Anthropological aspects of an origin of the Kazakh people
Search of sources of ethnoeducation of the Kazakh people is extremely difficult, and is closely connected with studying of hoary antiquity of Kazakhstan, and also the adjacent territories which monks participated in extensive ethnogenetic processes of Eurasia.
It is possible to distinguish two rod from a set of aspects of an origin of the Kazakh people: linguistic and anthropological. There are all bases to believe that both processes in the considered territory developed in parallel, mainly on a historical vertical. Such approach allows to track continuity and the remained "predkovy" lines. However, separate historical eras a certain role was played also by development on the horizontal line. It is remarkable that in the ancient time radical monks of the region had the general linguistic and anthropological basis, and at modern descendants the genetic clustering generally corresponds to the linguistic. The ancient history of Kazakhstan can be divided into two big periods: Indo-European and Turkic. *
The first period, despite the considerable temporary remoteness, before will melt before us as really created phase not only with the expressed economic and cultural traditions, but also a number of known ethnic associations and racial educations. In the linguistic relation at this stage monks not only Kazakhstan, but also the extensive region of Eurasia entered into a drevneiransky branch of an Indo-European family'. Chronologically considered period in Kazakhstan covers the III—I millennia BC.
The available archaeological artifacts of Kazakhstan connected with this period, testify that the so-called andronovsky culture of an era of bronze was widespread on its most part. In its western part the greatest distribution was gained by srubny culture. As a whole these cultures possessed the expressed regional lines which, in turn, formed a basis for new way of life of descendants in the form of a nomadizm during the subsequent era of the early Iron Age. At this stage the continuity of a cultural and historical community of local monks of the early Iron Age with the period of an era of bronze of Kazakhstan to what numerous archaeological sources testify, doesn't cause сомнения2.
During the considered period the territory of Kazakhstan in essence becomes the center of distribution so-called "A kochevnichesky triad", characteristic for all Euroasian steppes, i.e. an area of a universal existing of classical subjects of arms, horse equipment and "animal style" in registration of products. Sources of this triad as some researchers believe, go back to ancient Kazakhstan tribes of andronovsky culture of the middle of P thousand to N э.3 However with opening of an arzhansky phase of development of nomadichesky cultures recently regional features of the Euroasian tribes from Huang He to Danube began to be considered against the general interaction of all nomadic world in целом4. However this extensive nomadic world had svoyebrazny local hozyay-Zhtvenno cultural options. One of them were nomadic Ple-Ken Kazakhstana eras of the early Iron Age. During this period in the Euroasian steppes in the form of separate ethnic Communities Indo-European tribes under the name "Scythians" ("саки") are recorded. These terms in effect reflect the same Community of nomad tribes. Contemporaries of the sako-Scythian breeding union were савроматы, living in the Western Kazakhstan and beyond its limits. At the same time in ancient sources their numerous divisions with quite foggy localization in the European steppes are mentioned. And modern literature dazzles with contradictions about their location. The widest illumination in literature was received by tribes массагетов, исседонов, аримаспеев, etc. Some researchers последнихлет persistently emphasize that these and others этнонимы the Euroasian tribes reflect not complete ethnic education, and rather generalized name of several certain economic and cultural obshchnos-tey5. Therefore ethnic definition in ancient written sources and modern archaeological researches concerning localization of various nomadic associations in the Euroasian steppes of an era of early iron and antiquity becomes too gipotetichny and needs serious critical studying, probably, and revision. Despite it, the sako-Scythian breeding union in Kazakhstan kept an Indo-European community in the ethnocultural development till the turn of a new era.
Such is in general ethnocultural situation which underlay ethnoeducational process of local monks during an era of bronze and early iron. At this stage all set of the major components of economic and cultural traditions, ethnic development and linguistic proximity, finally, formed a predkovy basis of the subsequent process of formation of a cultural and historical community of the unions of tribes of Kazakhstan, including and the Kazakh nationality as a whole. In favor of it tell the main results of researches on ethnic archeology, ethnology, historical ethnography and toponymics of Kazakhstan. This conceptual situation finds the most important justification in paleantropologichesky materials of Kazakhstan.
It is known that the person was the objective carrier, the creator and the conductor valuable orientations of all ethnocultural heritage during various historical eras. But there is also a biological party of its nature when at the same time it makes part of a natural-historical community of the people who have been genetically connected among themselves by different degree of relationship. In a genome of the person his internal and external features are put, and the related group of people possesses the certain complex of these features.
It is noticed that owing to the geographical and historical reasons in separate ethnic группахчастота manifestations of inherited signs varies differently. Nature of distribution of these or those genes among representatives of a certain community of people can tell a lot of things about ethnic history of the people, its migrations, contacts, mixtures or isolations during the different periods. At the heart of this anthropological research the principles of ethnohistorical development and geographical distribution of genetic features of monks of Kazakhstan throughout a number of the millennia lie.
Let's address to paleoantropologichesky data of Kazakhstan of a bronze era as finds of remains of the person of earlier periods are very fragmentary. According to paleoantropologichesky and archaeological data, the ancient population of Kazakhstan during this period sosrs-
|| доточивалось in the center of big ethnocultural area — Eurasia? ; — also was one of representatives of extensive anthropological i of layer; steppe type of the protoeuropean racial trunk. The main; . the part of this big region, including Kazakhstan and Central Asia, was the earliest area of dwelling and moving of tribes of the Indo-Iranian cultural and historical and linguistic community. Throughout a number of the millennia carriers of an etoydrevneyshy civilization remained the major kernel in formation of later regional anthropological educations.
Paleoantropologichesky researches allowed to characterize appearance of ancient populations of Kazakhstan of a bronze era. During this period in all its extensive territory were rasprostrane-, ны various options ancient европеоидов, but prevailing. ; anthropological type I was steppe, called also andro-novsky according to the name of archaeological culture; It had the mesocrane-ny a skull, low, wide and well profiled person in the horizontal plane, strongly acting nasal bones and low eye-sockets. At the same time the tribes similar on фенооблику to local option of the East Mediterranean race lived in South East (Semirechye's) some parts and the Western Kazakhstan. As a whole these and other local evropeoidny racial types were that powerful anthropological layer on the basis of which there was a further transformation of a genome of the ancient population of Kazakhstan'. Thus, sources of ancient anthropological layer of Kazakhstan had well distinguishable, pronounced options of evropeoidny race without traces of inflow of genes of east (Asian) racial trunk. Therefore, the evropeoidny shape of ancient populations of Kazakhstan was initially the phenomenon exclusively autochthonic, and the most important hair dryers signs of shape passed from father to son.
Studying of a paleoanthropology of Kazakhstan eras of the early Iron Age showed that the population of all region was still characterized by the expressed lines of evropeoidny race known and during an era of bronze. In other words, the accurate genetic continuity between the population of two considered periods of Kazakhstan is traced. However in the scrupulous analysis of kraniologichesky series of the early Iron Age nevertheless it should be noted a tendency which, undoubtedly, developed under the influence of the hair dryers signs introduced by populations of east origin (Central Asia). But the specific weight of Mongoloid elements was still insignificant in фенооблике ancient populations of Kazakhstan. As a whole at local tribes of skifo-saksky time 1/6 part of physical lines already belonged to "east" complex which representatives since this period are fixed for the first time in this territory. On this basis it is possible to say that the middle of the I millennium BC. I became the beginning of an infiltration of east populations and metisatsionny process at ancient monks of Kazakhstan when ^элементы "east" racial trunk in the considered territory I began to accrue gradually as approaching late "; To Middle Ages Stage." "In the early Iron Age a bit different ethnocultural picture is observed in the western part of Kazakhstan where nomadic association of skifo-savromatsky tribes lived. The cultural centers of this community are found in modern Aktyubinsk, West Kazakhstan, Atyrausky and Mangistausky areas. However the most part of monuments of skifo-savromatsky time is found outside the Western Kazakhstan, namely, on the average both Lower Volga Area and South Ural. Some researchers connect history of development of this cultural community with the specified regions. At the same time савроматы the Western Kazakhstan find notable anthropological communication with andronovets of a steppe zone. Thus, during an era of early iron in the territory of Kazakhstan we face сдвумя the cultural centers: skifo-saksky and скифо - the Sarmatian - skim. Descendants of local populations of the andro-novsky culture, the second — descendants of ancient populations of srubny culture were creators of the first. Generally according to archaeological data between the Kazakhstan juice and савроматами the historical proximity in material culture and way жизни6 is traced.
In the anthropological relation of a skull of savromato-Sarmatian time from the Western Kazakhstan are characterized expressed fenoobliky to the southern branch of evropeoidny race. On the scale of this race on a number of morphological signs they approach with local option East Mediterranean anthropological типа7.
As a whole skifo-Sarmatian tribes of the considered region on the main kraniometrichesky signs nevertheless are close on фенооблику to the sako-usunsky world of South East Kazakhstan, representing a huge sarmato-usunsky continuum. Paleoantropologichesky materials of actually usunsky time are represented quite informative. It is known that at the end of the I millennium BC in southeast part of Kazakhstan the new breeding union comes to change to ethnic association of tribes of saksky time with etnonimy "усуни" which as researchers believe, in effect is the last phase of development of sak-sky culture. Therefore the division of tribes on juice and usuny is conditional, reflecting only different stages of evolution uniform ethnic общности8. In favor of it speak and given to a paleoanthropology.
Consideration of kraniologichesky series of usunsky time shows continuous genetic continuity with the previous period, i.e. the anthropological basis of local populations of antichyy time still remains drevneevro-peoidny. As for genetic impurity of east tribes, its specific weight increases in comparison with a previous skifo-saksky era a little. As a whole the share of this component among local populations already made 1/4 part from lump.
The main reason for the found tendency in racial morphology of local monks is undoubtedly connected with penetration and subsidence of hunnsky tribes from Central Asia. However at this stage of our researches the concrete contribution to a genofund of local populations while remains not opened because of a fragmentariness of pas-leoantropologichesky materials on sarmato-gunnsky tribes,
|хотя their ethnocultural development scarred in ancient | stories of Kazakhstan. Besides problems of tokharsky (yuechzhiysky)? the civilization which has had huge impact on ethnocultural development of local tribes, are still poorly developed. 1 ^а a skeleton of provided and other data it is possible to conclude, what on | an extent more than two millennia BC monks of Kazakhstan? in the anthropological relation possessed a uniform basis morfo-? physiological features. It was quite steady and, despite many epoch-making historical events occurring in the Euroasian steppes in I and II millennia AD, further remained in a genetic portrait of modern Kazakhs in the form of predkovy components, characteristic for the population bronze and early iron centuries of Kazakhstan. All extensive anthropological material on modern Kazakhs forms the basis for such judgment.
The beginning of the I millennium AD for the most part of Eurasia, including Kazakhstan and Central Asia, was marked by a new stage of interaction of internal and external factors in ethno - and a rasogenetiches-lump development owing to what there came cardinal transformation of ancient cultural and historical way of life of local tribes and transition to a prototurkic ethno-cultural and linguistic community was made.
It is known that in the second period there were numerous local migrations of nomad tribes to the west and formation of different nomadic associations to Turkic adverbs in the territory of Kazakhstan. Ogromnaya Square of the last with rather stable economic and cultural traditions owing to the historical development and a geographical position became the nadolgy millennia the natural bridge between the East and the West, and her radical monks were in the center of migratory ways of Eurasia. As for a genofund of local populations of these periods, by means of a number of migrations and the subsequent mixture of the population its structure, undoubtedly, was exposed to the numerous genetic
to "additives" from nomad tribes of east origin. The paleoanthropology of Kazakhstan of this time testifies to it (fig. 1. ) . The scale of inflow of these genes was a miscellaneous and, naturally, rendered a certain effect on фенооблик local populations. It is especially noticeable by comparison of kraniologichesky series of the usunsky and Turkic periods. Nevertheless the bulk of local ethnic formations of Turkic time remained evropeoidny, keeping genetic features of ancient tribes previous them. If to address to the general ratio of two leading racial components in physical shape of local monks of considered time, the conditional share of Mongoloid elements as a whole made 1/3 part of a genofund of populations. In a number of local groups level of impurity reached 1/2 parts from the general genofund. In some kraniologichesky series, in particular in a pritobolsky series VIII — X centuries AD from Northern Kazakhstan, the conditional share of a mongoloidnost reached 2/3 parts from the general массы9. The similar phenomenon is observed in border areas (The Volga region and Cisural area), close to the western part of Kazakhstan where at local population of XI and XII—XIV centuries Mongoloid impurity made as much, how many at present representatives of the Kazakhstan option turanoidny (South Siberian) расы10. All this specifies that extent of mixture of physical lines on an ancient evropeoidny basis with alien Mongoloids, characteristic for modern Kazakhs, took place in separate parts of Kazakhstan already in Turkic time.
For the majority of populations of the Kazakhstan and Central Asian region the end of I and the beginning of the II millennium AD were marked by successful social and economic and cultural development. In a number of the settled and semi-settled regions of Kazakhstan consolidation process between close and far breeding associations amplified. For the population of Kazakhstan of this era as a whole the expressed tendency to addition of the certain uniform all-ethnic basis caused both by geographical, and cultural and historical factors is characteristic. Those are a rasselennost generally in the territory with a monotonous landscape and similar climate, uniformity of economic and cultural traditions, unity of language and an origin community. However invasion of Mongols at the beginning of the XIII century and creation in the territory of Kazakhstan of the Mongolian uluses suspended for many years process of completion of ethnocultural formation of a uniform Kazakh nationality.
By comparison of kraniologichesky series of Kazakhs to series of skulls of the "Mongolian" and Turkic time the continuous genetic continuity between the population of the specified periods, with another — further strengthening of inflows of genes of "east" orientation (see fig. 1) is found, on the one hand. As a whole, during the Mongolian domination the conditional share of east component at local monks increased approximately on as much, as far as and in Turkic time (about 20%). On this basis it is possible to claim that the Mongolian expansion wasn't accompanied by mass resettlement of Central Asian tribes or full replacement of local tribes to other region and as a whole couldn't
to cause sharp change of genetic structure of local populations. Anthropologically its main role was reduced to the next strengthening of metisatsionny process among ancient descendants of edge. At the same time it is necessary to specify that this not so big inflow of genes to the "Mongolian" time on the scale of all Kazakhstan was rather effective that in фенооблике populations east component over western formally began to prevail, i.e. for contact history all the time the share of the introduced component reached 2/3 parts from the general genofund. Such ratio of the main compound components in anthropological structure of the population of Kazakhstan remains rather steady from the late Middle Ages till today (fig. 2).
Fig. 2 the Conditional share of Mongoloid elements at the population of Kazakhstan during various cultural and historical eras according to a kraniologiya.
Thus, paleoantropologichesky materials of Kazakhstan allow to conclude that peculiar to modern Kazakhs фенооблик was finally created no later than the XIV—XV centuries on the basis of difficult interaction of two big races — autochthonic evropeoidny and introduced Mongoloid. All this makes now a uniform monolithic alloy of anthropological structure of the Kazakh people.
In considered aspect not less important information contains in extensive and unique materials on anthropology of modern Kazakhs. Among them the special place is taken by kraniologichesky series of Kazakhs, которые'по to a being are the most reliable, and, often, the only source for the comparative analysis расогенеза Kazakhs, and also in definition of continuity of genetic linkages between modern and ancient monks of Kazakhstan. So, detailed studying of a local variety of the Kazakh kraniologichesky series in a certain measure highlights features of the vnugripopulyatsionny polymorphism which has been gradually saved up at various stages of formation of total set of Kazakhs, as uniform ethnic community. There is a number of kraniologichesky series from the various areas of the republic possessing characteristic features of turanoidny race and relating to its uniform local option. However among them a certain variability in the ratio evropeoidnost and the Mongoloid-nosti, despite duration and recurrence of metisatsionny processes at local populations of Kazakhstan, since an antiquity is traced.
Definition of a conditional share of Mongoloid elements on kraniologichesky series showed that at modern Kazakhs it made about 70%. Therefore, in the anthropo-morphological characteristic of kraniologichesky series of Kazakhs in a notable measure the ancient local substratum on which the substratny component of the Mongoloid origin which has become gradually prevailing (see fig. 2) was imposed during a number of the millennia is shown. As a whole such manifestation of rather uniform correlative communications between various biological indicators confirms some independence of rasogenetichesky process in which the leading role of an ancient predkovy evropeoidny component was historically caused. This component is really presented in physical shape of modern Kazakhs.
The same anthropological picture as a whole is traced and on other systems of hair dryers markers, in particular according to anthopometry, an izoserologiya, дерматоглифики and odontology. The main received results on racial somatology testify. that in all territory of moving Kazakhs are characterized by the expressed homogeneity and have a uniform anthropological fenoob-face. According to accurate regional localization within the modern territory of Kazakhstan it is possible to call their anthropological type the Kazakhstan option of the mixed turanoidny race''. As a part of this race, except the option stated above, experts allocate two more local: prityanyianskiya and Altai -
Fig. 3. Interposition of Kazakhs among some people of Eurasia on the sum measuring (and) and descriptive signs of the head and front department.
the hayanskiya Kyrgyz [and Khakas are recognized as which typical representatives. According to morphological indicators of intergroup comparisons both of these options of turanoidny race differ from Kazakhstan strengthening of elements of east racial trunk (fig. 3).
In anthropology of Kazakhstan also found reflection and studying of ethnic education of Kazakhs in serologichesky aspect. AVO given system for Kazakhs, as a whole it is possible to consider as the established prevalence аллеля 0. Percentage allely And and In evenly, and concentration of gene frequencies р (And) and q (In) are rather close among themselves (And> In). This fact says that in geneti-i to chesky structure of Kazakhs initial compound components on the basis of serologichesky factors — evropeoidny and Mongoloid are almost evenly combined. The main option in this system of blood types for the Kazakh population as a whole is following:
O > A > B > AB. Anthropological value of such distribution reveals by comparison to the general distribution of gene frequencies on AVO locus at the people of Eurasia. So, the Kazakh population gravitates to rather average size of fluctuations of frequencies of phenotypes of system of AVO of the population of the Central and Central Asia, and in some cases coincides with those options at the people of Eastern Europe and Forward Asia. On distribution of a phenotype And Kazakhs, being in limits of an interval of the frequencies inherent in the population of Central Asia, come nearer to its upper bound, and in relation to the people of Eastern Europe — to the lower bound of frequencies peculiar to them. The phenotype In at Kazakhs has the frequencies corresponding to average figures of frequencies at inhabitants of Central Asia, a little exceeding indicators, characteristic for populations of Eastern Europe and close suitable to the upper bound of an interval of the frequencies peculiar to the population of Forward and Central Asia. According to it frequencies of genes р (And) and q (In) at Kazakhs generally lie in the field of boundary values, characteristic for populations of Central Asia and Eastern Europe.
Consideration of distribution of system of blood types of MN among the Kazakh populations showed that for them prevalence аллеля M over N is characteristic. Percent of persons with existence of both allely MN among local populations much more, than with one. On degree of concentration of gene frequencies on this locus Kazakhs find rather high percent of m (M) and moderately low п (Ы). Establishment on a locus of MN of frequency of phenotypes and genotypes at Kazakhs most close approach to these indicators at the people of Central Asia. In relation to evropeoidny groups the revealed frequencies at Kazakhs are on border of those at the people of Eastern Europe. As a whole Kazakhs quite definitely are carriers of the mixed features on MN12 locus.
Given Rhesus factor systems among Kazakhs only prevail persons about a Rhesus factor - positive reaction over a Rhesus factor - negative. For them rather high contents аллеля D is characteristic. In all studied territory of an indicator of occurrence a Rhesus factor of negativity are stable as variability of gene frequencies on this locus at Kazakhs is insignificant, and they represent a uniform natural-historical community. On the scale of the general Kazakh population level of concentration of a gene of d doesn't reach prevalence of it аллеля at the population of Eastern Europe, but it is slightly more, than at inhabitants of Central Asia. Generally on this genetic marker results definitely testify to the mixed origin of Kazakhs between европеоидами and Mongoloids. Here it is possible to give percentage as a short illustration a Rhesus factor - a negative factor at the people of Eurasia. However, thus percent are transferred previously to points. Taking into account polarity of genetic structure of comparative populations Kazakhs stand four points further from modern Mongols, on five points — from indigenous people of Central Asia and on ten points from east Slavs. The generalized genetic sizes on the studied loci allow to conclude that on the pop-lyatsionnom level Kazakhs quite really have the genofund. Its specific feature is most brightly shown by interethnic comparisons where in the serologichesky relation the most typical representatives both evropeoidny, and Mongoloid racial types significantly differ from the generalized genetic indicator at Kazakhs (fig. 4). Such oboazom-
Fig. 4. Total genetic distances of Kazakhs from some people of Eurasia.
the carried-out serologichesky analysis reflects one of ways of microevolutionary development of modern Kazakhs and at the same time shows, in what ratio they kept initial genetic features, and also shows their conditional distance in ethnoanthropological development from populations of adjacent territories.
It is known that a specific combination of polymorphic signs of a skin relief of fingers and a palm possess high taxonomical value. These dermatoglifichesky data on modern ethnic groups now are widely used in anthropological science. In the received materials all complex of signs дерматоглифики testifies to uniformity of local groups of Kazakhs and its homogeneity as populations as a whole. On the main properties of skin patterns Kazakhs are on a joint Mongoloid европеоидных groups", i.e. treat populations of a metisny origin (fig. 5).
Fig. 5. The generalized dermatoglifichesky distances of Kazakhs (To) from some people of Eurasia.
In modern anthropology along with data on racial somatology, a serologiya, дерматоглифике features of tooth morphology of the person in ethnogenetic aspects also are studied. As it is known, the morphological structure of tooth system is one of the major sources biological and historical a tion inform-v as a number of important lines of a tooth relief specifies on prisut-, a stviye of ancient features. The Odontologichesky analysis allows
• to conclude that on the main hair dryers markers of a tooth relief the Kazakh -", missing a bit population finds real intra ethnic unity and keeps within limits of a variation of the transitional racial Evrazii.14 types
As a whole, odontologichesky features at Kazakhs reveal in
• the main the same regularities, as on other systems anthropo -' logical signs, i.e. on racial somatology, a serologiya, especially дерматоглифике (fig. 6). To it testifies, before' all that in tooth morphology of Kazakhs of line of "east" orientation prevail over features of "western". At the same time indicators of some hair dryers of a tooth relief of the "western" trunk to a certain extent decrease in process of advance from the western republic in east part. The revealed "western" stable component at modern Kazakhs genetically traces the roots back to an ancient local substratum.
Thus, large-scale complex anthropological researches of modern Kazakhs contain rather informative information which fully corresponds handed over interdisciplinary researches when developing problems of ethnogenesis, and, all this together taken, incontestably shows a community of genetic process and a way of formation of an ethnocultural basis at the ancient and modern population of Kazakhstan. Having ancient sources of formation, the Kazakh people find the real existence as independent ethnic education from the middle of the II millennium AD that admits the majority of researchers. Exactly from now on, to what all complex of sources testifies,
local populations formed the uniform ethnic massif with all specific features of genetic fund and fenotipi-chesky shape, with original cultural lines and bases of the modern language in all territory of Kazakhstan.
In this anthropological, ethnic and linguistic quality the Kazakh people appear at new historical development in a circle of a modern variety of cultural contacts in uniform system of human civilizations.
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