Home History of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan in the Soviet Union Kazakhstan during the formation of the totalitarian system Political life

Political life

Transition from civil war to peace life was made in very difficult international and internal situation.

Economic difficulties after civil war were aggravated at the beginning of the 20th with the hunger which has captured considerable part of the territory of Kazakhstan, the anti-Soviet armed performances of the peasants dissatisfied with carrying out in 1921 of a grain allotment. These performances captured areas of the Ural, Bukeevsky, Semipalatinsk, Akmolinsky provinces and Mangis-tau's peninsula. The main force of anti-Soviet performances was made by kulak elements, an atamansko-exploiter top of the Cossack villages, the remains of the White Guards crushed during civil war and their allies. A certain part of the Kazakh and resettlement labor peasantry was involved in the armed anti-Soviet movements also. The most characteristic slogans of movements were: "For Councils without communists", "For free work and for free trade".

Actions of the armed anti-Soviet groups disturbed carrying out new economic policy and activity of the party organizations, the Soviet and economic organizations on places. Many able-bodied people of the city, aul and the village were attracted in ranks of special groups (CHON) for suppression of the anti-Soviet armed performances. As it was noted in Kommunist magazine — body Semipalatinsk губкома by RKP, "in 1921 — 1922.... party and Soviet work in the Bukhtarminsky district became extremely difficult and dangerous. People with the iron nerves, accustomed to a field and fighting surrounding could work only. Within, at least, one and a half years sovrabotnik were armed in establishments, slept with rifles and in marching ammunition" 17.

Only cancellation of a prodrazverstka promoted that the anti-Soviet armed performances by the end 1921 — to the beginning of 1922 gradually stopped.

In January — February, 1921 re-elections of 6509 aulny, rural, settlement and 933 volost Councils of the Kazakh ASSR took place. The party organizations and Councils of the republic used re-election campaign for a raising of political activity of wide layers of workers.

In the history of political life of edge the foreground is taken by the First Kazakhstan regional party conference (June, 1921). She along with the most important questions of economy discussed problems of political life: ethnic question, next problems of party and Soviet construction, etc.

Taken place in October, 1921. The second all Kazakhstan congress of Councils in an aul defined a problem of the Soviet construction as shock.

In the new Provision on the order of elections approved by congress, specifics of a life of the Kazakh population was considered. So, in connection with small population density, a nomadic way of life of its considerable part of rate of representation of representatives трудящихсяв Councils increased: now Councils were created in auls by number of inhabitants not less than 150 people, at the rate of one deputy on 50 inhabitants (before Councils were organized in auls with number of inhabitants not less than 300 people at the rate of one deputy on 100 inhabitants).

The important place in political life of Kazakhstan of the 20th was taken by the mass country organizations: the union of Koshchi (Zharla, Kedey), committees of country public mutual aid (Krestkoma) and the union of agricultural and forest workers (Rabzemles) adjoining them. All these organizations, first of all the union of Koshchi, were links between the Soviet power and Communist party, on the one hand, and the multimillion mass of the labor peasantry — with another. In the conditions of transition to the New Economic Policy they testified to democracy expansion after a policy impact of "military communism" in the years of civil war and were indicators of successful implementation of idea of attraction of the most broad masses of workers to the solution of a problem of construction of new society on the basis of activization of creative opportunities of the person.

The mass country organizations worked in close contact with local, first of all aulno-village councils. Their concrete activity developed on ways of overcoming of three main contradictions: the remains of patriarchal and patrimonial remnants class, national and connected with gradual elimination in a life and consciousness Kazakh шаруа.

The mass country organizations took active part in implementation of land and water reform of the beginning of the 20th in Semirechye and Syr-Darya area, in carrying out measures for land management of the Kazakh population in a left-bank flood plain of the Ural River in the Ural province and around a desyativerstny strip of the Irtysh River in the Semipalatinsk province, directed on elimination of the remains of colonialism in the earth and water use. They сыгали a big role in repartition of arable and haying grounds in the Kazakh aul in 1926 — 1927, carrying out confiscation of property and eviction of large bayev-semi-feudal lords in 1928.

The mass democratic country organizations took broad and effective part in cooperative and welfare construction in an aul and the republic village, developed effective measures for social protection of farm work, made a powerful contribution to formation of local bodies of the Soviet power.

For satisfaction of needs of the members the country organizations of Kazakhstan had the right to lease the various enterprises: repair shops, smithies, enterprises for rework of products rural farms and and public catering etc. The enterprises taken by the country organizations, were exempted from all taxes and fees. On the means they contained tens red yurtas and чайхан, at home декханина, being specific cultural and educational учреждениями18.

Creative activity of the mass country organizations was interrupted at the end of 20 — the beginning of the 30th Due to the beginning of "Stalin collectivization" and democracy narrowing the mass country organizations, first of all the union of Koshchi (Kedey), were dismissed, and their property and the enterprises are contributed to indivisible fund of collective farms.

Speaking about agrarian reforms of the 20th as parts of political life of Kazakhstan of those years, it is necessary to specify that studying of land and water reform of the beginning of the 20th and land management of the Kazakh population in a left-bank flood plain of the Ural River and a desyativerstny strip of Semipalatinsk Priirtyshje to a certain extent demands other approach. It is known that reforms pursued the aim of elimination of the remains of colonialism in the earth - and water use. In the course of their implementation quite often there were international conflicts. Still it was explained mainly by intrigues of nationalist and chauvinistic elements. Thus that circumstance wasn't always considered that these reforms were carried out only four years later after a victory of October revolution and five years after national liberation revolt of 1916. when were still fresh in memory of indigenous people of offense of the people oppressed in recent times by imperial autocracy, the wounds put with imperial chasteners during cruel suppression of national liberation revolt didn't heal. At the beginning of the 20th when agrarian reforms were carried out, in the region there was the natural social and psychological background promoting a known aggravation of the international relations. Without it it is impossible to understand and explain the international conflicts when carrying out agrarian reforms of the beginning of the 20th in Kazakhstan.

Tragic feature of political life of Kazakhstan of the middle of the 20th was that from now on the ideological device of Stalinism started holding the large-scale events directed on eradication of historical memory of the people and physical destruction of carriers of this memory — prominent representatives of the national intellectuals. It is known that the people of the Soviet East, partially the Volga region, within many centuries used the Arab alphabet. In the late twenties for by order of from above it it was replaced on Latin, and in 1940 — with Cyrillics. As a result during life of one generation Kazakhs were separated from writing on which eyelids created masterpieces of national spiritual culture, books, newspapers and magazines, scientific works were published, valuable historical materials collected.

With strengthening of a totalitarian mode political prosecutions of participants of Alash party, and also the executives of the republic taking the position in a question of rates and methods of social and economic transformations in edge and stating doubts in correctness of policy of the center, roughly violating the sovereign rights of the republic in the solution of the economic and political and personnel questions, not reckoning with national features and interests of indigenous people gradually amplified.

The policy of pressure upon the republic amplified and accepted especially rigid line with F.I.Goloschyokin's directed in September, 1925 on a post of first secretary Kazkraykom of VKP arrival. By this time the party bodies which have changed everything democratic institutes of the power, appeared hostages of the system installed by them. F.I.Goloschyokin was chosen in structure of regional committee and its secretary by a cooptation method.

In the second half of the 20th political life in Kazakhstan coolly changed. The solution V of the regional party conference which was taking place in December, 1925, on "aul Sovietization" gave an impulse to a sharp aggravation of class fight. The ideological base for carrying out "Malogooktyabrya" in the republic, brought to inconceivable disasters and the tragedy of the Kazakh people during violent collectivization and mass repressions of 1937 — 1938 was so created.

Considerable "contribution" to hysteria forcing about nationalists and national deviators and prosecution of local shots brought иН.И. Yezhov sent in 1923 from the Mari regional committee to a position of the secretary of Semipalatinsk губкома by VKP, and then appointed the manager of organizational and instructor department of regional committee of party.

Resistance of the large ranking officers not concordant with goloshchekinsko-Stalin model of "transformations" in Kazakhstan was at the same time broken. On various pretexts in 1927 — 1929 eminent state and public figures of Kazakhstan were removed from the republic N. Nurmakov, T.Ryskulov, S. Hodzhanov, M. Murzagaliyev. Chairman KAZTSIK Munbayev, the people's commissar of education S. Sadvakasov, the people's commissar of agriculture Z.Sultanbekov, etc. are removed from the posts. The most part of the Kazakh workers was accused of group fight to what the resolution of the 6th regional party conference which was taking place in November, 1927 testifies. Though the Central control commission of VKP specially (would) be engaged in business of one of S. Sadvakasov's main "gruppirovshchik", existence of such group didn't find. In letters to I.V. Stalin, V. M. Molotov and L.M. Kaganovich N. I. Yezhov informed that all national shots, all Kazakh communists are infected with a national deviationism and grouping fight that among them there are no healthy party forces. So future people's commissar of internal affairs of the USSR "perfected" the career before transfer to Moscow, whose diligence carried out mass repressions of 1937.

By the end of the 20th forcing of a situation and suspiciousness became general. Fight increase in the center with trotskistsko-zinovyevsky opposition and "the right opportunists" in the national republics was shown in the form of repression of representatives of national liberation movement. At the end of 1928 on false charge 44 persons from among so-called "bourgeois nationalists" — the former figures of "Alash-Ordy", including A.Baytursynov, M. Dulatov, M. Zhumabayev, Z.Aymautov, were arrested by X. Gabbasov, etc. Other group of the national intellectuals (about 40 people) as a part of M. Tynyshbayev, X. Dosmukhamedova, Z.Dosmukhame-dova, Z.Akpayev, etc. was arrested in September-October, 1930. Soon 15 from them (M. Tynyshbayev, and

Z.Akpayev, X. Dosmukhamedov, Z.Dosmukhamedov, K.Kemengerov, etc.) were banished to the Central Chernozem region of Russia. Almost all of them were repressed in 1937-1938.

In the late twenties — the beginning of the 30th in process of a crisis aggravation in social and economic development of the USSR, wide scales got searches of blasting anti-Soviet elements and the underground organizations. By analogy to the center (trials over participants of "industrial parties", "peasants party" etc.) in Kazakhstan searches of enemies in national option began. Casual accidents on mines and the enterprises, a murrain in collective farms and state farms, fires and other natural disasters were explained by intrigues of class enemies and according to it criminal cases of enemies of the people and the blasting anti-Soviet organizations were fabricated. In 1932 in Semipalatinsk, Abralinsky, Chingistausky and Kuvsky regions of the same area the branch nonexistent underground "a peasants party of Kazakhstan" with the center in Alma-Ata was "opened". However, despite mass country revolts and death of people for hunger in auls and villages, "business" didn't gain wide character. On business to criminal liability attracted more than 20 people. In 1933. in the territory of the Karmakchinsky region of the Kyzyl-Orda area "the baysko-nationalist counterrevolutionary organization "Dzhaylas" in the matter of which to criminal liability 53 persons were attracted was opened and liquidated, including 12 are sentenced to execution.

Cleanings in the party organizations were at the same time carried out. Everything who didn't inspire trust or once was mistaken, (would) ruthlessly be expelled from ranks of VKP. Accessory or sympathy to a trotskizm, right and to "national deviators" were the main points of charge. If in 1921 during the first general cleaning in Kazakhstan from party it was expelled 2,1 thousand people, in 1929 — 1930 — 5,8, in 1935 — 15,4 thousand people. During repressions of 1937 — 1938 from VKP it (would) be excluded 9223 коммуниста20.

In fear and hysteria passed discussion of the draft of the new Constitution of the USSR which was adopted at Extraordinary VIII All-Union congress of Councils on December 5, 1936 According to the new Constitution of the USSR, the Kazakh ASSR was transformed to the federal republic. March 26, 1937. Extraordinary X-th congress of Councils of Kazakhstan approved the Constitution Kazakh by the Soviet Socialist Republic. On December 12, 1937 elections in the Supreme Council of the republic took place.

However these state acts continued to be accompanied by tragic events: the political repressions which have begun at the beginning of 1937 captured all country. V'dekabra 1936 on Plenum of the Central Committee of VKP, then on February-March Plenum of 1937 (would) be given installation of the Central Committee of VKP, I.V. Stalin and his environment about need "eradications and destructions of double dealers", all enemies of the people. Processing of public consciousness reached before that on the mass meetings which were passing everywhere including in Kazakhstan, workers demanded the death penalty to N.I.Buharin, Rykov, etc., appeared on a dock. In this situation I.V. Stalin and his colleagues decided to finish at once opposition not only in the center, but also in the national republics. As affairs of the so-called "national fascists" repressed in 1937 — 1938 testify, N.I.Yezhov and his improvised especially didn't trouble itself at their fabrication. For giving to "affairs" of "national fascists" and others "enemies of the people" large-scale character the version about the conclusion by them the block with trotskist and right was thought up.

By analogy to the Moscow processes on places "open" court sessions on which necessary "indications" were squeezed out of defendants were organized. In 1937 such processes were carried out in Urdzharsky, Presnovsky and other areas of the republic. The big resonance received trial over leading party and Soviet workers of the byvshegokarkaralinsky district A.Asylbekovym, N. Nurseitov, M. Gataullin and others, taken place in November, 1937 in Karaganda. However destinies of bulk of "enemies of the people" were decided at meetings of the three of Military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR.

In 1937 — 1938 on false charge eminent state and public figures of Kazakhstan T.Ryskulov, N. Nurmakov, S. Hodzhanov, U.Kulumbetov, U.Dzhando sov, A.Dosov, A.Asylbekov, Z.Sadvakasov, L.Mirzoyan, A.Safarbekov, Z.Sultanbekov, T.Zhurgenov, N. Syrgabekov, 3 were repressed. Toregozhin and many other. Irreplaceable loss was suffered by the Kazakh science and culture. Victims of repression became A.Bukeykhanov, A.Baytursynov, M. Dulatov, M. Zhumabayev, S. Seyfullin, I.Dzhansugurov, B. Maylin, S. Asfendiyarov, K.Zhubanov, Z.Shanin, T.Shonanov, K.Kemengerov.

Thus, in the late twenties — the 30th the totalitarian mode was approved in all spheres of political life. Its manifestations in Kazakhstan accepted especially ugly forms, being accompanied by tragic events of the period of violent collectivization and political repressions of 1937 — 1938. Social and economic transformations in the region, took place giving to Kazakhstan of the status of the federal republic, successes in area of cultural construction, national education and science under a rigid ideological press of a totalitarian mode. All this predetermined further development of Kazakhstan as a part of the USSR.


To leave comment you must enter or register