This year marks the 100th anniversary of the Alash Party, which worked for the sake of the independence of the country and raised the issues of creating national autonomy. Each region marks this significant date as possible. And yet, the Akzhayik region, nicknamed the center of Western Alash-Orda, is particularly active in terms of holding a loud celebration in honor of this event. First of all, with the support of the akimat of the West Kazakhstan region, it is planned to open a museum complex where the rich heritage of Alash figures will be collected, valuable relics - things that they used during their lifetime. Already, work is being intensively carried out.
Looking back, we see that in the Akzhayik region, in Uralsk, Zhympity, and Karatobe, constituent congresses of Kazakhs passed. And this region with stage play once again refreshed in the memory of the descendants the events of these congresses. The scientific and practical forum was also organized by the region of Akzhayik. The Akimat of the West Kazakhstan region organized two historical and cultural expeditions to Semey and Moscow, where traces of the Alash figures remained. All these good events are dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the formation of the Alash Orda government and the 130th anniversary of the chairman of the Western Alash Orda, prominent political figure Zhakhansha Dosmukhameduly. And in this regard, we talked to a member of the expedition “Zhympity - Semey” and “Zhympity - Moscow”, a famous scientist, Alash-Orda and Zhakhansha studier Dametken Suleimenova about the First Kazakh Congress, which took place in Orenburg and its impact on the congresses that took place in the west end, about valuable information found during the expedition "Zhympity - Moscow", we tried to find answers to these questions.
- Dametken Dosmukhanovna, this year marks 100th anniversary since the founding of the Alash party and the First All-Kazakh Congress, proclaimed the idea of creating a government or a political party. What place in history takes the Orenburg All-Kazakh Congress held on July 21-27, 1917?
- If we look at the long life of our people, we will see many bright examples. One of them is the Alash movement. This year marks the 100th anniversary of the movement of Alash and the First All-Kazakh Congress, which was held in the city of Orenburg. These two significant dates have a special historical significance, because the leaders of Alash at this congress announced the formation of a political party. Also at this congress was formed the management system of the future state. Over time, the history and lessons of this great movement and Kazakh Congress in Orenburg combine the entire Kazakh steppe around the idea of freedom, become more apparent.
It is known that the figures of Alash did a lot in the name of the nation. We believe that it's time to study the "white spots" in the history of Alash. The country achieved independence, recognized lies and truth. The world began to recognize the country as a fundamental state with a rich history. Therefore, the study of the history of the statehood of our country is a historical necessity. And the contribution of Alash figures in the formation of independence is enormous. This truth does not require proof. The 100th anniversary of the Alash movement will be celebrated at the state level. And you should not detach from this historically significant date and Orenburg All-Kazakh Congress. The creation of the first national political party, the creation of autonomy is a bright victory of this Congress.
- How did the organization of the congresses begin in the Kazakh steppe? Tell us about the important issues that were raised at the First All-Kazakh Congress?
- After the February Revolution of 1917, the organization of the regional All-Kazakh congresses began in the Kazakh steppes. In the Ural, Akmola, Semipalatinsk, Turgay regions congresses were held one by one, they became a call for the First All-Kazakh Congress in Orenburg. Zhakhansha Dosmukhamedov and Khalel Dosmukhamedov proposed a draft "Temporary Provision on the Management of the Steppe Part of the Ural Region" at one of the regional congresses - in the Ural Regional Kazakh Congress, which covered the system of local and regional government in full. All the delegates unanimously voted for it. At the Second All-Kazakh Congress in December 1917, the People's Council was proclaimed, which later became a government known as Alash Orda. First, at the First All-Kazakh Congress, the course of explaining the political events taking place on the Kazakh land was discussed. Secondly, the issue of uniting all Kazakhs in one place, issues of state administration, land management issues was raised. The people were organized to the political struggle. Therefore, All-Kazakh and regional congresses developed the idea of creating a Kazakh autonomous state and political party.
- Delegates from all regions took part in the All-Kazakh Congress in Orenburg. Among them was the western region. You are engaged in researching the life and activities of the figures of the Western Alash-Orda. Tell us about the figures of the Western Alash-Orda who participated in the First All-Kazakh Congress?
- The Alash intelligentsia in December 1905 in Uralsk made its first attempts to create a political party. Therefore, it can be said that the figures of the Western Alash-Orda occupy a special place at the First All-Kazakh Congress. To participate in the First All-Kazakh Congress representatives of the Western Alash-Orda arrived in two groups. The first group consisted of representatives of the Bukey Alash-Orda and the second group included representatives of the “Oyil Ualayaty”, later created. One of the most prominent at this Congress was Zhakhansha Dosmukhamedov. During the First Regional Kazakh Congress in Uralsk, the leader of Alash presented the idea of creating autonomy. And he once again raised this idea during the First All-Kazakh Congress. During the congress of the Ural Kazakhs, which was held on April 19-22, 1917 in Uralsk, issues of state administration, land management, the Kazakh autonomy, the army, education were raised. The questions put forward by the First All-Kazakh Congress coincided with each other. They pursued one goal, one interest. And thanks to this, at the Fourth Congress of the Ural Kazakhs, the question of proclaiming the Provisional Government "Oyil Ualayaty" - a national and territorial structure capable of influencing the entire western region, was considered. The activists of Alash supported the Congress of Kazakhs, which took place in the town of Zhympity on May 18-21, 1918, and was given the name "Western branch of the Alash Horde". And this government of the Western Alash Horde was born thanks to the All-Kazakh congresses and left its mark in history.
- This year, the outstanding figure of Alash Zhakhansha Dosmukhamedov turns 130 years old. And on the eve of the jubilee the historical and cultural expedition "Zhympity-Moscow" was held in the footsteps of Zhakhansha Dosmukhamedov. What did you find during the expedition?
- Considering such important historical dates, with the support of akimats of the West Kazakhstan region and Syrym district, the expedition "Zhympity-Moscow" was held. The head of the expedition was Ainagul Oyshybayeva, the director of the regional museum of local lore named after Syrym Datov.
The work of the expedition began with an educational institution where Zhakhansha Dosmukhamedov studied. This is the former Moscow Imperial University, now the Institute of Asian and African countries. The Institute is a branch of Moscow State University named after M. Lomonosov. In the former Moscow Imperial University Zhakhansha studied in 1906 - 1910. Here he received the specialty of a lawyer.
We managed to get new documents about the leader of Alash. These documents were kept in the main building of the Moscow State University named after M. Lomonosov. Now we want to get there. Unfortunately, now many documents of Alash figures, including figures of the Western Alash Horde, lie in the Department of Internal Affairs of the West Kazakhstan region. There is work, correspondence with a request to access these documents. This year a museum dedicated to the history and activities of the Western Alash Horde will be opened in Uralsk. We plan through this museum to launch into scientific circulation the unpublished documents of the Alash figures which are in the Department of Internal Affairs of the West Kazakhstan region.
- Dametken Dosmukhanovna, on your page in the social network, you reported that you learned that Zhakhansha Dosmukhamedov was shot at Butovo landfill. We believe that this is a bright victory of your expedition. Did you manage to see the documents about his stay in Butyrka prison? Are the names of our other fellow countrymen shot at this site known?
- We knew that Zhakhansha Dosmukhamedov was under investigation in Butyrka prison in Moscow. There is also a document on his execution in Moscow. To see this document personally, we even went on a special expedition. To this end we visited Butovo landfill. More than 20 thousand people were shot at the Butovo landfill. A list with their names was created.
Head of the temple Archpriest Father Kirill Kaleda thanks to many years of work collected the names of more than 1000 victims of repression buried at the Butovo landfill. About this was published several books. In the third volume on page 82 there is information about Zhakhansha Dosmukhamedov, we found him on the list and now we present it to the public. The bodies of these 20 thousand people are buried in the pits of Butovo landfill. On one square meter of the earth are buried bodies of 14-19 people. Shoes, clothes found during the research of the Butovo landfill were exhibited in the polygon museum. But later excavations were stopped. Because on top of one person were buried the second, third, and there was a mess of buried bodies.
On the Butovo landfill a granite memorial plate was installed with a list of names that were shot during the period from 1937 to November 1938. In that list there is also the name of Zhakhansha. On August 3, 1938, 120 people were shot. Among them was Zhakhansha. A handful of native land, special for Zhakhansha Dosmukhamedov, was placed under his tree. The photo shows that tree. And the ground from his grave was brought home.
- Thank you for the conversation!
Photo by: member of the expedition "Zhympity - Moscow", poet Bauyrzhan Shirmedinuly
Translated by Raushan MAKHMETZHANOVA