National liberation revolt of 1916 in Kazakhstan
World War I which has begun in 1914 in which imperial Russia participated also, brought to its people very grave sufferings: social and national oppression amplified, an arbitrariness and violence of imperial officials on empire suburbs immeasurably increased.
In Kazakhstan mass withdrawal of lands at Kazakhs, first of all in northeast areas Syr-Darya, in the south of Semirechensky and some other areas proceeded. In only one Semirechensky area for the first three years of war 1800 thousand дес were withdrawn. the best pasturable and arable grounds, and true owners of these lands — Kazakhs — force were moved in small or absolutely unsuitable for housekeeping desert and semidesertic areas. The earth selected at Kazakhs was distributed to imperial officers, officials, clergy, the Cossack army and peasants immigrants from Russia and from Ukraine. To the middle of 1916 the total area of the lands withdrawn from the Kazakh population made 45 million дес. War absorbed a huge number of raw materials, the food, cattle and other material values. In this regard new burdens fell upon shoulders of the Kazakh population: obligatory deliveries of meat, mass requisition of cattle, the new military tax on tilt carts was imposed, territorial collecting and baysky volost by the scarlet — collecting for the maintenance of volost managers, and also road and other collecting is increased. Taxes on local population from the beginning of war increased in 3 — 4, and in some cases — by 15 times.
B1916 of growth of class and national oppression, hatred to war became universal. War accelerated process of ripening of national crisis in the country, the national liberation revolt of 1916 which has captured almost all regions of Kazakhstan and Central Asia became one of which bright manifestations.
The main reasons of revolt were factors of social and economic and political character: strengthening of colonial oppression, withdrawal of lands, growth of taxes and requisitions, operation of workers, the policy of russification pursued by tsarism concerning Kazakh and other indigenous people of the region, sharp deterioration of provision of broad masses in connection with war.
The imperial decree of June 25, 1916 about mobilization in army for rear works of the "foreign" man's population of Kazakhstan, Central Asia and partially Siberia aged from 19 till 43 years was a direct occasion to revolt, confiscated was planned to use for works on the device of defensive works and ways of military messages around field army. From Kazakhstan and Central Asia 400 thousand people, including from steppe areas of Kazakhstan — more than 100 thousand, from Semirechya — 87 thousand people have to be confiscated.
At the beginning of July almost in all regions of Kazakhstan the spontaneous performances which soon have developed into armed revolt began. The first the blow of national anger was assumed by volost managers, aulny foremen and the other local agents of imperial administration who are directly making lists for rear works. Using absence at Kazakhs of birth certificates, they randomly included poor people in lists irrespective of age, and baysky sons for bribes exempted from an appeal. In practice the system of drawing up lists generated mass bribery and abuses.
Besides the imperial authorities exempted from a set of officials, the volost, rural and aulny managers, the lowest police ranks from aboriginals, imams, mullahs and мударисов, accountants and accountants in establishments of the small credit, pupils of the highest and average educational institutions, officials of government agencies and the persons having the rights of noblemen and honourable citizens.
The workers driven to despair by the cruel decree of the tsar and unfair methods of his execution on places, armed than got, rushed on representatives of the imperial power: volost managers, aulny foremen, police officers, Cossacks, officials and with shouts: "Let's not give people! " — finished with them. They set fire to offices and houses of volost managers, aulny foremen, destroyed office-work and lists mobilized, fondly believing that such way will get rid of a set for rear works.
Gradually spontaneous movement began to accept the organized character: there were its large centers in Turgaye and Semirechye led by recognized leaders A.Imanovym, A.Dzhangildin, T.Bokin, B. Ashekeev, U.Saurykovym, Z.Mambetovym, etc.
Revolt captured all Kazakhstan and developed into the national liberation movement directed against military and colonizer and large-scale rusifikatorsky policy of tsarism and in certain degree — against feudal байской aul tops. At the same time performance was directed against the imperialistic war which has led to crisis of a national economy and extreme degree of an impoverishment of the people. In it it was closed with revolutionary fight of working class and the peasantry of Russia. Main goal of revolt of 1916 was the national and political release which is summing up all previous fight of the Kazakh people for freedom and independence.
Wide layers of the national peasantry — шаруа, and also representatives of arising working class, handicraftsmen were the main driving force of revolt. Participated in it and representatives of other layers of the Kazakh people: bye, volost managers, Biya, and also democratic intellectuals.
As a whole national liberation movement of 1916 in Kazakhstan was mononational, except for its southern areas (Semirechya and Syr-Darya area) where along with Kazakhs Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, дунгане and representatives of some other people participated in revolt.
In the Kazakh society the relation to the decree of the tsar and revolt was ambiguous: a certain part feudal байской tops, and also officials of so-called native administration unconditionally supported the imperial decree and became its chief conductors in life; radical representatives of the Kazakh intellectuals (Bokin, Niyazbekov, Zhunusov) sharply opposed it and called the people for armed resistance, and the leaders of the liberal and democratic intellectuals united round the Kazakh newspaper (A.Baytursynov, A.Bukeykhanov, M. Dulatov), took an indecisive position. They repeatedly tried to convince imperial administration not to hurry with mobilization, to hold preparatory events, at the same time urged not to show resistance to implementation of the decree, not without justification believing that the unarmed people will fall a victim of cruel repressions of tsarism.
The Semirechensky and Turgaysky centers were the largest centers of revolt. In Semipalatinsk area armed resistance accepted mass character in July — August. The insurgent groups armed with peaks, the fowling pieces, cold weapon were everywhere organized. On July 17 in Semirechye and Turkestani edge the martial law was declared. The imperial authorities threw here large military forces, strengthened military garrisons, from prosperous layers of resettlement population Semirechya created the armed groups for punishment of the Kazakh and Kyrgyz insurgents. Large collisions of insurgents with imperial chasteners happened in the natural boundary Experts, Karkar's mountain valley, near the station of Samsa, in Kastek, Narynkola, Charyn, Kuram's regions, in the Sadyr-Mataysky volost of the Lepsinsky area and in other places. In September — the beginning of October the considerable part of semirechen-sky insurgents, tesnimy from all directions retaliatory groups, was compelled to recede with persistent fights, to leave in Zapadnyykitay.
While in Semirechye insurgent movement was cruelly suppressed, in the Turgaysky steppe it gained strength and accrued every day. Turgaysky revolt, at the head of which стоялиА. Imanov and A.Dzhangildin, was the most persistent and long. As archival documents testify, the number of insurgent groups in the peak of revolt made about 50 000 people. From tens of thousands of unorganized insurgents A.Imanov created the harmonous disciplined military organism divided into tens, five-tens, hundreds and one thousand. At the head of each of divisions were respectively put онбасы (foreman), елубасы (Pentecostal), жузбасы (sotnik), мынбасы (chiliarch). The special division of snipers (group мергенов) was created. A.Imanov was elected the sardarbeky — the commander-in-chief of insurgents, at немфункционировал a Council of War — кенес.
In the areas supervised by insurgent army of A.Imanov, in essence, the local aulno-volost administration was discharged of management, the civil power passed to insurgents.
A.Imanov and council headed by it organized logistics, having charged specially to assignees (элбеги), providing insurgents with the food and horses, production in smithies of self-made ears, sabers, daggers, peak etc.
On October 22 15 thousand insurgents led by A.Imanovym surrounded of Turgay. The siege of the city proceeded some days. Meanwhile to the city in three directions the retaliatory case of lieutenant general A. Lavretenyev moved. Having received data on approach of superior forces of imperial chasteners, insurgents raised a siege of Turgaya and acted towards to groups of imperial armies. On November 16 сарбазы with a total number about 12 thousand people led by A.Imanovym around Topkoym's post station attacked retaliatory Katomin's otryadpodpolkovnik. The bulk of insurgents to keep manpower, in the second half of November departed on 150 km otturgy and concentrated around Batpakkara. From here guerrilla raids against chasteners from the second half of November, 1916 to the middle of February, 1917 were made. Fights between insurgents ikaratel happened on Tatyra, Akchiganaka, Dugal-Urpeka, in Kuyuk. Fights around Batpakkara where there was A.Imanov's staff were intense. They were developed in the second half of February, 1917. In these fights A.Imanov's insurgents met February bourgeois-democratic revolution.
In other regions of Kazakhstan risen also it was necessary to conduct cruel fights with superior forces of imperial retaliatory groups. In Semipalatinsk and Akmolinsky areas against the risen 12 cavalry hundreds, 11 strengthened infantry companies worked, and against turgaysky insurgents the imperial authorities threw the forwarding case as a part of 17 rifle companies, 18 Cossack hundreds, 4 cavalry squadrons, 18 tools, 10 machine guns and so forth. However chasteners didn't manage to suppress revolt up to the most February revolution. Only after tsarism overthrow revolt in Turgaysky area stopped.
For revolt suppression in Semirechye 95 companies were sent to 8750 bayonets, 24 hundred in 3900 sabers, 16 tools and 47 machine guns. In Semirechye tens Kazakh and Kyrgyz auls were destroyed, civilians were exposed to cruel prosecutions. 300 thousand Kazakhs pursued by the imperial authorities and Kyrgyz, or the fourth part of aboriginals of Semirechya was compelled to run to China.
Only according to the adjudications approved by governor general Kuropatkin, in the Turkestani region for February 1, 1917 it was sentenced to death 347, to a hard labor — 168, to imprisonment — 129 people, not including the shot extrajudicially chasteners who have lost from hands and the groups created from inhabitants of resettlement villages.
Revolt of 1916 takes a special place in the history of centuries-old national liberation movement of the Kazakh people. In the conditions of imperialism and World War I, Amangelda Imanov and other heads of revolt stirred the people to action for independence which began in due time Srym Datov, Isatay Taymanov, Makhambet Utemisov, Kenesara and Nauryzbay Kasymova. For the first time after national liberation movement under the leadership of Kenesara Kasymov revolt of 1916 had vsekazakhsky character, having captured all regions of extensive edge. Revolt had an anti-colonial and anti-imperialistic focus, the class moment (fight against a feudal top of an aul) was minor in comparison with the main task of revolt of national and political release of the people.
Recently certain researchers (M.K.Kozybayev, A.K.Bisembayev), proceeding from mass character of movement, promotion of national slogans during revolt, creation of separate elements of institute of the power risen (for example, the facts of election of khans), put forward the thesis that events of 1916 need to be regarded as the national liberation revolution, one of the first revolutions of this kind happening in colonies of imperial Russia. The thesis interesting, but this plot of history of revolt of 1916 demands special research, equally, as nowadays forgotten thesis stated And. Century Pyastkovsky in 1960, that revolt of 1916 in Central Asia and Kazakhstan was undoubted one of links all of inflaming revolutionary fight of the colonial people (China, Persia, the Southern American union, etc.) a protivimperialistichesky yoke.
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