If a nation does not know its history, if the country loses its history, then its citizens have nowhere to go.
Mirzhakyp Dulatuly

Questions of historical demography in the works of Academician M.K. Kozybayev


According to researches of scientists and M.K. Kozybayev, the history of Kazakhstan had several stages changed the demographic situation in the Kazakh steppe.

The first stage — invasion of Dzungars and mass destruction of the Kazakhs in the 18th century when the real threat to the Kazakh ethnos appeared.

The second stage — construction of military Cossack fortifications and dissociation of Kazakh lands (10-verst line)

The third stage — forced migration of 400 thousand Kazakh families of the Middle Juz during the suppression of uprising led by Kenesary Khan.

According to the materials of the International Conference dedicated to the rebellion of Kenesary Khan which took place in 1993, during the suppression and pursuit of the movement’s participants by Tsarist army more than 400 thousand Kazakh families migrated from the territory of the Middle Juz in 1740-1750s.

In general, there were tribal communities Atygai, Karaul, Karakesek and others.

The fourth stage — rejection of Tsarist administrative and territorial reforms of 1867-1868 and as a result involuntary migration of some Kazakh families of the Middle and Junior Juz.

The fifth period — peasant colonization of Kazakhstan in the end of the 19th — 20th centuries. In total, during 46 years (1871-1917) over 1,6 million people settled in this region. Majority of them arrived in 1907-1913. As a consequence, in the end on the 19th — beginning of the 20th centuries the process of formation of multinational composition of Kazakhstan’s population speeded up.

By the beginning of the 20th century representatives of approximately 60 nationalities lived in the region. Besides Turkic nations such as Uzbeks, Uighurs, Kirgizs, Karakalpaks, Tatars, Bashkirs and others, Germans, Poles, Tajiks Jews, Mordva, and so on, were among them.

The sixth stage, 1916 — suppression of the rebellion led by Amangeldi Imanov and forced irretrievable migration of more than 1 million Kazakhs out of Kazakhtan to China, Mongolia, Ira, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan and Turkey.

The seventh stage — civil conflict — 1917-1922, Alash movement and leaving of some Kazakhs to Chine with the army of atamans Dutov and Annenkov.

The eighth stage — forced collectivization and demographic crisis — 1930s when more than 1 750 people or 1/3 of Kazak population died in 1,5 years (for comparison during the Great Patriotic War in Belarus in the period of fascist occupation ¼ of Belarusian population died in 4 years).

Thus, the foundation of transformation of the Kazakhs into the minority on their native land was laid.

In the end of 1930s the deportation of several ethnic groups began. Some of them were settled in Kazakhstan.

During the World War II migration flow to Kazakhstan increased. In addition to, 536 thousand people evacuated from Western regions of the country whole nations from liquidates\d autonomous formation were deported to Kazakhstan.

In 1954-1962 approximately 2 million people, primarily from European part of the country, arrived to Kazakhstan to develop virgin lands.

Nowadays the Republic of Kazakhstan is one of multinational republics in the CIS. Welfare and stability in international relations depend on peaceful policy of our state.

Ibrayev S.I.

(North Kazakhstan State University, named for M. Kozybaev)