The national economy of any country represents difficult economic, social, organizational, scientific and technological system in which there are the structural, organizational changes caused by features of its economic system, the defined tendencies and regularities of development.
Long-term strategy of social and economic development of Kazakhstan provides creation of socially focused economy and on its basis formation of effective model of human development and achievement of the Kazakhstan national quality of life.
The main priorities in the main directions of development of the country are accurately designated in the Message of the President N.A.Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan "New decade - new economic recovery - new opportunities of Kazakhstan" (Astana, on January 29, 2010) . in particular preparation of economy for post-crisis development, achievement of steady growth of economy at the expense of the forced industrialization and infrastructure development, providing Kazakhstan citizens with high-quality social and housing-and-municipal services, strengthening of an international consent, increase of national security, further development of the international relations, active investment in the future for increase of competitiveness of the human capital. Choice as the most important priority of creation of the competitive human capital and its successful realization are one of the main resources of providing accelerated industrially - innovative development of the country, post-crisis restoration and stability of national economy.
At the beginning of the new millennium when in the world there is a formation and transition to "economy of knowledge", special value gets accumulation by each country of the human capital. In the conditions of the forced industrial and innovative development of Kazakhstan and transition to innovative economy the main resource is the human capital on the basis of increase of education, professionalism and intelligence. In long-term prospect formation and realization of idea of the national project "Intellectual Nation-2020" that means formation and development "education systems during all life" are provided. Thus it should be noted that according to the World bank in the countries with a transitional economy of only 16% of level of economic growth 64% - from the human capital depend on the production capital, and.
Formation of the competitive human capital as one of the priority and major directions of post-crisis development of Kazakhstan provides formation of innovative economy. Creation of the competitive human capital is interconnected not only with transition to the sixth technological way and the forced industrialization of national economy, but also with realization of Strategy of occurrence of Kazakhstan in number of fifty most competitive countries. Achievement of high competitiveness of the human capital raises a labor demand on labor markets and creates potential to employment.
The choice of socially focused strategy of long-term development of Kazakhstan and its stage-by-stage realization in the long term became possible as a result of the sustained economic growth reached in 2000-2007.
Gradual shift of accent from increase of a standard of living on improvement of its quality, health and education of the population, human development, aiming of social and economic policy of the state at the prime solution of social problems is natural process.
In the modern world there is an increase of social orientation of the economic policy pursued in developed and developing countries. For many countries strategic objectives in the sphere of economy become very similar, namely:
- ensuring stable economic growth;
- creation of conditions for increase of entertaining of the population and unemployment reduction;
- control of rates of inflation;
ensuring high competitiveness of production;
- achievement and saving of rather high standards of a standard of living and social guarantees.
The increase in social investments into the person, on his education and health maintenance is thus provided, first of all.
By the beginning of the XXI century set of national models of economy which represent a wide range of a combination of the market relations and state regulation, national capitalist business and social orientation, economic regularities and not economic factors was created.
The social and economic orientation of formation and development of national economies of CIS countries defines their orientation to social market economy. However the general regularities in specific conditions of each country refract through an originality of regional features of development of the national economy regulating roles of the state in providing social guarantees of the population and as a whole of pursued state social and economic policy. Therefore on a question of formation of the general model of development of economy for all countries or application of ready model of any country hardly it is possible to answer unambiguously in the affirmative.
In long-term prospect in process of achievement of sustained economic growth on the basis of hi-tech innovative economy in many countries really there will be a possibility of creation of the general model of social market economy with orientation to the general priorities. At this stage of social and economic development of CIS countries there is a formation of national models of social market economy which characterize features of the Belarusian, Kazakhstan, Ukrainian, Uzbek models.
However even in the conditions of the developed market economy it is impossible to copy completely someone's experience without an originality, regional features of the concrete country, national traditions, a political situation and an economic environment.
As for model of the Kazakhstan labor market, it is formed according to the international standards, including the most attractive elements of available models taking into account real opportunities of their application, and also regional features and an originality of social and economic, demographic and political development of the republic.
For today formation of new model of employment and the Kazakhstan labor market is in many respects predetermined by a choice of model of economic growth of the republic. It means justification of own model of the accelerated economic growth of Kazakhstan with use of advantages available in the country and the most acceptable elements of foreign experience.
Criterion function of formation and regulation of the Kazakhstan market model of work is defined by the general strategy of stabilization of economy and the social sphere, transition to sustained economic growth and providing on this basis of quality of life of the population of the country. In realization of this strategy effective functioning of a labor market is the integral part promoting stabilization of a situation in the sphere of employment and decrease in unemployment (fight against poverty and unemployment, creation of new workplaces, distribution of public works, development of emergency measures on decrease in intensity on a labor market, implementation of active policy занято¬сти in the country and regions).
In process of stabilization of economy and economic growth of the country effective functioning of a labor market is carried out in the direction of achievement of the planned parameters of entertaining and unemployment, implementation of the concept of a flexible labor market, ensuring key parameters of an employment rate and unemployment according to the expected economic growth of the country in medium-term, and then and in long-term пер¬спективе.
Stabilization of economy and republic sustained economic growth since 2000 and in the next years created real preconditions for increase of employment of the population, increase in labor demand on the Kazakhstan labor market and decrease in unemployment.
As the world practice shows, the interrelation between indicators of economic OST and population employment often is under the influence of other factors, pokety economic growth isn't always accompanied by increase in employment of the population. The main obstacle for increase in employment is preservation of weak demand for labor not only in those countries that didn't yet overcome crisis of a transition period, but also in where already achieved some economic growth.
One of the reasons of economic growth without increase in quantity of workplaces is preservation of considerable labor redundancy on many large предприяти¬ях. Even in the conditions of decline in production, despite some release of rabotknik, they kept the main personnel with transfer it on a mode of incomplete working hours that caused big scales of a part-time employment, or the hidden unemployment. At the same time creation of new workplaces in a services sector and on small predkpriyatiya was insufficient for employment of the unemployed.
The new relations in the sphere of employment will develop in process of improvement of quality of labor, interaction of the main partners on a labor market: employers, nakemny workers and labor unions.
At this stage of social and economic development of the republic inevitably возника¬ет a question of formation of the Kazakhstan national model of employment and a labor market, based on:
- development of socially directed market economy;
- achievement of sustainable social and economic development of the country;
- solution of priorities on labor market regulation.
The national policy of employment of the population and labor market regulation with definite purposes, tasks, the principles is directed on formation of model of employment and a labor market.
Creation of the Kazakhstan model of employment and labor market is impossible without the sotsial-but-economic scenario, the forecast and the accounting of interaction of demographic factors, traditions, a labor way of life, regional features.
Creation of the Kazakhstan model of employment and labor market and its key parameters on medium-term prospect has to be carried out taking into account not only сложившей¬ся situations on a labor market of the republic and regions, but also a changing environment in the world market.
The situation analysis in the world markets of work allows to define the developed average level of unemployment within 5,0 - 7,0% and high unemployment rate from 7,0%и above. According to this group it is possible to carry to the countries with averages unemployment rate of the USA - 5,0%, Great Britain - 5,4%, Sweden - 5,6%, Finlyankdiya - 6,6%, Italy - 6,5%. The third group of the countries with high unemployment rate treat such, the countries, as Germany - 7,8%, France - 7,8%, Poland - 8,1%, Portukgaliya - 8,2%, Spain - 8,6%
Thus the most important factors of ensuring stability and employment in the republic was the following:
anti-recessionary policy of the Government of RK;
taking measures to implementation of contracts of labor agreements;
acceptance by the largest corporations of memorandums of control vysvobozhdekniya of workers;
retraining and employment for other works;
the Road map program with granting workplaces, distribution of social and public works, services in social infrastructure;
acceleration of innovative industrialization of economy and implementation of breakthrough projects.
The forced industrial and innovative development of Kazakhstan in 2010 - 2014 provides cardinal modernization of economy on the basis of the latest tekhnolokgiya, implementation of 162 projects with a total amount of investments of 6,5 trillion tenges that состав¬ляет more than 40% from gross domestic product of the country and will allow to create over 250 thousand new workplaces only in the next three years.
In the long term realization of the general strategy of economic development of the country has to be based on a choice of the main directions of industrial policy, priority branches and their investments. For transition to innovative economy, osnovankny on knowledge, creative activity and intelligence, activization of the human capital as major factor and valuable resource of national wealth of society is necessary.
At this stage along with definition of the general requirement of economy in a manpower the most significant are monitoring and creation of conditions for providing workplaces with demanded qualified personnel for high-performance work. For implementation of 237 projects included in the Card of industrialization of Kazakhstan, 235 thousand workplaces will be created. Thus the podkgotovka of 108 thousand workers which make deficiency of qualified personnel is necessary.
So, the greatest need for a manpower is revealed in oil and gas sector, mining and metallurgical complex, the tourist industry and mechanical engineering.
Successful realization of innovative industrialization in many respects depends on creation of the competitive human capital for priority sectors of naktsionalny economy and is considered as a basis of long-term strategy of the country connected with achievement of high-performance work in primary branches with a prikmeneniye of the latest technologies. The main advantage in this direction явля¬ется the saved-up in Kazakhstan considerable educational and scientific potential with a high share of persons with the higher and secondary vocational education.
Formation of the competitive human capital of the country and its demand on internal and external labor markets mean:
on the one hand, effective use of the accumulated knowledge, professionalism of workers;
with another - creation of the human capital on a new qualitative basis with the latest technologies and according to requirements of production.
Inefficient use of the saved-up human capital is accompanied by rather low labor productivity level in economy, especially in processing industries and agriculture. Underexploitation of the human capital happens in the conditions of increase of structural unemployment owing to imbalance of supply and demand of labor in the first turn not by quantity, and on quality: by professions, qualification and experience existence.
Optimum interaction of educational bodies and preparation of qualified personnel according to inquiries of production demands the forecast of training and a perepodgoktovka of workers on the basis of continuous monitoring of occurring tendencies. Realikzation of breakthrough projects on innovative industrialization is carried out by creation of the new workplaces demanding high qualification and professionalism.
For formation of new quality of the human capital it is necessary existing system of preparation and retraining of personnel cardinally to reform and увели¬чить investments into this sphere.
The accelerated formation of the competitive human capital possibly at achievement of stability in economy and sustainable post-crisis economic development of the country as means purposeful restructuring of a zanyaktost on the basis of hi-tech productions. Therefore providing in the long term sustainable economic development of the country for the solution of objectives on uskokrenny innovative industrialization gains paramount value.
Structural transformations of economy at its initial stage will be accompanied by restructuring of employment and high-quality development of the human resources, some delay of rates of economic growth, decrease in unemployment that явля¬ется quite natural process at formation of hi-tech and innovaktsionny economy.
In medium-term prospect delay of rates of employment of the population will be connected with a qualitative stage of economic growth, increase in volume of gross domestic product in big degree due to labor productivity, instead of the number of the zanyakty. Thus the main indicator of an assessment of extent of influence of economic growth on employment of the population of the country is the coefficient of elasticity of employment according to gross domestic product - EZ.
Positive dynamics of economic development will be reached in the conditions of carrying out the forced innovative industrialization of economy and increase of competitiveness of the human capital. Realization of goals and tasks in this direction has to be provided with the developed mechanism of their decision and close interaction of appropriate authorities and structures.
The list of the used sources:
1.Национальная экономика. -М. 2002. 590 с.
2.Статистические показатели социально-экономического развития Республики Казахстан и ее регионов. 1/2008. Агентство Республики Казахстан по статистике. - Астана,2008. - С.149-150
3.Квалифицированные кадры - индустриальному Казахстану // Казахстанская правда.- 2010. - 5 июня.
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