have long associated with this tender and precious organ, sensitive to the phenomena of life, kindness, love, humanism. Abai's judgments that affect philosophical issues or are of a philosophical nature stem from the aspirations of the educator to substantiate the need to study science, to acquire young people's positive knowledge and to use them in the interests of the people. Trying to prove to compatriots that one can not remain illiterate, ignorant, he advises them to learn the secrets of the surrounding world, to collect and accumulate knowledge. For example, glorifying education, Abai believes that cognition of the world is not only a person's ability, but also his specific feature, a natural need. She, in the opinion of the Enlightener, appears soon after the birth of man.

If a person does not need to know the world, he can not be called to them, says Abai, then he only exists, and does not live a full-blooded life. "This is the need of the soul - the desire to see everything, to know everything, to learn everything. If this aspiration disappears, if you do not want to fully know everything or find out at least a part, - writes Abai, - then you are no longer a man. If we do not strive for knowledge, then our soul is no longer the soul of man, but the soul of the animal."

The essence of Abai's reasoning does not differ from the naturalistic explanation by which man is endowed with reason and the animal is deprived of it. But here, in fact, he does not set himself the task of showing the difference between a man and an animal, but emphasizes the fact that if you are a person - must know the world in which you live. Otherwise, he loses his human dignity and is reduced to the level of an animal. Thus, Abai tries to theoretically substantiate enlightening ideas, to prove the necessity of studying science, understanding the essence of life phenomena, knowledge of the secrets of the world. The philosopher used reason as an instrument of criticism of backward customs, prejudices of a patriarchal-feudal society. He justified everything that corresponds to common sense, unreasonable, on the contrary, caused his sharp condemnation. Hence, for Abai, reason served as the criterion of truth, the supreme judge, determining the positiveness or negativity of the actions of his contemporaries. 

As we see, here again Abai's reasoning on purely practical questions goes to the philosophical plane and allows us to find out his position as to what constitutes the criterion of truth and cognitive activity of man. In order to prove the falsity of patriarchal-feudal prejudices and reject them, Abai demands that the entire court of reason be subjected to trial. Considering reason a measure of determining the truth of certain statements, clarifying the vices of social life, Abai, of course, exaggerates his role in the process of cognition. Obviously, this gave some researchers a reason to believe that Abai is a supporter of rationalism. Meanwhile, Abai was not a rationalist either in the ontological or in the epistemological sense, he not only did not recognize the supernatural rational and logical foundation of the world, but also did not ignore the role of sensory cognition. The knowledge of the world seemed to him as the unity of sensation and thinking, for for him to know meant: "to see with the eyes and to know with the mind."

It is important to consider the role of Abai through the prism of the latest research theories that can open new facts to determine his role in the Kazakh spiritual culture. Mainstream scientific approaches to the study of Abai Kunanbayev, affects the perspectives of his creative life, spiritual formation and influence on social and political life. Abai is a synthesis of scientific knowledge and eastern wisdom, we can assume that he defended the idea of ​​resetting the national consciousness. In matters of spiritual culture, he believed that it should develop it in the positions of accounting for history, but at the same time be open and try to learn from positive examples. An example of this can be the work of Abai written in prose "qara sozder", consisting of 45 words of wisdom. Edification covers the issues of history, pedagogy, morality, spiritual development and law. The edifications of Abai played the role of the source of the Kazakh renaissance, Abai created a new ground and at the same time made sure that the accumulated historical experience of the people was not lost under the influence of time.

Whose good lessons did Abai, who was called Ibrahim at his birth, forget throughout his life? Probably, this is his grandmother Zere, who was the first to call his beloved grandson Abai, which means "cautious." She had the greatest influence on the early awakening in the boy of the art of speech and the desire for knowledge. A great connoisseur of folklore and a master of oral story, she became his first teacher and teacher. Abai passed away on June 23, 1904 in the Balashakpak area. The first scientific biography of Abai is the 'obituary' written by Alikhan Bokeikhanov and published in November 1905 in the newspaper "Semipalatinskiy listok". His own efforts in 1909 in St. Petersburg in the publishing house of Ilyas Boragansky published the first collection of works by Abai. After 100 years it is practically in every house, and its author is the most quoted poet of Kazakhstan.

From Abai's point of view, spiritual culture is formed under the influence of many factors, it is a complex phenomenon for evaluation and analysis, but one must not underestimate the importance of the influence of individuals on its development. Abai Kunanbayev in his ideas and works confirms that society needs to reconsider its attitude to life, to other people, to work, to culture and to politics, too. He considered it necessary to use the spiritual potential to move to a higher level of social order.

Abai informs Kazakhstan that indisputable truth that honest work, a bright mind and a warm heart are painted by a person. The highest human dignity, the highest notion of morality, he associated with the enlightenment of the people and the freedom of the creative spirit. According to the thinker, the most characteristic signs of humanism are respect for man, openness of the soul, sincerity, truthfulness and honesty. To illustrate his position, there are many poems and prosaic edifications that are widely known to the reader.

The creativity of Abai presents a diverse picture of the socio-economic, legal, family, civil, as well as cultural, historical, moral state of the Kazakh society. The role of Abai Kunanbayev in the spiritual culture of the Kazakh people is enormous and connected with the goal of developing ideas in our society that have become relevant at the present time, when mankind has faced a spiritual crisis. Abai's works anticipated the challenges that awaited our society, particularly in the religious sphere, and he invested in them ways to resolve them. Abai Kunanbayev tirelessly pointed out that society should not forget its spiritual and historical roots and the need for aspiration for scientific knowledge.