If a nation does not know its history, if the country loses its history, then its citizens have nowhere to go.
Mirzhakyp Dulatuly

Threats to social security of Republic of Kazakhstan emanating from Central Asia

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Today, the security sector, particularly social security sector is one of the most pressing problems and studied in the modern world. Along with government officials and military strategists, on lighting and forecasting security problems began to claim economists, international affairs, social scientists, lawyers, environmentalists, doctors, programmers, culture, members of the clergy, the media, etc.
This security sector includes many different aspects threat to him directly related to the human factor, are relevant to the whole of society to the individual social groups, personality.

The main components of social security are: ethno-cultural, religious, and socio-demographic (which also includes the protection of public health). Let briefly discuss each of them.

To one of the features of the republic belongs motley ethnic composition of its population. On the formation of ethnic population structure of Kazakhstan on significantly influenced by the steady migration caused by the Stolypin reforms of the early 20th century, collectivism of 1920s, deportation and military evacuation of the 1940s, the development of virgin land in 1950-60-ies., migrations of 1990 beginning of the 2000s.

According to data for 2005, the most significant for the number of ethnic groups in Kazakhstan are Kazakhs (58.9%), Russian (25.9%), Ukrainians (2.9%), Uzbeks (2.8%), Uyghurs (1.5%), Tatars (1.4%) and Germans (1.2%).

In terms of socio-economic instability, generating discontent among the population, multiethnic communities are often the most vulnerable to disasters and social unrest.
Confessional component of security expressed ensuring the rights of a particular individual freedom of conscience and religion of choice. In Kazakhstan, there are two traditional religions Islam and Orthodox Christianity, which play a stabilizing role in the internal life of the state. But a significant threat to existing balance can cause radical clerical groups, many of whom oppose the secular form of government, by populist slogans to actively recruit new members. Breeding ground for a variety of non-traditional religious sects present crisis is ideological values, insecurity, and social depression that spanned most of the population, and primarily young people.

In particular, this kind of threat represents import of Wahhabi ideas as extreme, intransigent branch of Islam, which has raised serious concerns in neighboring Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan.
As in many other regions of the world, the threat of social security are closely related to the CA for such internal problems such as deterioration of the socio-economic situation of the masses, property and social and legal stratification of society, complicated demographic situation, the lack of vital resources, the loss of many people and ideological spiritual life orientation, the growth of corruption and criminalization of society, the poor performance of law enforcement, government and public organizations for the protection of citizens' rights.

In the 1990s, acute problem for Kazakhstan was reduction of the population. Migration outflow in the 1990s became one of the main factors in the population decline of Kazakhstan. During the period from 1992 to 2003, according to official figures, 2.9 million people left the country. Among retired in 1990 amounted to 63–65% of working age group, about 45% of the population (over 15 years) — people with higher and secondary special education. However, after 1999 when majority emigrants have left the country, the tendency of some growth (0.8% in 1999–2005). The intensity of the Kazakh population growth in the southern and western regions was almost twice higher than in the north, east and central. Thus became traceable conditional ethnic polarization population Kazakhs concentrated in the west and south, Russian — in the north-east of Kazakhstan.

On the background outlined in the beginning of the new century, the natural tendency of population growth, much less optimistic look many of the indicators of quality of life. Life expectancy in Kazakhstan is at an extremely low level. Since 1993, it was less than 66 years and in 1995 was only 63.5 years, which is below the life expectancy even in developing countries, in which it according to the World Report on Human Development in 2005 was 64.4 years. In Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS, average life expectancy at birth was 69.3 years at the level in developed countries — an average of 77 years.

Maternal and infant mortality rates are growing. According to the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the maternal mortality rate in five months of 2007 was 48.9 per 100 thousand women in childbirth, against 43.2 for the same period in 2006. Negative dynamics is observed due to the growth of this indicator in Mangistau, Atyrau, Pavlodar, Akmola, South Kazakhstan oblasts and Astana.
The infant mortality rate for the first five months of 2007 amounted to 15.1 per 1000 live births, as against 14.5 for the same period in 2006. High mortality of infants registered in Kyzylorda (20.4), Mangistau (18.8), South Kazakhstan (18.7) and Zhambyl (17.9) regions. The risk of reinforcing this negative trend even more real, if we take into account the current state of the health system. Over the last 8–9 years is in the process of steadily reducing the amount of medical institutions and the deterioration of the quality of medical services. These trends are especially strong in rural areas, where it is still home to almost half of the population of Kazakhstan (7 million 112 thousand). There are more than 1,500 villages and the villages have no medical institution that endangers the lives of many citizens of Kazakhstan and creates favorable conditions for the deterioration of the epidemiological situation.

According to the coverage of the population
Kazakhstan occupies 4th place (85%) among the CIS in the coverage of education (the ration of all students of any age to the population aged 5–24 years). In addition, experts say the low quality of the secondary and higher education. In terms of access to higher education in the world ranking Kazakhstan is on the 36th place, and the quality and accessibility of education as a whole — 59.
One of the most pressing threats to social security of Kazakhstan, the physical and moral health of its population, is the transit of drugs through its territory.

Drugs have become one of the largest facilities of world trade. The volume of illicit drugs is estimated at U.S. $ 500 billion, accounting for over 8% of world trade — more than, for example, trade in cars. According to experts, about U.S. $ 90 billion drug money is laundered annually in the financial markets. Drug addiction is huge disaster for mankind. Illegal drug production and trafficking generate crime and violence.

Largest producer of opium drugs today is Afghanistan. A number of the neighboring countries, including the former Soviet republics have become a corridor for drugs to Europe. Today in Central Asia, according to independent experts, the number of people involved in drug trafficking over a million people.

Afghan drug routes to the East by the Karakoram Highway to China and west through Iran to Europe are complicated by the fact that the leadership of China and Iran are very tough counteract drug trafficking activities in their territories. In China, for trade or transportation of 1 kg of opium or 50 grams of heroin criminal facing the death penalty. In Iran, the death penalty is provided for the detection of 30 grams of heroin or 5 kilograms of opium, although in recent years, under the pressure of world public executions has decreased significantly. Obvious inadequacy of measures to counter drug trafficking (including legislation) from the Central Asian countries, the corruption of public officials, and the massive involvement in the business of the local population, a relatively organized system of communication, remaining from the Soviet era, contribute to the fact that the primary mode of transportation of drugs from Afghanistan Russia in Central Asia and Europe is, in particular, Kazakhstan.

In Kazakhstan, the problem manifests itself at three levels: first, the republic’s territory is used as a transit corridor for the «heavy» opiates of South-West Asia to Europe through Russia; secondly, Kazakhstan itself is a segment of the global drug market (according to expert estimates, the volume of drug trafficking through the country is about 100–150 tons annually, of which approximately 30% is realized in its territory) and, thirdly, Kazakhstan is recognized by international experts as a country — producer of cannabis (hemp), global production of about 30 tons. This kind of natural drug distributed in 120 countries, including the Central Asian.
The situation is complicated by the fact that the problem of drug trafficking is closely linked to organized crime and cross-border smuggling.
Another threat related to social security in the country is illegal migration of citizens of the Central Asian republics and other countries on the territory of Kazakhstan.

Currently, the problem of illegal migration is facing many countries of the world. Since the countries are at different stages of economic development, people from less developed countries are going to work in other more economically developed countries and are willing to do almost any job for low wages. On a planetary scale in the economic reasons cited (the desire to earn more, change the style of life, bearing in mind, first of all, its material and financial aspects), political (due to wars, armed conflicts), environmental (due to extreme drought), demographics (aimed at family reunification migrants).

These people often become slaves are oppressed and over-exploitation, have virtually no means of protecting their rights. In most cases, illegal transportation of people carried out with the direct involvement of organized criminal groups. Many countries, including Kazakhstan, are both countries and emigration and immigration, as well as the transit of migrants, i.e. in this dangerous contraband-migration involved whirlpool and Central Asia, including Kazakhstan. According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Kazakhstan, for the last three years for various violations of the rules of entry and residence were brought to administrative responsibility over 100,000 foreigners, of which, for willful violation deported from Kazakhstan about 50 thousand people. According to experts, in Kazakhstan in 2005 the number of illegal migrants was about 300 thousand people. It’s basically the citizens of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.

Reference:

1. Osnovnyie pokazateli Respubliki Kazahstan. — Almatyi: “Aziya-Invest”, 2005. — p.9.
2. Soin D. Yu. Etnopoliticheskie konfliktyi: analiticheskiy obzor // Sotsiologicheskiy zhurnal, 1998. # 3.
3. Tusupbaeva G. A. Geopoliticheskie faktoryi obespecheniya natsionalnoy bezopasnosti — sostavnyie parametryi gosudarstvennoy politiki Respubliki Kazahstan // Kazahstan — spektr, 2005. # 2. — p.23.
4. Sultanov B. K. Territorialno — pogranichnyie problemyi v Tsentralnoy Azii // (www.kisi.kz).
5. Dannyie po: Alekseenko A. Naselenie Kazahstana mezhdu proshlyim i buduschim (http://www.polit.ru).
6. Ibid.
7. Dannyie po: Shokamanov Yu.K., Ilyasova A. K. Bednost v Kazahstane i razvitie (http://www.idc.nursat.kz).
8. UNDP. HumanDevelopmentReport 2005. — NewYork: OxfordUniversityPress, 2003. — p.117.
9. Pokazateli materinskoy i mladencheskoy smertnosti v Kazahstane ostayutsya vyisokimi (http://www.kz-today.kz).
10. Ibid.
11. Shokomanov Yu. Razvitie chelovecheskogo potentsiala: voydet li Kazahstan v chislo 50 naibolee konkurentosposobnyih stran mira? // Kazakhstan, 2006. # 1. — p.38.
12. Tazhbenova N. Defitsit geniev // Ekspert, 30 oktyabrya 2006. # 40. — p.24.
13. Zhatkanbaev E. Mezhdunarodnyiy ekstremizm i terrorizm kak ugroza natsionalnyim interesam Kazahstana.// Sayasat — policy, 2005. # 1.
14. Olkott M.B., Udalova-Evart N. Narkotraffik na velikom shelkovom puti: bezopasnost v Tsentralnoy Azii. — M.: Tsentr Karnegi, 2000. — p.5.
15. Kurtov A. Narkobiznes v Tsentralnoy Azii: istoriya bolezni i puti lecheniya // ANALYTIC, 2004.# 1. — p.15.
16. Ibid. — p.18.
17. Baysalbaeva Zh. A. Narkotrafik kak ugroza natsionalnoy bezopasnosti Respubliki Kazahstan // ANALYTIC, 2004.# 1.
18. Po dannyim MVD RK, za poslednie tri goda byila presechena deyatelnost 82 prestupnyih gruppirovok, spetsializirovavshihsya na organizatsii nelegalnyih perevozok grazhdan Uzbekistana, Tadzhikistana i Kirgizii na territoriyu Kazahstana i dalee v Rossiyu i stranyi Zapadnoy Evropyi (http://www.mvd.kz).
19. Sarsembaev M. A. Borba s kontrabandoy migrantov, nezakonnoy migratsiey v Kazahstane i mezhdunarodnoe pravo // “Kazahstan — Spektr”, 2005. # 3.
20. Sayt MVD RK (http://www.mvd.kz).
21. V Kazahstane po itogam 2005 goda kolichestvo nelegalnyih trudovyih migrantov sostavilo okolo 300 tyis. chelovek (http://www.altaiinter.info).

Sahiyev Saulet,
Senior lecturer at Kyzylorda State University named after Korkyt Ata