The Kazakh people, formed at the end of the 15th - beginning of the 16th century, became the successor of the material and spiritual culture of the tribes that once lived in the vast expanses of Kazakhstan. In the process of inheritance and the further development of crafts and art, a certain artistic style is inherent in the people.
Parallels in the material culture of the peoples of Siberia, the Urals, Kazakhstan and Central Asia, related in origin and historical destiny, originate back in the second millennium BC, when the cultural uniformity of the tribes of the vast expanses on the territory of Eurasia is clearly manifested.
The peculiarities of the eastern focus of the steppe cultures of Scythian time are best determined by the conventional term "Saka cultural community". The core of this cultural region is primarily the tribes of Kazakhstan and the Altai, whose historical destinies intertwined before the VII-VI centuries. BC. and whose cultures were based on the same Andronov base. They had similar household features and a form of economy.
Typical monuments of the Saka era in Kazakhstan are the burial mounds. So in one of the burial places in Pazarik (Altai), the remains of fur coats, felt coats, sewn in two layers, suede dressing gowns were preserved. Some types of Kazakh outerwear, for example fur coats, felt coats, are similar in type to clothes from Pazarik barrows. The similarity can also be seen in felt stockings with a pattern on the top (in Kazakh kaipak) and in a pointed cap made of dense felt, which is common among Kazakhs to the present day. Long pointed caps of the ancient Sakas, most likely, became the prototype saukele - a high (up to 70 cm) headgear of the Kazakh bride.
Saka time monuments found on the territory of Kazakhstan belong to the so-called animal style, for the early period of which the realistic image of the animal is characteristic. In the future, ornamental motifs are becoming increasingly widespread. Comparison of ancient and modern materials allows us to say that many of them have been preserved in the art of Kazakhs and Kirghiz up to the present day. The ram, one of the main totems, personified the power and power of power. The pattern "koshkar miz" (in the lane with the kazan horn), meeting in various variations, remains one of the main motifs of the Kazakh ornament.
In the III-II century. BC. the polychrome style comes to replace the animal. Its characteristic feature is the encrustation of the metal plate with the inserts of colored stones, rows of filigree belts, cloisonne enamels, surrounded by patterns of grains in the form of triangles and rhombuses. This time coincides with the presence of Huns, Usuns and Kanglis (Turks) in these regions.
The female headdress zhulyk, folded from a square of white cotton fabric, most likely appeared in the time of the ancient Turks; this can be judged from the sculptural images of this era. And the type of a ruffle skirt, which is called "Belhashshi" by the Kazakhs, probably dates back to the time of the Huns.
Further development of art on the territory of Kazakhstan is vividly reflected in the artistic culture of the Kypchaks, Karluks and other tribes. The most widely used products are artfully made of felt and silver.
In this period, there appeared the manner of smelling clothes on the left side, and also, the bordering of the edges of clothing with various kinds of ornaments: stripes with lurex, embroidery and galloons, supposedly for protection from evil forces. With the same purpose, the female headdress of the kimeschka was adorned along the edges of the cutout with embroidery and patterned stitching.
To the ethnic culture of the Turks and Kipchaks is the custom to decorate children's and girls' hats, and in some cases hats of wandering singers with feathers of an owl, which was considered a sacred bird, and its feathers as a guard against evil eyes and diseases.
Later, the formation of the Kazakh costume was influenced by Russian, Tatar and Central Asian cultures. It's not difficult to notice the cut of a man's beshmet with an interception at the waist, and also a flared female dress Kulish kojlik and zhas kojlok - dresses with thick frills and a turndown collar.
The similarity of the elements of the Kazakh folk costume can be traced in all regions of the republic; there is no particular difference in the cut, the choice of material, the appointment of individual garments.
The main features of the Kazakh costume are:
Sweeping nature of outer clothing and plowing it on the left side regardless of sex.
The presence of high hats, often decorated with feathers, embroidery and precious stones.
Enrichment of women's dress with hem, fringe or frills.
A small number of flowers in the overall ensemble of the costume.
Usually clothes were decorated with national ornaments. Most often it is embroidery, stripes with lurex, patterned cloth, as well as various jewelry.
Traditional materials for clothes were usually leather, fur, thin felt and cloth made of mutton or camel wool.
Of sheepskin, goat, foals, saiga skins, they usually sewed outer clothing: sheepskin coats, sleeveless jackets, trousers, etc. On fur coats, light clothes, headdresses, there were also cotton fabrics, delivered by merchants from India. Silk, velvet, brocade and woolen cloth came from the "Silk Road" from China and Central Asia. And from the XVII century. Russian goods began to appear in the Kazakh steppe.
Zhaide - underwear, which included kojlek - shirt and dambal - pants. Above the linen was worn the upper shoulder clothing of the Ishararov, refueled in boots.
A kojlek is a long (knee-length) shirt with a turndown or standing collar, a sloping shoulder, a cut armhole and a cut on the chest. Shili is usually made of white canvas. Under the sleeves were inserted wedges in the form of triangles, which served as a gusset.
Dambal - wide pants, which looked like a rectangle with two long legs slightly tapered downwards.
Over the zheide, the Kazakh wore usually light, expanding outfit, stitched and bloomers.
Beshmet - clothing up to the knee or slightly higher, with sleeves and a standing collar. He dressed over his shirt and under his robe. Shili usually from thin woolen cloth, velvet, silk mainly brown, dark blue and dark green.
Camisole - in many respects similar to beshmet, only sleeveless.
Beshmet, Camisole and Cockerche (a kind of Camisole) could be insulated, depending on the season.
The trousers were made of the same material as the shackpen, with an insert-wedge for convenience in riding. Zippers and buttons were not. The upper edges of the pants were wrapped and inserted into them a belt, which acts as a belt.
Chapan - robe - the main form of clothing for Kazakhs. Known since ancient times. Its images are found on the stone sculptures of the Kipchaks of the 1st-4th centuries. Men and women were wearing a shapan. Men usually put on top of a beshmet or a camisole. Shili gowns made of suede, as well as imported materials: woolen, silk and cotton fabrics. Chapans were often decorated with embroidery. The most beautiful robes are real works of art, they were worn by famous Kazakh akyns and fats - wandering singers and musicians. Favorite colors of the robe - red, purple or bright green.
Shackpen (chekmen) - a spacious robe, long as a cloak with wide long sleeves, was rolled from camel's wool and usually served as protection from snowstorm, rain or other bad weather. Yellow and white shkepen made from unpainted wool. The ceremonial Shakedins were painted in blue, purple and other colors, their seams for finishing were lined with galloon.
Tone - winter sheepskin coat made of sheepskin or wolf fur.
Buy - a winter coat, covered with shkepenom of cloth.
Kebenek-an ancient dense cloak without sleeves, made mainly of white thin felt. Wore a military cape and a deaf standing collar. Decorated with embroidery, cord and decorative stitch. For protection from the weather, they put on winter clothes.
Saptama - heavy leather boots.
Tymak - a headdress-three, often made of fox fur.
The cap is a traditional and ancient headdress made of felt. A similar dress was at the Saks. At Kazakhs, depending on the style, a high cap made of white felt is called a cap and a cap, a cap with wide margins bent upwards.
Telpek is a type of cap, a sultan's hat, so it was only until the middle of the XIX century.
Hat-Boryk - spring-autumn headdress. The name of the boar comes from the word "bora" - the wolf. The wolf is an ancient totem of the Turkic tribes. It is a round cap with a high conical or truncated top, sewn from several wedges, always trimmed with sable fur, otters, lambskin, etc.
Male costume is not always fastened and therefore the belt was its integral part.
The costume of the south of Kazakhstan differs with some relief, which, of course, is related to climatic conditions, as well as to a settled and semi-bodily way of life.