February revolution in Kazakhstan
Economic ruin and defeats of the Russian armies on fronts, growth of labor and agrarian movement in the country including revolts of indigenous people of Central Asia and Kazakhstan in 1916, despite their defeats, testified that Russia is on the verge of revolutionary crisis when democratic forces including the working class and the peasantry, prepared for decisive storm against tsarism.
In February, 1917 Russia was won by the bourgeois-democratic revolution which has overthrown hated to the people tsarism. The message about February events in Petrograd quickly reached Kazakhstan. Numerous meetings and demonstrations of workers and other workers welcoming overthrow of tsarism, happened at the beginning of March in all large cities and at railway stations of Kazakhstan.
At first after February revolution the labor population of edge still trusted in Provisional government and hoped that it will be able to give to the people the world, to peasants — the earth, and the worker — the 8-hour working day. The considerable part of workers fed hope of the Provisional government, some of them consisted in civil and executive committees — bodies Temporary правительства28. Among railroad workers were strong defense on the structures, some stood up for "a victory there (i.e. in the war. — M. And. ) freedom — here" 29. However March demonstrations and meetings served as the beginning of creation of Councils of working deputies in the cities and on railway lines of edge. So, in Orenburg, Tashkent and Omsk on March 1 — 3 passed elections in Councils and the first took place them заседания30. In March, 1917 Councils of working deputies arose in Perovsk, Kazalinsk, Chelkara, Aktyubinsk, Uralsk, Petropavlovsk and other cities located on railway линиях31. Railroad workers, as a rule, were one of initiators of creation of Councils and presented to them revolutionary elements. For example, the Aktyubinsk Council of working deputies, reporting about the organization of century Aktyubinsk of Council of working deputies, I emphasized that railroad workers as most "conscious, make a necessary component" executive committee Soveta32.
Many Councils of working deputies soon united with Councils of soldier's deputies. So was in Petropavlovsk, Semipalatinsk, Perovsk and other cities. On the station Kazalinsk from the very beginning there was a joint Council — Council working and soldier's депутатов33.
The main originality of February revolution was that in the country the diarchy, bourgeois Provisional government and Councils of workers and soldier's deputies was formed. Real basis for creation of bodies of the political power of the bourgeoisie in the center and наместах were the State Duma, City Councils and various committees. The provisional government from the power eliminated military governors, governor generals and officials of colonial administration. Instead of them there were regional commissioners, civil executive committee, coalition committee, etc. In volosts, auls and villages there were same volost and aulny managers, rural heads and stanitsa atamans.
The provisional government at the head of areas put the former imperial officials colonialists, and also representatives of the Kazakh national intellectuals. So, A.Bukeykhanov was appointed the commissioner of Provisional government of Turgaysky area, and M. Tynyshpayev — the commissioner of Semirechensky area.
Local bodies of Provisional government in Kazakhstan were created in March — April, 1917. In Semipalatinsk from representatives of City Council, officers, members of exchange committee and the kulak union of cooperatives the Semipalatinsk executive committee of public organizations and army, in Petropavlovsk, Ust Kamenogorsk — coalition executive committee of public safety, etc. was created.
In Kazakhstan were formed both national Kazakh regional and district committees led by the Kazakh intellectuals. In areas and districts the Cossack committees, authorities of an exploiter top of the Cossack villages of the Siberian, Orenburg, Ural and Semirechensky Cossack armies which supported Provisional government were created. The Tatar, Uzbek and Uigur merchants united in Muslim, Tatar and other committees. So, on March 7, 1917 in True the all-Muslim committee — Kurultai led by 3 was educated. Tazetdinov.
During this period the Kazakh studying youth of educational institutions of Omsk, Orenburg, Tashkent, Semipalatinsk, etc. formed youth circles, the organizations which at first were engaged in cultural and educational activity. In 1915 — 1917 the youth organizations "Erkyn Gave" (The free steppe) in Orenburg were created, "Birlik" (Unity) in Omsk, "Zhas the Cossack" (The young Kazakh) in Uralsk, "Umit" (Hope) in Troitsk, etc. the cities, about 20 circles and groups which extended leaflets, verses on topics of the day, gave parties, discussions etc. They had no certain program, on social composition were non-uniform, however they sincerely wished to exempt the Kazakh people from national and colonial oppression of tsarism, demanded education of the people, sought to awaken in consciousness of workers of idea of national consolidation, freedom and independence.
Among these groups and circles the most radical and with the revolutionary action program was organized in the Auliye-Atinsky district Turar Ryskulov "The revolutionary union of the Kazakh youth". Its structure included the advanced Kazakh intellectuals which have left averages and needy layers of the Kazakh population.
In the program the union of the Kazakh youth, analyzing public политичесую life of Kazakhstan at Provisional government, I noted that "February revolution... I delegated the power in rukity imperial officials and a local Russian kulachestvo. The local committee of Provisional government consisting of these elements, instead of the equal relation to the Kazakh population put the task an utneteniye and destruction of the Kazakh population". The Revolutionary union saw the main objective in fight against Provisional government, a kulachestvo preponderance on places, in fight against volost, foremen and fights, supporters of Provisional government and propaganda and education strengthening among the mass of the Kazakh population.
March, 1917 was month of an exit of local social democrats from an underground and work expansion among railroad workers, city workers and other layers of workers. Work of local social democrats Bolsheviks of Tashkent, Orenburg and Omsk directed. Kernel social демократичесих the organizations of these administrative centers, as before, составаляли railroad workers, first of all workers and workmen from depot. The RSDRP organizations in Perovsk, Kazalinsk, Aktyubinsk, Uralsk, Petropavlovsk, Semipalatinsk, Shymkent and other cities and at railway stations of Kazakhstan were integrated: in them consisted both Bolsheviks, and Mensheviks.
Experienced workers of depot R. P. Novitsky, V.I.Chekurnov, etc. were organizers of group of Bolsheviks on the station Kazalinsk. This group had strong influence in Council of workers and soldier's deputies.
In the RSDRP Perovsky integrated organization there was also strong Bolshevist group led by the member of RSDRP since 1906, the mechanic of depot A.V. Chervyakovym. Its kernel was made by working depots of the station Perovsk (V. V. Agapov, N.V.Vitorsky, S. P. Kilyachkov, Y.S. Kryshev, etc.)
The largest Bolshevist group worked in the RSDRP Orenburg integrated organization. The structure of group included mainly workers of railway workshops and station Orenburg depot. Railroad workers A.A.Korostelev, P.A.Kobozev and D. P. Salikov headed it.
The group of Bolsheviks and in the RSDRP Tashkent integrated organization led by worker N. V. Shumilov was so large. Only at the beginning of March this organization was entered by about 2000 people. The considerable part of Bolsheviks of the Tashkent organization was made by workers of the Main railway workshops of the Central Asian railroad and the Borodino workshops of the Tashkent railroad (F.I.Kolesov, Manzhara, A.Ya.Pershin, Kazakova, V. S. Lyapin, I.V.Serov's brothers, etc.)
The RSDRP Omsk integrated organization already to the middle of April, 1917 totaled about 1000 members in the ranks, issued the weekly newspaper "Rabochy".
In the RSDRP Ural integrated organization in April, 1917 the Bolshevist group led by the driver of the engine N.A.Pokatilovym also was formed. It had a great influence on railroad workers of the Pokrovsk and Ural site of the Ryazan and Ural railroad.
Persistent and patient activity Bolsheviks завоевывалимассы workers of Kazakhstan on the party. So was in many cities, railway stations, in particular in Orenburg, Perovsk, Petropavlovsk, Uralsk, Aktyubinsk, Turkestan, etc. It is enough to tell that P.A.Kobozev and A.A.Korostelev in Orenburg, F.V. Zinchenko in Aktyubinsk, N.A.Pokatilov in Uralsk, I.Dubynin in Petropavlovsk, A.V.Chervyakov in Perovsk, R. P. Novitsky in Kazalinsk and many other tested heads of Bolshevist groups in nearby to lines the cities of Kazakhstan were natives of railway workers and employees of edge.
Creation of a wide network of labor unions in which registration a big role played Constituent congress of railroad workers Orenburgsko-Tashkents-koy the railroad and the I congress of workers and employees of the Omsk railroad was serious success of labor movement of Kazakhstan after a victory of February revolution. The last passed in Omsk from April 28 to May 7, 1917, on it there were 174 delegates with the right of a casting vote. Congress discussed a row политическихи economic problems: about the relation to Provisional government and war, about the 8-hour working day, about the relation to Councils of working, soldier's and country deputies, about fight against counterrevolution, about the relation to the Constituent assembly, about provision of pensions, etc. On a number of questions resolutions of Bolsheviks were adopted.
In the very first days after February revolution measures for liquidation of local bodies of the imperial power and punishment of the most zealous imperial служак were taken, discharged of posts and the vice governor of area of Mordvins, the chief of gendarmerie Balobanov, etc., in Omsk — the governor general of Western Siberia Sukhomlinov, to Petropavlovsk ке — territorial and district chiefs, the gendarmerie ranks, some officers of local garrison, etc., in Orenburg — turgaysky governor M. M. Eversman, etc. are arrested in Uralsk.
In April, 1917 the same events were developed on the Orenburg and Tashkent railroad where on request of railroad workers were discharged of posts the chief of the road, the chief of a traffic department and other representatives of administration. The Interim organizing railway committee which elected on April 8 the temporary commissioner of the road of Bolshevik P.A.Kobozev who has started then fulfillment of duties of her chief was created.
Constituent congress of labor union of railroad workers of this line, passing at the end of April, 1917 in Orenburg, by a majority vote supported election of the temporary commissioner of the road of P.A.Kobozev as her constant chief and on April 28 about it cabled Petrograd Council of workers and soldier's deputies and Ministry of Railways, and also the Tashkent and Orenburg Councils and local railway committees.
The management of the Tashkent railroad actually and up to the middle of May, 1917 was all April in hands of Interim railway committee and the chief of the road elected by him P.A.Kobozev.
P.A.Kobozev's election as the chief of the road and activity of Interim railway committee were a peculiar attempt to enter working control on the road and played a big role in unity of railroad workers under the leadership of Bolsheviks.
The requirement of the 8-hour working day which was actually entered by workers almost throughout the Orenburg and Tashkent and Omsk railroads was one of the main slogans of workers during this period. On the Riddersky railroad in view of refusal of administration to enter the 8-hour working day and to raise a salary workers discharged administration of the management and within several days operated the road.
Workers everything became clearer to understand counterrevolutionary essence of policy of Provisional government. Still on April 30, 1917 railroad workers of Tashkent at the general meeting, welcoming April demonstration of workers of Petrograd, expressed no confidence in the chairman of Turkestani committee of Provisional government N. N. Schepkin and removal from it the former police officers demanded radical reorganization of militias. Under pressure of these and other requirements Turkestani regional Council of workers and soldier's deputies expressed no confidence in Turkestani committee which was compelled to address to Provisional government with a request to exempt it from the assigned duties.
Local bodies of Provisional government in Kazakhstan, leaning on fists, Cossacks tops, on a baystvo of the Kazakh aul, sought to weaken a revolutionary rush of workers and workers, continued to plunder the population, forcing them to bear burden of imperialistic war. The provisional government in Kazakhstan continued former policy of autocracy. It adopted the resolution on granting of amnesty of participants of the retaliatory groups suppressing revolt of 1916 in Kazakhstan and Central Asia, on places the former district and volost chiefs, governors became commissioners, chairmen of civil committees. In force there were the old laws depriving Kazakhs of the political rights, in full inviolability there were huge land possession and class privileges of the Cossack armies, the activity was continued by the Resettlement management which was selecting the best lands of the Kazakh population.
To coming-back from China Kazakh and Kyrgyz families after bloody massacre of the imperial government over participants of revolt of 1916. The provisional government gave out a grant — 100 rub. Local fists chauvinists, using a situation, subjected indigenous people to a robbery, violence, selected the earth. The commissioner of Provisional government in Semirechye Shkapsky declared that "about any reconciliation of speech can't be, and Kyrgyz (Kazakhs) have to be moved".
Retaliatory groups remained in many places and quite often continued to work with former methods and after February, 1917.
The provisional government decided to declare carrying out land reform at the Constituent assembly which had to take place after a victory in the war. In an ethnic question the Provisional government proclaimed the decree "About cancellation of religious and national restrictions", however the right of the nation to self-determination, about destinies of the small people and ethnic minorities and other questions were bypassed.
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