Leader of domestic historical science: tops ahead.
With finding of the state independence the historical science of Kazakhstan entered qualitatively new strip of the development. It got rid of party and ideological dictatorship, the base and scope of searches extended information источниковая, elimination of "white spots" became the central task of scientists-historians. Entry of the republic into the world community also promoted the quantitative and high-quality growth of researches on problems of general history, the international relations and foreign policy, oriental studies, a tyurkologiya, methodology of history, a historiography and a source study.
The most important – grew new generation of scientists-historians. In 20 years of independence in the country about 200 doctor's and 897 master's dissertations are defended. Today the big group of the professors representing the new directions and schools of scientific knowledge of the past, successfully works in all regions of Kazakhstan.
Leader of domestic historical science is the history and ethnology Institute of Ch.Ch.Valikhanova, created in 1945. In different years at the head of collective there were such titans of historical thought, as S. Yushkov, A.Nusupbekov, B. Tulepbayev, R. Suleymenov, M. Kozybayev. The bright trace in the biography of Institute was left by E.Bekmakhanov, G.F.Dakhshleyger, K.Akishev, B. Suleymenov, Accusative Yudin, H.Argynbayev, K.Nurpeis, etc. Many scientific works created even in the conditions of the Soviet ideological dictatorship, were included long ago into a treasury of creative achievements. Among them the foreground is taken "by History Kazakh the Soviet Socialist Republic", KAZSSR awarded to the State award in 1982.
Nice traditions of pioneers proceed. Today at Institute 3 academicians of HAH PK, 17 doctors of science, 22 candidates of science work. Schools of sciences of academicians of M. Asylbekov, O. Ismagulova, B. Kumekova, Z.Abylkhozhin, Z.Kinayatula, S. Azhigali's professors are well-known in the republic and abroad. Already at the beginning of independence under the direction of and at the initiative of academician M. Kozybayev the collective published the academic work "History of Kazakhstan. Sketches" (1993), I developed the state concept of formation of historical consciousness which didn't settle to this day the innovative and positive resource. High creative potential of staff of institute is confirmed also by that their scientific articles are printed on pages of high-rating magazines of America, India, Russia, Ukraine and other countries. In 2005-2011 our scientists published abroad 15 monographs and more than 50 articles.
In 2010 the Stories of Kazakhstan edition in 5 volumes more than 260 items of l came to the end. This capital work differs from the previous edition introduction in a scientific turn of new artifacts and documents, a methodological variety, innovative and tolerant approach to the most difficult questions of National history. Certainly, we don't claim that it is ideal. To eat than be proud, eat over what to work.
Key questions of history of Kazakhstan were developed in monographs of leading scientists and collective works. Large contribution to a national historiography are researches A.N. Garkavtsa "The great steppe in antique and Byzantine sources" (2005), "the Kypchaksky dictionary" (2011). The appreciation of scientific and expert community was received by S. Azhigali's monograph "Architecture of nomads – a phenomenon of history and culture of Eurasia (monuments of the Aralo-Kaspiysky region)" (2002). B. Kumekov and Z.Ilyasova's monograph (2011) about the geographical collection of the Arab scientist X ІІІ of Yakut al-Hamaui opens century history of Kazakhstan on the basis of earlier unknown data and the facts. On medieval history of Kazakhstan of Z.Kinayatula published the fundamental work "áºá мемлекеті және Zhoshy khan" (2004). Original scientific results distinguish M. Asylbekov's books, And. Kudaybergenova "azastan halyny ң leumett_k-demografiyaly қ жағдайы (1939-1959)" (2005), O. Ismagulovas, K.Sikhymbayeva, A.Ismagulova "Ethnic дерматоглифика Kazakhs" (2007),P. Belans "Borders of Kazakhstan" (2008), A. Tokhtaby "Қаза қ жылқысыны ң тарихы" (2010), etc.
Independence expanded conditions and opportunities for preparation and carrying out various scientific forums. At the initiative of Institute scientific conferences, seminars and discussions on actual problems of history and modern Kazakhstan society are annually held. In particular, on September 29-30, 2005 in Almaty with financial support of fund of Gerda Henkel (Germany) the International scientific conference "Historical science of Post-Soviet Central Asia took place: findings and problems" on which the role of the countries of Central Asia in change of the geopolitical map of the region, peacekeeping initiatives of the President of RK, refusal of Kazakhstan of the nuclear weapon, etc. is with deep arguments proved. In 2009 the Round table on hunger problems is carried out to the USSR with participation of the senator of Parliament of PK A.X. Bizhanova, representative of Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe M. Chavushogla (Turkey). Ch.Ch.Valikhanova's 175 anniversary (2010) was widely celebrated . Scientific and practical events were held in Almaty, Kokshetau, Kostanaye, in an aul of Shankhanay. In 2006 and 2011 the Institute acted as the initiator of carrying out of I and the II the International scientific conference "Aralo-Kaspiysky Region in the History and Culture of Eurasia" on which questions of preservation of monuments of historical and cultural heritage during mass development and uglevodorodnogosyrye production in the Western Kazakhstan the foreign companies, involvement of the public and the regional authorities to this problem were brought up. In particular, on ІІ the international conference 7 sections, 2 symposiums worked, works on definition of location of a tomb of khan Abulkhayyr were summed up. In 2011 the International forum "Socio-humanistic science of Kazakhstan for the first time is held: 20 years of self-comprehension and integration into a global cultural and historical context", devoted to independence anniversary.
Process of preparation of a highly qualified scientific personnel – candidates and doctors of science on the following specialties didn't interrupt: 07.00.02 – National history (history of the Republic of Kazakhstan); 07.00.06 – Archeology; 07.00.07 – Ethnography, ethnology and anthropology; 07.00.09 – the Historiography, a source study and methods of historical research. For scientific research institute and HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS about 30 doctors of science, more than 60 candidates of science on different historical specialties are prepared.
About 1998 godaizdayetsyamezhdunarodnyynauchny Otan Tarikhy / National history / Historyofthehomeland magazine/. The welcome letter on the occasion of an exit of the first issue of the magazine was received from the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A.Nazarbayev. "This edition, undoubtedly, will fill more and more increasing interest of our compatriots to history of the people, to sources of independence and the Republic sovereignty, – was spoken in a greeting. – It is symbolical that the magazine is published in 1998 which is declared for Year of national unity and national history. I wish to editorial collective of artistic triumphs, professionalism and competence; to readers – new opening and revelations in comprehension of the historical person of our Homeland. I hope that activity "Otan тарихы" – "National history" will be directed on the high purposes of service to Fatherland and will play a worthy role in strengthening and development of our sovereign state – the Republic of Kazakhstan".
The editorial board of the magazine consists of scientists of Kazakhstan, Russia, the USA, the People's Republic of China, Kyrgyzstan, India. Frequency of the edition – four times a year. Materials are printed in the Kazakh, Russian, English languages, put into itself operations both fundamental, and applied character on actual problems of national and world history. Only for 2011 on its pages more than 80 articles and other materials were issued. The great interest in readers was caused by articles about Katalaunsky fight of 451 years, Chingis the khan, Abylay the khan, about dinastiyny historiographies X_V-XV ІІ centuries. So, in the article "Katalaunsky Fight" it is claimed that in 18 works of the German heroic epos and the Scandinavian sagas great acts of Huns and their governor Attila are reflected.
We attach huge significance to expansion of a circle of international relations. Contracts on mutual understanding and cooperation with the scientific and educational organizations of India, South Korea, Turkey, the People's Republic of China, Germany, Uzbekistan and other states are signed. There are first results. So, the head of the department of languages of Central Asia of Hankuksky university of foreign languages (South Korea) the Dream Han Hoon after postgraduate study end TREASURY of al-Farabi was attached by the competitor of our institute. Its master's thesis "Relationship and socio-political history of the small people of Kazakhstan (1935-2009)" which protection took place on December 28, 2010, was highly appreciated by experts. It published articles in the Korean, Japanese, English, Kazakh languages. The thesis is written in the Kazakh language.
The Korean scientist and continues today searches after a kazakhstanik. One of its latest works is called "A look from abroad to independent Kazakhstan and activity of Assembly of the people of Kazakhstan" and entered into the book album "Independent Kazakhstan Eyes of Foreign Experts", the Independence devoted to the 20 anniversary. Here he writes: "… The president of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev suggested to unite all cultural centers and republic movements in one organization – Assembly of the people of Kazakhstan. On April 1, 1995 in political arena of the country there was the new subject regulating domestic national policy, and N.A.Nazarbayev became his organizer and the head. Today the Assembly found recognition and authority on eyes of the world community".
Ethnographers and anthropologists have an opportunity to work with the Kazakh material in Mongolia, China, Russia (Altai), Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan. Competitor of our Institute, PhD doctoral candidate of the F.F Gumboldsky university. Yeger studies problems of internal migration in the Western Kazakhstan. Young employees annually участвуютв "Summer schools" young historians of CIS countries, two young specialists of Institute in 2010-2011 passed scientific training in Poland on a state program "Bolasha қ". Thanks to cooperation with scientists of the Hungarian national Natural History Museum A.Kustar and A.Biro reconstruction of shape of the khan Younger жуза ІІІ of Abulkhayyr successfully came to the end centuries with XV. The presentation of a bust took place on December 7, 2011 in the National press center of Almaty.
Celebration of the 20 anniversary of Independence and adoption of law of RK "About Science" (2011) gave a powerful impulse of activization of scientific searches. The law expanded quantity of sources of science funding to three. Basic financing is directed on modernization of material operating conditions of the scientific organizations. Grant financing is allocated for carrying out scientific researches for increase of level of research works. Program and target financing is urged to promote the solution of strategically important state tasks. The law "About Science" started working! On competition of Committee of science of MOH PK on the grant financing, declared in the summer of 2011, our Institute submitted 17 applications.
Within anniversary actions with participation and/or at the initiative of Institute eight international scientific-theoretical conferences are held, the First forum of social scientists of Kazakhstan "The humanities in 20 years of independence of Kazakhstan is organized: achievements, problems and prospects". On the Forum 120 reports were declared, from them is read – 65 reports. The wide range of questions among which priority are recognized is considered: intellectual potential of independent Kazakhstan, heritage of the past and calls of new time, place and role of scientific knowledge in the modern world and in the Republic of Kazakhstan, history and methodology of scientific knowledge of independent Kazakhstan, research of the period of independence of Kazakhstan in textbooks and educational editions for schools, colleges and higher educational institutions, integration of scientific knowledge into a sociocultural educational context.
In 2011 researches within the scientific program of basic researches "Kazakhstan in system of world historical reference points came to the end: transcontact features of civilization development". The program consisted of three blocks: the first block "National history" included subjects: "History of formation of a community of Kazakhs of XIV-XVIIVV. : the state and policy", "Interrelations of the Kazakh and Russian intellectuals in socio-political life of Kazakhstan of H_H – the beginnings of the XX centuries: problems, searches, decisions", "Tolerance of the people of Kazakhstan in the conditions of the multiethnic state in XX – the head of HH_ of centuries: history, religion, culture", "Entry of modern Kazakhstan into the world community: initiatives of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A.Nazarbayev and historical realities", "Social and demographic development of the population of Kazakhstan at the end of H_H – the head of HH_ of centuries: historical and demographic analysis". The second block "Ethnology and Anthropology" covered subjects: "Kazakhs of China (historical and ethnographic research)", "Paleoantropologichesky researches of the Central Kazakhstan (with VIIIв. BC – till the V century AD". Subjects were components of the third block "Historiography, Source Study and Methods of Historical Research": "The multiethnic capital and capacities of Kazakhstan in HH-HH_ centuries: methodology, historiography and historical kompyyuting", "A steppe civilization in the territory of Kazakhstan in V ІІІ-H ІІ centuries on the Arab, Persian and Turkic sources", "Teoretiko-metodologichesky problems of history of Kazakhstan and world intellectual experience". During implementation of the program are carried out studying of ethnopolitical history of Kazakhstan by the XIV-XVII centuries. socio-political preconditions of consolidation of the Kazakh nation, detection of personal characteristics of intellectuals by XIX – the head of the XX centuries, methodological approaches to a tolerance problem in the conditions of the multinational state, legal base and forms of occurrence of Kazakhstan in the world community. New materials on traditional culture of Kazakhs of the People's Republic of China, the Russian Federation, Mongolia are revealed, ethnosociological poll among оралманов from the People's Republic of China in Almaty and East Kazakhstan areas was carried out. Solid results about features of formation and development of the states in the territory of Kazakhstan in the Middle Ages are received.
In total for 2003-2011 the Institute conducted researches on four programs within which 36 those are realized. Results of work are reflected in monographs, textbooks and manuals, collections. Their relevance and the importance consists in a reconstruction of a scientific picture of historical processes in the territory of Kazakhstan since the most ancient times up to now in a context of the Euroasian and Central Asian historical, state and ethnocultural process. Only in anniversary year the staff of Institute published 469 works, including 19 monographs, and from them 15 is devoted to the 20 anniversary of independence of RK. Five articles were included into magazines with a high impakt-factor.
The national historiography replenished with researches about D.A.Kunayev's state and party activity, about return and destinies of oralmanov-compatriots, origin of the Kazakh periodicals at a turn of centuries, modern information processes and Internet resources, about the future of the small cities, about features of development of an oil and gas complex. We hope that the scientific community on advantage will estimate the next release "Sketches on a historiography and methodology of history of Kazakhstan" where the first section considers a number of teoretiko-methodological problems of the integrated model of historical knowledge of New and Latest time. The second part of the book is devoted to a complex of ways and technologies of the analysis, and also processing of historical sources in a context of the last achievements in the field of quantitative history, historical informatics, an assessment of an interactive electronic content. In refraction on history of Kazakhstan of New and Latest time these approaches allow to estimate from innovative positions known events and the phenomena in annals of our country.
The researchers specializing in area stories, face now a problem of confirmation of capacity of the discipline and its scientific methods not only in the face of flow of a "alternative" delicacy, but, partially, and because of inability critically to comprehend an interference of the implications in refraction, both on public life, and on ordinary consciousness. Achilles' heel also is self-isolation from new trends in a world historiography and social sciences as a whole that leads to dissonance of domestic works with already approved conceptual models. Articles presented in the book, certainly, aren't able to close this difficult complex of problems, but they possess a certain creative zadannost in this direction.
The historical science found the "second" breath with Independence. It, serving truth, I became closer to life, to the people. Its condition and the future were widely discussed on the First Congress of historians of Kazakhstan (Astana, on September 16, 2011). "It is necessary to develop the general concept of history of Kazakhstan, modern methodology of researches at qualitatively new level, – Minister of Education and Science B. T.Zhumagulov emphasized in the performance on the Congress. – And to develop historical science in close coordination with a world history, to achieve a clear understanding of our place in global historical processes, system of their interrelation and a scientific periodization. That is fully to be integrated into world scientific and historical space, to gain in it serious authority. It is necessary to come for preparation and the edition of modern multivolume history of Kazakhstan". The minister gave an assignment to create professional public association of historians.
The authoritative forum approved idea of writing of modern multivolume National history. Considering experience and lessons of last years, our Institute suggested to include this project in the interdisciplinary scientific program "yly қазына" as strategically important state task for 2012-2014. Preparatory work is now complete: names and a chronological framework of volumes and books are defined, the estimate of expenses on a subject of writing and the project edition is made, the circle of performers and authors is outlined, the internal structure of each book is developed. It is represented to us that the reconstruction of a scientific picture of National history in 20 books is possible at association of efforts of scientists-historians not only Astana and Almaty, but also researchers from regions, the countries of the near and far abroad. In this regard expressed readiness to bring the contribution scientists-historians of Institute of archeology of A.Kh.Margulan, oriental studies Institute of R.B. Suleymenova, Institute of history of the state, the Kazakh national university of al-Farabi, the Kazakh national pedagogical university of Abay, the Euroasian national university of L.N.Gumilev. Organizational aspects of ensuring development of this project were discussed more than once in Committee of science of MOH PK with participation of vice-minister M. K.Orynkhanova.
On an outcome of year the case of humanists was mobilized for new searches by speech of the President of RK of N.A.Nazarbayev at the Forum of scientists of Kazakhstan (Almaty, on December 1, 2011). "We prepare Kazakhstan for decisive following twenty years' breakthrough in a new qualitative condition – to the world of the highest technologies and innovations, – the President emphasized. – It not high words. There are no two ways about it. Or to swallow of a dust behind all states. Today there comes that time when scientists, researchers and scientists have to make the most decisive contribution to development of Kazakhstan. The importance of science and scientists will increase only". Thus, the head of state defined prospect, ways and mechanisms of strengthening of scientific capacity of the country.
On the same day, after completion of work of the Forum, at history and ethnology Institute of Ch.Ch.Valikhanova meeting of initiative group of the National Congress of historians of Kazakhstan created at the request of Minister of Education and Science B. T.Zhumagulova took place. Participants exchanged opinions concerning implementation of instructions of the President of RK of N.A.Nazarbayev. Then passed elections in Congress board. The structure of board included representatives of the scientific intellectuals of Astana, Almaty, Semey, Taraz, is unanimously elected the chairman the rector of ENU of L.N.Gumilev, professor E.B.Sydykov. The management of new public association came to a conclusion that writing of National history in 20 books is for today an urgent need and a point of honor of the scientific and scientific and pedagogical intellectuals of Kazakhstan.
Collective tasks in the light of speech of the President at the Forum were specially discussed at meeting of the Academic council of Institute. We defined a package of measures, directed on increase of scientific-theoretical level and competitiveness of our researches. It provides Institute strengthening of ties with private business in interests of carrying out high-quality researches, expansion of preparation of highly qualified personnel – doctors of PD, use of information resources of the companies "Thomson Reyters" (USA), "Shpringer" (Germany), Otan Tarikhy / National history / Historyofthehomeland magazine inclusion in number of rating magazines of global science. Every possible assistance to formation of the intellectual nation has to become the end result of our works.
In a word, it is made much. Anniversary of independence lifted spirit and a spirit of scientists, and the liberated, true scientists-historians showed inexhaustible creative opportunities of the free person.
Anniversary – a good reason for self-improvement. It showed what should pay attention in Institute activity. First of all, this multidirectional relation of scientists to the social and professional duties, uneven distribution of heads and sections of scientific projects among performers, an enormous difference in professional mobility of employees. So, during PFI realization "Kazakhstan in system of world historical reference points: transcontact features of civilization development" one performers published full monographs, others generated эпифеномен. Simply speaking, presented "quasiscientific" works from 1 to 3 item of l. Lag in preparation of manuscripts for the edition took place. It was necessary to toughen financial control of an expenditure of budgetary funds.
The dissertation determinism which has captured the scientific environment, too promoted formation of the case of young scientists with original, heuristic ideas, development, judgments a little. Some young candidates of science, without having managed to be created as experts, already turned into a ballast. Not изжито such shameful phenomenon, as plagiarism, assignment of foreign authorship. The gerontological factor, feminization of structure of the scientific intellectuals have an effect. Speaking briefly – not everything is safe in our environment.
The first post-anniversary year began crucial events. On January 19, 2012 the Government of Kazakhstan approved the interdisciplinary program "yly қазына". Enlarged meeting of MOH PK board (on January 31, 2012) and speech of the minister on it Zhumagulov was emphasized by a special place and value of preparation of multivolume history of Kazakhstan.
Thus, today creation of history of Kazakhstan in 20 books is a task No. 1 for community of scientists-humanists. We face a dilemma: to be or not to be. Let's not predict the worst. Us moves optimism. In other words, future success has to mark: first, final parting of researchers with materialistic understanding of history dominating throughout much years in Soviet европоцентристском a format; secondly, end of a reconstruction of a true story of the Fatherland in a context of its interrelation and interdependence with world, continental and regional processes, on the basis of overcoming of "white spots", complex use of a wide range of sources, including again revealed within the State program "Cultural heritage"; thirdly, summing up transition to qualitatively new level of scientific judgment of regularities, an originality and features of historical processes in the territory of Kazakhstan since the most ancient times up to now, reached, however, competitive rivalry of ideas, conclusions, estimates, views.
The new edition of history of Kazakhstan is obliged to incorporate achievements of science and an innovation, both the advanced states of the world, and young independent Kazakhstan – quickly changing, opened to progressive changes and modernizations.
New opportunities for scientific development of the past and the present were opened by the Message of the President of RK to the country people "Social and economic modernization – the main vector of development of Kazakhstan" (on January 27, 2012). "It is important to increase the budgetary expenses on financing of perspective scientific researches through allocation of innovative projects", – the head of state emphasized. It means that science funding is supplemented with one more source, and domestic scientists will get support for implementation of innovative programs.
On February 2, 2012 the National scientific council considered a question of grant science funding. On February 9, i.e. in some days, the Order of Committee of science of MOH PK on the conclusion with performers of contracts for performance of research works was issued. According to these decisions, and also within a scientific priority "Intellectual potential of the country" our Institute assumed obligations to develop 16 subjects from 17 earlier submitted demands. Chronologically they cover the different periods of National history, beginning from an antiquity up to now. In the center of attention there are actual problems of a historiography, a source study, anthropology, ethnology, national history, a historical demography, a chelovekovedeniye. So, subject "Paleoantropologichesky researches of monuments of an era of bronze and early iron of East Kazakhstan (HH-І Vвв. BC) " (the head – academician O. Ismagulov) aims to obtain kraniologichesky data of paleoantropologichesky materials from monuments of an era of bronze and early iron and to compare them with the corresponding parameters of modern Kazakhs for clarification of epoch-making ethnogenetic continuity between the ancient and modern population. Main objectives:
- to study individual kraniologichesky data of paleoantropologichesky materials from monuments of an era of bronze and early iron of East Kazakhstan;
- to receive total kraniologichesky characteristics on the studied historical periods and sculptural anthropological reconstruction of appearance of people;
- to carry out the comparative analysis of kraniologichesky data of the ancient population of East Kazakhstan and synchronous series with them from adjacent regions of Eurasia;
- to carry out the comparative analysis of kraniologichesky data of the ancient population of East Kazakhstan and modern Kazakhs;
- to shine stages of formation of a kraniologichesky complex of modern Kazakhs and their ancestors;
- to prove local sources of ethnocultural and anthropological development.
Novelty of research consists that will be for the first time in details, totally and in the comparative plan kraniologichesky data of paleoantropologichesky materials from the monuments left by ancient local monks of East Kazakhstan, including from such historically significant, as Berel and Shilikta are studied. It is predicted on the basis of studying of absolutely new paleoantropologichesky materials to define ways of formation of anthropological shape of distant physical ancestors of Kazakhs, to obtain objective data for the fact proof that the territory of Kazakhstan throughout a number of the millennia is the ancient historical homeland of the modern Kazakhs possessing own anthropological status among various ethno-racial formations of Eurasia.
Solid grant support was got by projects on stories of Kazakhstan of the Middle Ages. The part from them is urged to expand the istochnikovy potential of science about the past. On an utvezhdeniye of experts, relevance of the "Kazakhs and the Kazakh Statehood of the Late Middle Ages in Sources of the Sefevidsky Circle" project within which for the first time into historiographies of medieval history of Kazakhs and statehood the complex of the written sources written in Sefevidsky Iran is introduced into scientific circulation is very high. It is known that owing to special way of life of the nomadic people in medieval Kazakhstan there was no own Kazakh written tradition. Thereof for research of a historical way of development of the Kazakh people and its statehood exclusive value is gained by the compositions written in the regions neighboring to Kazakhstan. At various times it were historical and geographical compositions in the Chinese, Greek, Arab and Russian languages. With X_V of an eyelid the priority in it passes to data of the medieval compositions written in the Persian language. And today the history of late medieval Kazakhstan can't be presented without data of the Persian sources. It is enough to tell that from 16 compositions extraction from which were included into the known collection "Materials on Stories of the Kazakh Khanates of XV-XV __ Centuries.", nine are written in the Persian language.
Persoyazychnykh of sources on stories of Kazakhstan it is known much. Some of them were introduced into scientific circulation in H_H an eyelid, others became available already in Soviet period. The data containing in these compositions, have various character. There are some compositions of hagiographical character which give a material, let and insignificant, on beliefs of Kazakhs. In others there are data on economic life of Kazakhs. The third give a material on ethnic history. However the main part of persoyazychny compositions contain data on political history. In them it is possible to reveal an important material on stories of the Kazakh statehood.
One of valuable narrative sources is the Persian geographical treatise "Jahan-name" ("A world picture"), the made Mahomed ibn Najib Bekran in 1206 for хорезмшаха Tekesha (1200‑1220). According to experts, "Jahan-name" as a whole the kompilyativny composition constructed on earlier Arab and Persian compositions therefore its information often isn't synchronous time of its writing. So, the materials "Jahan-name" demand from the modern researcher of laborious and careful source study work for the purpose of determination of reliability of a historic fact. Short extraction from "Jahan-name" since the end of XIXвека are introduced into scientific circulation. Still the composition Ibn Najib Bekran wasn't exposed special source study and историографическомуанализу. There is no also full transfer of this work. Development "Jahan-name" in complete system is already ripened and necessary stage on an advance way to new historical востоковедческим to generalizations. Therefore, we count on solid scientific results within the Geographical Treatise Ibn Najib Bekran Jahan-name (x ___ Century) as a Source on Stories of Kazakhstan and Central Asia project directed by academician B.E.Kumekovym.
Implementation of the project "Development of the Kazakh statehood becomes logical continuation of scientific researches on stories of the Kazakhstan Middle Ages: era of the Mongolian ulusny system (the beginning X ІІІ – the end of the XV centuries)" under the leadership of professor Z.Kinayatula.
Work on definition of subjects and the directions of scientific searches in an antiquity and the Middle Ages highlighted a weak link in the personnel case of Institute. It is a question of lag in preparation of new generation of anthropologists, arabists, синологов, iranist, orientalists.
The whole block of projects is devoted to studying of history of colonial Kazakhstan. So, among performers of the "Fight for Independence of Kazakhstan as a Historical and Socio-political Phenomenon (the XV ___-beginning of the XX Century)" project there is 1 academician, 2 doctors of science, 3 candidates of science, from 9 participants more than a half (55%) has academic statuses and degrees.
Research problems include the scientific analysis of a complex of the interconnected questions, namely:
- creation of a teoretiko-methodological, source study and historiographic basis of scientific research;
- definition research "independence" from the point of view of historical and socio-political reality of the Kazakhstan history;
- the analysis of social and demographic aspects of fight against colonialists;
- studying of movement for independence in a context of process of a choice of foreign policy reference points;
- disclosure of the various parties of daily history of fight for independence of Kazakhstan.
Relevance of the real scientific research results from the objective maintenance of the essence of a problem which consists that in the conditions of independent development of any country the historical retrospective of fight for free and sovereign development becomes the base of construction of new society and the state. Participants of the project proceed from understanding of that in Soviet period the history of Kazakhstan was studied one-sidedly, is subjected to imperial falsification of an iideologization, and deprived first of all of the pages connected with fight for independence. At the same time it is important to understand internal aspects of this phenomenon. What was idea of independence; that was understood as it among direct participants; as victories and defeats were perceived; what structure of participants was; what were pursued parallel interests; what was an everyday life of the participant of fight for independence to, in process and after its participation in protest movement. According to the project manager of the professor S.F. Mazhitova, the analysis of a historical retrospective and major factors of fight for independence in Kazakhstan XVIII– of beginning Hkhvekov pursues a task to prove that before finding by our country of independence liberating fight was considered more as a political phenomenon. Its social and concrete historical aspects were subject to ideological influence that often led researchers to adjustment of sources for an explanation of the political nature of movements of a protest. Besides uniform process of people's liberation movement was artificially replaced with a strict set of the most known revolts which were qualified either as progressive or as reactionary. From their contents the ideological context which meant fight for independent and sovereign development was emasculated. At the same time, huge layer of information dropped out of a scientific field of research of people's liberation movements in the form of the general background of live history with its collisions and contradictions, difficulties and successes.
At last, today social sciences and society people's liberation movement for independence" faced the fact of mixture of a dichotomy "fight for independence" and ". Telling about "fight for independence" many mean actually "people's liberation movement for independence" from the Russian Empire. It is thus lost sight that process of fight for preservation of the independent state is much broad concept of historical time and space. Speaking about fight for independence within XVIII– of beginning Hkhvekov, it is impossible to reduce everything only to opposition of only Russian Empire which objective status as mother countries nobody denies. Actually ІІІ the century begins XV with fight for independence of Kazakhs from джунгар. Further throughout a considered chronological cut oppositions of Kazakhs to other neighboring countries, an involvement of Kazakhstan into world historical events will take place. From the point of view of a definition "independence", diplomacy of khan Abylaya also is one of fight and protest forms for preservation of integrity of the state and freedom of the people.
Authors see relevance of research also that the modern world and the international community waits from researchers of the objective, deideologized scientific development on background of the independent states of the former USSR. To understand an essence and internal life, and also policy of the modern independent states, it is important to see and understand experience of their fight against colonization, for free development. And, at last, processes of globalization staticized actually a problem of a protest and protest movement in the world.
National liberation fight of the Kazakh people amplified in process of an aggravation of the vital questions, including land. Though the agrarian historiography of Kazakhstan has rich tradition, conceptually new approaches, paradigms and ideas today are necessary. The main part of performers of a subject "The land relations in pre-revolutionary Kazakhstan: (the history, the theory, practice)" make young scientists. Meanwhile, research problems are very extensive and provide the solution of the following questions:
- to consider the main concepts reflecting the traditional relation of nomads to the earth on the basis of the semantic analysis;
- to reveal features of the territorial relations and land use of Kazakhs within usual and legal establishments;
- to study agrarian values and the relations of nomads on the eve of reforms of the 20th years of the XIX century;
- to track an essence and the content of changes in system of land use of Kazakhs after introduction of Charters about the Siberian and Orenburg Kazakhs;
- to characterize the economic and economic problems caused by reduction and narrowing of land resources;
- to analyse the questions connected with development of mowing and agriculture;
- to recreate a scientific picture of the agrarian relations which have been given rise by the temporary provision of 1867-1868;
- to open the reasons and consequences of crisis of the traditional land and territorial relations;
- to understand the nature of the land relations in the cities of Kazakhstan;
- to isolate land use and land tenure questions in connection with subsidence and agriculture development in the second half of the XIX century;
- to find out results and lessons of a sedentarization of nomads.
In a word, field of activity and a scope for professional growth are provided to scientific youth.
Transition to new model of science funding opened favorable prospects for development of a historical demography. In the next three years under the leadership of academician M. H.Asylbekova subjects will be executed: "Formation and development of multiethnic structure of the population of Kazakhstan (the second half of H_H – began HH_ of an eyelid)" and the "Repressed" census (the population of Kazakhstan on All-Union census 1937 and 1939: results and lessons"). The main goal of research on the first subject consists in that on the basis of archival documents and the published sources, and also statistical materials, comprehensively and in a complex to shine and analyse regularities and tendencies of formation and development of multiethnic structure of the population of Kazakhstan. According to a goal the following tasks are formulated:
- to determine the main conceptual approaches and the directions by a studied problem;
- to reveal preconditions and conditions of emergence of ethnic diasporas in the territory of Kazakhstan in the period of a colonial policy of imperial Russia;
- to characterize scales of migratory processes and level of their influence on dynamics of population of Kazakhstan and its national structure in Soviet period;
- documentary and statistically to express an ethnodemographic situation and the main directions of its transformation in independent Kazakhstan.
During work on the Victim of political repression project census (the population of Kazakhstan on All-Union census 1937 and 1939: results and lessons") for the first time in National history on the basis of complex archival and bibliographic, scientific-theoretical researches it is planned to receive the following new results:
- restoration of scientific truth of rather demographic processes of the 30th of the XX century;
- reconstruction of the social and demographic characteristic of the population of Kazakhstan (the number, age and sexual and national structure, occupations, literacy and education level on population censuses 1937 and 1939);
- conceptualization of influence of political and social and economic transformations on change of number, ethnic and social composition, and also on territorial placement of the population;
- specification and specification of scales of the tragedy of the Kazakh people for hunger and repressions.
Successful implementation of projects will lift the status and recognition of the Kazakhstan historical demography as important direction of science.
New boundaries of scientific knowledge wait for scientists-ethnologists. In previous years they carried out comprehensive historical and ethnographic investigation of Kazakhs of Mongolia and ethnoarchaeological studying of monuments in an area of their moving. Research was conducted by specially developed technique. Valuable experience of scientific and methodical, field, analytical work is saved up, writing of the total collective monograph "Kazakhs of Mongolia" in volume to 45 items of l now comes to the end. also the manuscript of the book "Kazakhs of China" (30-40 items of l is close to end. ) .
Now our scientists-ethnologists should investigate subjects in a complex: "Culture of the Kazakh diaspora in present period: traditional bases and occurring innovations (on the example of ethnic groups in China and Mongolia)", "Society adaptations to changes in culture: on the example of Kazakhs of the Western Kazakhstan of H_H middle – the beginning of the XX centuries", "Academician A.Kh.Margulan and museum matter in Kazakhstan: scientific heritage, ideas and the future", "Material heritage of the Kazakh people in museums of the republics of Central Asia".
Relevance and novelty of projects is obvious. So, multilateral historical and ethnographic research of Kazakhs of the People's Republic of China and Mongolia has the important practical value caused by a number of factors. Formation from their number of part of migrants – "оралманов", being settled in a number of regions of Kazakhstan, and also a certain contingent of studying youth puts problems of their arrangement and adaptation, certainly, the connected with knowledge common cultural and ethnopsychological features of representatives of diaspora. Considerable activization of social and economic communications of these countries with Kazakhstan whom the special role is played by SUAR and Bayanulgy population, also dictates carrying out wide-ranging ethnocultural studies in territory of Xinjiang, the Western Mongolia which have serious prospects of use as in the economy sphere, and cultures and sciences. Important value has experience in complete preservation of national culture, its development saved up by Kazakhs of China and Mongolia in traditional and professional forms, savings and uses of ethnocultural achievements during the difficult period of market modernization, globalization, experience which can have actual application in rural areas of Kazakhstan.
For providing high level of ethnological researches it is necessary quantitatively and to strengthen qualitatively a cast, on the one hand, to deepen business and creative contacts with colleagues in the republic and beyond its limits – with another.
Science – the unique sphere and a special form of human activity. Its creative force is defined by talent and persistent work of creative persons. Studying of a course of life of outstanding scientists and their scientific heritage objectively promotes the solution of modern problems on intellectual development of reality. In this regard priority value has the analysis from new methodological positions of works of outstanding scientists-historians of Kazakhstan of the XX century, their reprinting, and also introduction in a scientific turn of their not published compositions. Project group of authors "Outstanding historians of Kazakhstan: destinies and scientific heritage" it is aimed at the solution of the following tasks:
- studying and preparation for reprinting of works of professor P. G. Galuzo in 2 volumes devoted to social and economic development of colonial Kazakhstan, their assessment from the point of view of achievements of a modern historiography, studying of the biography and shape of professor P. G. Galuzo as scientist;
- studying of a contribution to historical science of Kazakhstan of the corresponding member of AN Kaz of the Soviet Socialist Republic G.F.Dakhshleygera, the analysis from new methodological positions of works of the scientist, their preparation for the publication in 2 volumes;
- the analysis of scientific views and concepts of the corresponding member of AN Kaz of the Soviet Socialist Republic B. S. Suleymenova, reprinting of scientific works in 3 volumes of this outstanding researcher, introduction in a scientific turn of the new materials concerning to his life and creativity;
- research and systematization of a creative heritage of the academician of HAH PK of M.K.Kozybayev, preparation for reprinting of its works in 2 volumes devoted to various actual problems stories of Kazakhstan, identification of a place and a role of the scientist in historical science of Kazakhstan;
- research of scientific heritage of the academician of HAH PK of R. B. Suleymenov, which work are published in many languages, introduction in a scientific turnover of unpublished materials of culture of the Kazakh people. Works of the academician also need reprinting that is planned to carry out in 2 volumes;
- research of life and activity of the corresponding member of HAH PK of Nurpeis K.N. as scientist and preparation for the edition of its works on actual problems of history of the Kazakh statehood in the XX century. Works of this outstanding researcher are supposed to be published in the 1st volume;
- illumination of a contribution of the professor of H.A of Argynbayev. in development of ethnographic science of Kazakhstan, the analysis of its works with use of achievements of modern ethnography, the publication of scientific heritage of the scientist in 2 volumes.
In the conditions of modern Kazakhstan when interest to national history is considerable, studying of history of development of science, education and culture, and also her figures is very actual. After all it is obvious that the future of our society directly depends on the relation to available intellectual and creative resources. Names of those persons which made a considerable contribution to development of science, educations and cultures shouldn't be buried in oblivion. These names, with the full basis on that, have the right to take a worthy place in the history of our people.
Today active use of an information and heuristic resource of film documentary photographs began. Starting realization of the subject "History of Kazakhstan in Film Documentary Photographs (XX Century)", we declare the intentions and ambitions to master earlier novel open spaces of scientific knowledge, to satisfy needs of historical science for istochnikovy information which demand continuous search and knowledge created in the society of documentary resources. In the XIX century information existence of mankind, besides sign, descriptive forms of the documenting, having thousand-year roots and widely applied today, started being supplemented other than them, nonconventional forms of the documents, which initial types, were photo and film documents.
Consideration of these types of documents in a context of development of modern historical science, as a historical source, and also a peculiar product of culture, considerably to expand possibilities of knowledge of reality and in a certain measure can assist updating of historical thinking when studying the past of the country. Their studying in source study aspect opens prospects in development of a domestic source study as one of the independent scientific directions, general historical source study making part.
Novelty and prospects of researches consists that for the first time in the Kazakhstan historiography film documentary photographs are considered as the historical source, capable to shine our multidimensional historical past. The circle of tasks is staticized by that:
- for the first time teoretiko-methodological approach locates in the Kazakhstan historical science to historical sources at the heart of which the complete concept of humanitarian knowledge lies;
- on the actual material of TsGA and TsGA KFDZ RK funds the history of activity of the specialized archive depository of audiovisual documents on stages reveals, each of which has the features;
- the structure and the maintenance of national audiovisual fund on separate problems of national history for the purpose of detection of their scientific and historical value will be considered;
- for the first time in domestic historical science the main directions of source study work with audiovisual documentation come to light and exposed to the analysis.
For the solution of these tasks there is the richest fund of film documentary photographs: movies, magazines, special issues, the plots which are storing in archive, make the unique film chronicle of Kazakhstan: these are more than 30 000 units of storage. The most considerable collection of photos reflected history of the Soviet Kazakhstan. 150 000 units of storage – such quantity of negatives have archive photofund.
Paramount and priority component of a national historiography the history of independent Kazakhstan by right is considered. In this context responsible tasks are assigned to performers of projects: "History and anti-history of Kazakhstan: critical analysis of pseudoscientific knowledge", "Migratory policy of independent Kazakhstan and destiny оралманов". Here it is necessary to emphasize especially a demand of the critical analysis of pseudoscientific works on stories of Kazakhstan of the Middle Ages, new time and the present. We need generalizing historical research of a phenomenon of alternative history on the critical analysis of materials of mass communication, including technologies the Internet. Alternative models and plots of the historical past of Kazakhstan, especially in the last decade, are widely publicized through use of network technologies of mass communication. Wishing to occupy separate lacunas in a domestic historiography, they form images and stereotypes of a social reflection, distorting, thereby, scientific history of Kazakhstan. Informative lump of the pseudo-argument, expanding and being beyond separate messages, gets not only on research Wednesday, but also on pages of textbooks and manuals. Meanwhile, the empirical pluralism has to be based on scientifically reasoned statement, critical evaluation of information, with observance of the principles of scientific continuity.
Implementation of the project in a domestic historiography allows to give for the first time complex scientific justification of insolvency of alternative stories of Kazakhstan, to generalize experiment of domestic researchers on a problem and to formulate the pragmatiko-epistemological concept of immune mechanisms of scientific and historical knowledge.
Oralmana represent not only a demographic range of independent Kazakhstan, they make an effective factor economic, cultural образовательского country developments, form image of the republic. Specialists of the World association of Kazakhs are connected to studying of their destinies led by T.Mamashevym.
Globalization and high technologies, disintegration of the USSR and CPSU, emergence on the political map of the world of the new states radically changed a world order, the international relations, a way of life and valuable reference points of people. The human community from Atlantic to Ala Tau, from the ocean to the ocean became another. It is impossible to compare Kazakhstan of the end of the XX century and today's Kazakhstan. Certainly, new Kazakhstan in the new world has to have adequate scientific potential. Mobilizing opportunities and resources of basic, grant and program and target financing for implementation of the interdisciplinary program "yly қазына" and a priority "Intellectual potential of the country", we will bring the contribution in creation of the competitive state and the intellectual nation, we will put to the international orbit Domestic historical science, having given it a new impulse of forward growth.
The aspiration to a monopoly on historical science and historical knowledge is alien to us: claims for the ultimate truth deeply disperse from sense of the object of science! Our projects and potential books, certainly, differ from each other by scientific results, practical application, efficiency, competitiveness and other parameters. But structurally and substantially they will be distinguished by dialectic unity powerful эмпирики (information источниковая base) with realism of validity of the main idea (concept), deep generalization of various opinions and the phenomena (theory) with accurate definition of a subject, the purpose and research problems (methodology).
The history and ethnology institute of Ch.Ch.Valikhanova has a creative power and all necessary conditions to correspond to calls of Science of the new millennium. Harmoniously incorporating innovations and keeping thus the best traditions of humanitarian thought, we open today the new horizons of researches.
the director of Institute of history and ethnology of Ch.Ch.Valikhanova,
doctor of historical sciences, professor
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