Nowadays, at the turn of the millennium, when the problem of spiritual rebirth and "discovering" of national history becomes very critical in Kazakhstan and a whole post-Soviet space, works of the great Kazakh scientist and the national history patriarch Manash Kozybayev are of a special interest.
Academician Kozybayev made a significant contribution into the rethinking of the history of the national liberation movement at the bound of the 19th — 20th centuries. The studying of national liberation movement in the context of the world evolution allowed creating new understanding of the history of public and political thinking at the period under consideration. As Kozybayev noted, at the turn of the 20th century Kazakhstan was characterized by various vectors of public and political movements, including religious fundamentalists, Jadids, Alash, and revolutionists.
Jadidism, a new tendency in Islam which representatives supported the need of reforms and adaptation of life of Muslims in the Russian Empire to modern requirements and trends, is of particular interest to the modern historical science. Initially appearing as a movement for reformation of the Muslim education system under the impact of the Russian events in 1905-1907 the Jadidism turned into the powerful political group which was able to lead the society.
Studying the Jadidism historians face many problems, including the following:
1. Inadequate knowledge of the topic. Not so long ago the historical science was under the strict ideological press of party bodies and, as a rule, those questions related to the history of national awakening of outskirts were simply ignored. That was one of the key reasons of inadequate understating of such phenomena as Jadidism in Kazakhstan. There are no any fundamental works on this theme.
2. In those works where authors tried to analyze the issue the nature of Jadidism was so disfigured by the socialist interpretation as well as by reactionary and anti-national evaluation that they have only factual value.
3. The researchers of Jadidism still do not have a shared understanding of the phenomena. Each author interprets it in accordance with his personal point of view. We think that this is explained by the absence of a complex study of the issue.
4. In researches of historians the term "Jadidism" is close to such terms as "Pan-Turkism" and "Pan-Islamism". Then it seemed that all the three terms are connected and similar. We consider that association of Jadidism with Pan-Turkism and Pan-Islamism distracts a researcher from the true path.
In fact, the ideology of Jadidism in the end of the 19th — beginning of the 20th centuries focused on cultural reformation, namely, reformation of Muslim education system. The transformation should cover more than one year and one decade. International harmony of Russian nations based on equality should become the result of the transformation. There were no any political elements and the ideas of Pan-Turkism and Pan-Islamism in the ideology of the Jadids during that period. The Jadidism had liberal and conservative character. It was based on moderately reformist concept of synthesis of traditional value orientations and new modern paradigm. In this regard, the reforms were aimed to continue historical path of Turkic nations.
1. Beysembiyev K. Ideyno-politicheskiye techeniya v Kazakhstane kontsa 19 — nachala 20 veka. Alma-Ata, 1961
2. Bekmakhanova N. E. Mnogonatsionalnoye naseleniye Kazakhstana i Kirgizii v epokhu kapitalizma. Moscow, 1986
3. Bendrikov K. E. Ocherki po istorii narodnogo obrazovaniya v Turkestane. Moscow, 1960
4. Ionova A. I. Traditsionalizm: znacheniye i tendentsii prelomleniya v musulmanskom reformatorstve i natsionalizme. Collection of articles. Moscow, 1986
5. Kozybayev M. K. Kazakhstan na rubezhe vekov: razmyshleniya i poiski. V dvukh knigakh. Book 1. — Almaty: Galym, 2000
6. Kuzembayev A. Istoriya Respubliki Kazakhstan: Uchebnik dlya VUZov. Almaty, 2000
7. Pyaskovekiy A. V. Revolyutsiya 1905-2907 godov v Turkestane. Moscow, 1957
8. Sembayev A. I., Khrapchenkov G. M. Ocherki po istorii shkol Kazakhstana (1900-1917). Alma-Ata, 1972
9. Khrapchenkov G. M., Khrapchenkov V. G. Istoriya shkoly i pedagogicheskoy mysli Kazakhstana. Kaynar University, 1998
Mogunov S. V.
(North Kazakhstan state university named after Manash Kozybayev)