The formation of independent state
(December 1991 —August 1995)
On 16 December 1991, President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev signed the Constitutional Law “On State Independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan”.
On 21 December 1991 in Alma-Ata the heads of the eleven countries former members of the USSR signed the “Protocol to the Agreement establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States” (CIS).
On 2 March 1992, Kazakhstan became a member of the United Nations. This event was the beginning of the integration of Kazakhstan into the international system as a sovereign subject of the international relations. In 1991—1994, one hundred and eleven countries recognized the Republic of Kazakhstan and ninety-two of them established diplomatic relations with Kazakhstan.
New state symbols of Kazakhstan were created to signify the independence and national spirit of the republic. On 4 June 1992, three laws came into force, i.e. the Law “On the National Flag of the Republic of Kazakhstan,” “On the National Coat of Arms of the Republic Kazakhstan” and “On the National Anthem of the Republic Kazakhstan”.
For the first time, a modem democratic state was established on the Kazakh land with all symbols of the statehood: sovereignty, undisputed national borders, professional civil service, regular army and taxation system.
Many attributes of these symbols of the statehood were totally new for the country.
Under the leadership of Nursultan Nazarbayev, the country introduced its independent financial system. On 15 November 1993, Kazakhstan introduced its own national currency — the tenge. Between 1991 and 1995, the country established a modem political and legal system. The process of constitutional changes culminated on 30 August 1995 with the adoption of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Source: NURSULTAN NAZARBAYEV: THE FOUNDER OF THE INDEPENDENT STATE (The Chronicles of a Leader) published in Almaty, 2010, p. 70
Data was given from the Institute of State History, Committee of Science of The Ministry of Education and Science
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