It was difficult for primitive man to move on the road prepared for him by the nature. Dozens of thousand years he struggled for the right to survive, trembled because of ugly weather and cold, timidly protected bonfire — the last smoldering ember meant terrible asperity or even the death of the whole group. However, he stubbornly continued going ahead and improving his tools.
Flat rounded stone in the form of disk. It edges are covered by hollows appeared as a result of powerful kicks made by hammer-stone. Kicks were directed from edge of stone to its center, and tops of splits gathered in the middle a little bit convex part of item. These stones are called discoidal nucleus. Wide slivers, chopped of in such a way, later were hammered by master along the edges and used for production of pointed stones and strickles. Pointed stones served to hunting needs as primitive dagger, heads of spears and knifes. Tools of the second type, strickles, were fitted for leather working, scraping and cutting.
So, how to make tools thinner and sharper? Searching more effective means ancient hunter paid much attention to preliminary faceting of stone workpiece. With this aim he knocked off flat platform on one or two short sides of stone. It was easy to break off long and massive plate of triangle, rounded or rectangular form by accurate side blow. Over time tools produced by levallois technique, as it is called by scientists, began displacing the previous.
This significant step forward was made during the next more progressive period of evolution which is called the Mustier epoch or Middle Palaeolithic period. Most of researchers refer its beginning to 100-40 thousand years B.C.
Stone tools collected in many places of Kazakhstan, including Algabas, Chakpak, Ushbulak VI, Batpak 8, 12, Kosmola, Kzyl-Dzhar 3, give evidence of such significant progress in the technique of stone working.
Ancient people of the Mustier epoch are commonly referred to a Neanderthal. It is easy to notice that even by the appearance they excelled people of the Acheulean period. Neanderthal man has a very sloped forehead, low calvarium, teeth of big size. He did not have mental protuberance — this means that he, very likely, could not speak consistently yet.
However, comparing craniums of Neanderthal man and his ancestor anthropologists came to a conclusion that the development of the most important parts of brain, which are frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes, took place. It means that Neanderthal man was more perfect creature.
Collection of plant food retreated into the background. Mainly, Neanderthal man became a hunter.
Man could not worry about the dead bonfire: he knew how to create fire.
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