Usury expansion in Turgay area
The 80-90th years of the XIX century - time of mass distribution of usury in the Kazakh steppe. Kazakh sharua was almost totally in the power of the usurious capital, usurers sold property of Kazakh population for debts. Merchants in Kazakh steppes, using need of Kazakh sharua, sold essential items on credit at exorbitant usury. Usury was widely adopted and among local administration. Distribution of goods on credit on crushing terms was frequent means of a profit for buyers. Kazakhs paid by cattle, wool, skin, and bank notes in most cases served only as a criterion of cost of goods and in many transactions didn't participate at all. Nomadic population couldn't determine with an accuracy the cost of the made products, and factory products (the manufactory, haberdashery) was quite often estimated incorrectly and unfairly highly in comparison with cattle. Under pressure of a tax policy of tsarism, in particular, replacement of a natural duty by the monetary, in process of expansion of exhibition and stationary trade, the replacement of natural, exchange type of trade by monetary had been happening. In involvement of cattle breeding economy in the market relations, arrangement of strengthening of its connection with the resettlement village and city settlements the most convenient form of trade was exhibition trade.
According to "Rules" approved by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of November 12, 1870 in Turgay area two fairs originally were carried out: one in the Iletsk district at Akgyube's strengthening, from July 15 to August 15, and another - at Irgiz strengthening, from September 10 to October 10 annually. Bringing to Kyrgyz of Turgay area of convenience to sale of the cattle and supply by necessary, and also for simplification of purchase of cattle at Kyrgyz by Russian dealers" was considered as a main goal of fairs ". Supervision of a public order at fairs was charged by the exhibition committee consisting of representatives of city administration, two local Kazakhs and two visiting Russian dealers, veterinarian. For each place provided for trade exhibition the fair tax depending on the volume of sold goods in favor of city treasury was collected. Terms of fairs conduction changed further, depending on natural and economic cataclysms, in particular with a condition of livestock economy of Kazakh auls, with harvesting of resettlement peasantry. Therefore, Kazakhs almost weren't interested in fair as they were the main buyers of bread.
But taxation of Kazakhs by kibit and other taxes in a monetary form compelled them to sell cattle and cattle breeding production in the markets. In February, 1871 the new government directive about monetary taxes from the cattle sold at fairs is accepted. But, despite these facts, exhibition trade took an important place in economic life of area. From the middle of the 90th years in structure of cattle breeding economy of Kazakh population there were changes favoring to revival of exhibition trade. With transition to agriculture and settled life Kazakhs began to breed cattle and sheep which were in great demand in the Russian markets. Respectively there is a reduction of a livestock of horses and camels. In a consequence trade began to get a monetary form.
1 . Russian life (Orenburg). 1893 . Page 26
2 . Review of Turgay area for 1894. Orenburg, 1895. P. 27.
3 . Memorable book of Turgay area. Orenburg, 1899. P. 472.
4 . Sundetov S. A. About capitalism genesis in agriculture. And, - A.D970. Page 32-35.
Nurusheva Gulmira Keldybayevn
Kazakhstan, Kostanay state university named after A.Baytursynov
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