Social and demographic problems of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan (1990 — the beginning of 2000)
The Republic of Kazakhstan, being in the center of Eurasia, from the first days of the independence I erected stability and safety in a rank of the major state policy. Crisis became serious test. But, thanks to in due time and consistently realized strategy of economic modernization, the country left crisis with honor [14, page 278]. Kazakhstan, having initially proclaimed the purpose of the development achievement of the socially oriented economy based on the competition, development of various forms of ownership, not only I made a responsible choice, but also I put myself in ranks of civilized countries.
The social and economic shape of the country changed radically. Conditions when economic signals work that allows to draw very essential conclusion were created: the mechanism of the market is started. In the market there was a situation when the prices regulate supply and demand, define movement of commodity streams, the competition nature, investment streams that already characterizes development of the modern period. The economy of Kazakhstan needed considerable, large-scale resources for financial support of the state budget and the large enterprises.
From 1991 to 1995 large-scale reforms were accompanied by decline in production, the strengthening of the social disproportions which has caused decrease in a standard of living of the population. In 1996 the standard of living more than one third of the population was below a "living wage" indicator. Economists and politicians faced a problem of poverty and began to look for solutions of this social problem actively. It is obvious that this problem within implementation of programs of welfare payments can't be solved.
It closely intertwines with a problem of improvement of national economy, ensuring the accelerated increase in production. In the 90th of the XX century sharp deterioration of a demographic situation was observed, Kazakhstan faced population crisis in the form of its depopulation, posed real threat of national security of the country. It is connected with sharp recession of birth rate, increase in mortality of the population, active emigratory processes in the republic. From 1960 to 1990 for Kazakhstan the constant increase in population was characteristic. In 1992 the maximum population — 16 million 582 thousand people [1, page 145] was noted. However already from the middle of the 80th years and especially in the 90th years negative tendencies were outlined in demographic development of the state. In 1997 only 232 thousand children were born that almost it is twice less, than in 1987 on which the birth rate peak (417 thousand people) fell. Respectively a coefficient of birth rate decreased with 25,7 to 14,7 births on 1000 people [11, page 31]. Such sharp reduction of birth rate in Kazakhstan it wasn't observed since World War II. The family and marriage relations have a great impact on birth rate indicators.
The number of concluded marriages was considerably reduced. The brachnost coefficient respectively decreased. The number of stains for 1990 — 1997, with 45,8 to 35,7 thousand was reduced also. The coefficient of a razvodimost decreased with 2,8 to 2,3 per milles [11, page 33]. The quantity of incomplete families, and also children who were born out of marriage increased in the republic. Since 1991, mortality of the population began to increase.
And mortality among men, especially able-bodied age, continues to grow quicker, than among women. Being observed decrease in infantile mortality speaks, generally the general decrease in birth rate. As a result of decrease in birth rate and increase in mortality a natural increase of the population in 10 years (1987 — 1997) decreased by 4 times. From experts, at preservation of such tendencies by 2003 in Kazakhstan population depopulation was predicted. Because, also the average duration of estimated life of the population respectively decreases. In comparison with 1990 it was reduced by 3,7 years and for the end of 1997 made 64,4 years. Thus at men it made 59 years, and women have 70,2 years. For comparison during this period in the USA average life expectancy made at men 73, women have 75 years, in Germany respectively 73,3 and 79,9 years, in Japan — 76,4 and 82,5 years Were etc. known that women of the republic live for 3 — 11 years, and men 14 — 21 years smaller, than in the advanced developed countries [11, page 131]. Such decrease in average life expectancy for rather short term in Kazakhstan it wasn't observed since the end of the fiftieth years.
Migratory processes have a great impact on a demographic situation in the country also. With independence acquisition in 1991 and establishment of the frontiers in CIS countries the migratory mood of the population considerably amplified. During 1991 — 1997 and the I half-year 1998 the republic was left by 2 million 171 thousand people, and there arrived only 592 thousand People [9, page 110]. Since 1993, the migratory decrease began to exceed a natural increase and the general increase in population stopped. As a result, population уменшилась on 940 thousand people and as of January 1, 1998 made 15 million 642 thousand people. There left the republic generally Russians, Germans, Ukrainians, and also representatives of other ethnoses. There left people at active, able-bodied age. These are skilled workers shots, scientists and experts with the higher and secondary education. For example, the number of the left people from Kazakhstan to Kyrgyzstan from 1994 to 1998 is more, than arrived that is caused by some instability of economy. As a whole, from 1993 to September, 2003 with Kyrgyzstan the positive balance of migration remained. The greatest number of emigrants is noted in Kostanaysky, East Kazakhstan, Karaganda, Pavlodar areas. According to RK Agency statistically for 1998 left Kazakhstan only 243663 people. From them to the Russian Federation 178026 people or 73,1% from everything left, to Germany — 44955 people (18,4 %), to Ukraine — 4647 people (1,9 %), to Uzbekistan — 2682 people (1,1 %), to Kyrgyzstan — 2046 people (0,84 %) etc. The majority of migrants made the population of able-bodied age (64,5 %) [8, page 228]. Among emigrants of able-bodied age of 64,2% have the higher, incomplete higher or secondary vocational education. Among able-bodied emigrants to CIS countries a share of highly skilled workers — 68,0% [8, page 229].
To a certain extent emigration from the country was compensated by repatriation of ethnic Kazakhs on the historical homeland. In total for 1991 — 1997 and the I half of 1998 to Kazakhstan there arrived more than 39 thousand families with a total number of 170 thousand people [11, with 34]. Big outflow of migrants from Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and till today has a talk with acquisition of independence of Kazakhstan not only instability of economy in these countries, but also deterioration of an ecological situation, infringement of the rights and interests of citizens. If from 1991 for 1999 to the Republic of Kazakhstan 43 thousand families of repatriates or 181 thousand 402 persons moved, and according to regional (city) managements on migration and a demography to the period from 1991 to October 1, 2003 from the near and far abroad in RK there arrived 74 852 families (293 874 people) оралманов (repatriates) [9, page 112].
The assessment of a standard of living of the population in many countries of the world is under construction on statistics of research of family budgets. On the basis of the obtained data the analysis of differentiation of the income and population expenses on various social groups with reflection of regional features is carried out.
The main source of the monetary income of the population is the labor income. In 1997 their share in the total amount of the monetary income made 74%. Distinctions in level and structure of gained income in city and rural areas remained. In 1997, as well as in previous, the monetary income of city dwellers by 2,3 times exceeded its level in the village. The structure of cash expenditures changed: the share of expenses on a food from 49% in 1996 decreased to 45% in 1997. Specific weight of expenses for purchase of nonfoods made 22% against 24% in 1996, on fee — 17% against 14% [4, page 72]. According to balance of a manpower for 1999 of all the number of a manpower on the republic made 8,4 million people, of them: economically active population — 7,1 million and economic the inactive population — 1,3 million People [4, page 73].
The efficiency of a labor market determined by a share of the busy population in a manpower, averaged for 1995 — 1999 72% [5, page 47]. On an existing proportion of 45% of the population lived in desert and semidesertic zones of inefficient agricultural production which owing to objective production expenses are noncompetitive. Natural migration of able-bodied population to the city district was observed. The measures promoting resettlement of people from zones of inefficient production in regions, favorable for accommodation and work were provided. In the conditions of decrease in demand for labor there was a problem of long unemployment for low qualified labor. Even more the employment problem in rural areas, in the small cities and working settlements became aggravated.
There were families where practically there are no working family members. 29 unemployed applied for one workplace on the republic on the average. For the end of 1999 level officially registered unemployment made 3,9% and the hidden 2,5%. According to experts of the World bank, the share of the unemployed in Kazakhstan for the beginning of 2000 made more than 13,5% from economically active population, and on certain regions to 20 and more percent of the population [5, page 49]. Among the problems connected with employment of the population, the special alarm is caused by unemployment among youth. Disorder of the large agricultural enterprises, unpreparedness of country people to conditions of market transformations and backwardness in the village of small-scale, handicraft work negatively affected population employment, especially youth.
In nine months 2000 the greatest the number of youth was employed on the industrial enterprises, the enterprises of agriculture, transport and communication and in healthcare institutions and educations. The important direction of decrease in social tension on a labor market was further development of active forms of employment such as: the organization of quota workplaces for the slabozashchishchenny segments of the population, paid public works. The special attention is paid to vocational training, retraining and professional development of jobless youth. One of measures of active policy on a labor market is the organization of public works. As a whole on the republic in nine months 2000 took part in public works of 90,2 thousand unemployed, these are 31,1% from total number of the citizens who have addressed in bodies of employment [6, page 4]. Since January, 2000 the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "About a living wage", being legislative base for introduction of system of rendering the social help is enacted. The bill provided the help to the families having the average per capita income is lower than the established level of a poverty line.
The ethnic structure of the population changed. Since the beginning of the 90th years the number of the indigenous Kazakh people increased by 1 million 230 thousand people and for January 1, 1998 made 8 million 130 thousand people [7, page 55]. Gradual aging of the population began. In comparison with 1990 the number of able-bodied population decreased by 82,7 thousand people (on 1 %), children and teenagers — on 607,5 thousand people (on 11 %) [12, page 50].
The main results of population census of 1999 testifies that the number of citizens of the republic for the intercensus period (since 1989) decreased by 1246,0 thousand people or for 7,7% [1, page 148]. Therefore in Kazakhstan the migration Agency and a demography of RK developed the program "Main directions of demographic policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan" for improvement of a demographic situation. The project was approved by the Government of RK and control of their execution is established. Appropriate programs and normative legal acts [2, page 4] were developed. Besides, the Plan of measures on social support and employment оралманов for 2003 — 2005 was developed. The plan of measures was directed on providing system of their optimum employment, possibility of training and retraining. As a result of the carried-out work there were positive shifts in employment оралманов. So, from living in the territory of the republic 255630 оралманов able-bodied age, 153714 people (60 %) whereas, for the beginning of 2000 this figure made only 32% are employed. Got subsidiary farms of 25241 families оралманов, including 21706 families have the land plots and in the maintenance of personal farms there was 40387 cattle, 8823 horses, 104599 heads of sheep and goats. For the organization of own business, enterprise business obtained the credits of 94 families and the microcredits of 1024 families [11, page 129]. Despite problems with housing and a life, an increasing number оралманов showed interest to a question of the organization of own business. The analysis of quantity of an annual quota of immigration showed its sharp reduction from 10 thousand in 1993 to 600 families in 2001 [11, page 130].
At the same time, since 2000 the tendency of growth of migratory mood of the Kazakh diaspora living abroad, especially was outlined in Uzbekistan, Russia and Turkmenistan. In 1998 instead of 3000 families provided on a quota of immigration, 3776 families actually moved. In 1999 at a quota of 500 families, there arrived 2663 families of repatriates, from them on a quota of immigration of 280 families [9, page 111]. In 2001 the quota of immigration in number of 600 families was completely executed. Work on streamlining of emigratory processes is sped up. Return оралманов — is the act of restoration of historical justice after a Stalin mode. In days of totalitarianism the Kazakh people lost nearly two thirds of the demographic potential [3, page 7]. After such deep national accident Kazakhs could revive only thanks to demographic youth in an initial stage of development of the population. The ethnodemographic structure of the population of Kazakhstan is gradually restored in the initial Euroasian shape. On demographic structure on age Kazakhstan still the young republic — middle arithmetic age of only 27 years. By criteria of the UN the country yet didn't reach an initial stage of process of aging (only 10% — are more senior than 65 years, and among Kazakhs — less than 7,0 %) [15, page 117].
More than 4,7 million people Were involved in processes of interregional and intraregional migration in 1991 — 2007. At the end of 2008 the number of internal migrants was stabilized at the level of 300,0 thousand people a year [10, page 101]. The main part of internal migrants — country people. Movement of migrants happened spontaneously. Among a certain part of internal migrants marginalization that turns them into groups of high social risk is noted.
The realized program "Nurla кош" was directed not only on rational moving and assistance in arrangement to ethnic Kazakhs, the compatriots living abroad, but also the citizens of Kazakhstan living in adverse regions of the country in interests of demographic and social and economic development of regions. The program provided definition of zones of moving according to existing program documents, acceptance of a complex of the social and economic and organizational measures stimulating moving both providing adaptation and integration of participants of the program "Nurla кош" in the corresponding zones of moving. The decision on participation, choice of the place of residence and work in zones of moving was carried out by the participant of the Program on a voluntary basis. Thus the number of the ethnic Kazakhs attracted as participants of the program, was defined by an annual quota оралманов. The number of compatriots — participants of the program was included in a quota of attraction of foreign labor. The number of citizens of Kazakhstan living in unsuccessful territories of the country, was defined on the basis of a quota for internal migrants which was formed proceeding from requirements of zones of moving on the basis of demand of employers for concrete types of specialties and taking into account implementation of breakthrough projects. In the program for each of the above categories a certain social support was provided. The negative balance of migration in 2004 passed in positive when the number arrived to the republic exceeded number left it.
In the future, in connection with the predicted economic growth migratory "boom" in the form of labor migration, generally from adjacent Central Asia is expected. For regulation of the mechanism of control of external labor migration a certain legal base is put. It is provided with laws RK "About Population Employment", "About Licensing", Rules of licensing for the activity connected with attraction of foreign labor, and also labor export from the Republic of Kazakhstan abroad and definitions of a quota, conditions and an order of delivery of permissions employers on attraction of foreign labor to the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Dynamics of attraction of foreign labor shows annual growth. If 2001 10,7 thousand foreign workers were attracted, and in 2004 attraction reached 17,2 thousand units, in 2005 24,7 thousand foreign workers [10, page 102] are attracted. The leading import countries of the labor attracted in the republic: Turkey, China, Great Britain, India, Yugoslavia, Italy, USA, Romania, Philippines. From CIS countries the greatest number of foreign experts arrived from Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan.
For years of independence the Republic of Kazakhstan became the active participant of world migratory processes, being the country of entrance, departure and transit. Positive factors of development and stabilization of migratory movements in Kazakhstan are political stability, considerable improvement of a social and economic situation, increase of a standard of living, a consequence of that is decrease in migratory outflow of the population from the country, and also increase in inflow of immigrants from other states.
The migratory policy pursued by the Republic of Kazakhstan brought the positive results — migratory processes by the beginning of new century were stabilized. Since 2002, the steady tendency of decrease in negative balance of migration and its transition was outlined in 2004 in the positive. In structure of the migratory streams which have arrived in 2007 to the republic, considerable part Kazakhs — 78,2% from total number arrived, Russian — 12,5% represent. Among the left migrants Russians make 69,5% of the republic, Ukrainians — 8,1%, Germans — 7,1% [11, page 139].
According to the demographic characteristic Kazakhstan — the most various country, here in common get on both east, and the western types of demographic behavior. On population density of 6 people on 1 sq.m therefore it is possible to expect "the demographic pressure" from the overpopulated China, the countries of Central Asia, especially agrarian the overpopulated Uzbekistan, in the form of spontaneous labor migration.
Kazakhstan for last years independence successfully coped with global challenges. The sustainable development of Kazakhstan in many respects took place thanks to the effective foreign policy which is carried out under the direction of the President of the country. The course on expansion of external relations and large-scale attraction of foreign investments allowed Kazakhstan not only to lift export-oriented branches, to increase raw materials production, but also to strengthen its convertibility. Thereby appeal of domestic market, attractive for import goods, for foreign investors increased, conditions for economy stabilization were created. As a result of persistent efforts, a complex of purposeful measures, it was succeeded to create rather favorable climate on attraction of foreign investments. In such branches as oil and gas, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, foreign investments exceeded 82% of total amount, more than 83,9% [13, pages 46] made direct foreign investments.
Today Kazakhstan takes a worthy place in the world community, territorial integrity and inviolability of the country is reliably provided. Core of foreign policy strategy of the President of Kazakhstan are the mnogovektornost and an evraziystvo. According to a number of the Russian experts, "N.A.Nazarbayev's phenomenon — the strong and effective presidential power in Central Asia" — allowed to keep regional stability and to start integration processes in Eurasia [13, page 14].
In the middle of 2010 the number of all population of Kazakhstan passed for 16650 million people. Kazakhs made 64% of them, Russian — 23%. Other 137 ethnoses have the most different number — from 0,5 million (Uzbeks and Ukrainians) to several people. In multinational Kazakhstan 8 ethnoses have number more than 100 thousand and how many — more than 20 thousand. On language groups prevail Turkic (72 %), then follow slavyanoyazychny (26 %). On religious signs representatives of Islam make about 75%, orthodox — more than 20% and others — no more than 5% [15, page 115]. According to the known demographer of Kazakhstan M. Tatimova: "… The probability of the interreligious and international conflicts in Kazakhstan is excluded as all diasporas are violently deported not only in the years of colonization, but also in days of the Soviet totalitarianism (especially during war and in the years of virgin soil development). For these quite objective reasons here small probability for fundamentalism and separatism".
In the social and economic relation in 2010 Kazakhstan, despite the remaining crisis phenomena in world economy, overcame recession and came to positive dynamics practically in all branches of economy that became direct result of correctly chosen strategy, the taken system anti-recessionary measures and strong financial support of economy at the expense of saved-up own means.
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