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Land use issues in Kazakhstan from the perspectives of the leaders of Alash movement

05 September 2014
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History of the accession of Kazakhstan to Russia was basically the history of development of the region, as a predominantly agricultural colonization with all the consequences of the demographic, economic, social, etc. relations. The most acute angle presented directions, of course, plays a decisive role — the land question. At the turn of 19th — early 20th land use in the Kazakh steppe was a terrible picture of predatory capture by the Russian autocracy. It was during this period he began to defend their legitimate position of Alash party leaders.

Patriotically-minded national part of feudal and the creative intelligentsia Kazakh society could not tolerate predatory seizure of lands in Kazakhstan and forced from their homes and carting away their homes indigenous population.

A special place in the historiography, we are studying the problems with labor A.Bukeyhanova and A.Baitursynov [1], in which, based on a careful study of the sources made the correct observation and objective conclusions on many important aspects of the research theme, traced the causes and motives of the resettlement of peasants in Kazakhstan, assesses the resettlement policy of Tsarism, its colonial character and socio-economic consequences. In the absence of scientific circulation of these materials significantly impoverishes many historical and political, historical, economic, historical and social studies colonial policy of Russia in Kazakhstan late 19th — early 20th centuries.

«With the development of colonization, wrote the famous Russian explorer v. Ostafev — many Kyrgyz lost their lands, other sites did not give them… About the Cossack villages and cities have accumulated a lot of Kirghiz (Kazakhs — SI.), Who came in search of work. Their accumulated so much that the administration is compelled to reckon them to any parish to account. So formed 2 landless village assigned to parish Poludenskoy living near Petropavlovsk leased Cossack lands. To this category of landless should include tent… located in an obscure absences, their percentage in districts significant-15-20. Only 8 counties Petropavlovsk County — 1500 wagons [2].

Deputy first State Duma of the Russian Empire T. Sedelnikov so criticized A. Kaufman, one of the organizers of the seizure of land of the Kazakhs «For Mr. Kaufman Kirghiz (hereafter -Kazakhs) as a nation with its own needs and interests of land, regardless of the» interests of the general Russian colonization, «did not exist. Alive and whole body steppe land relations, he is inclined to cut land survey knife calmly and coolly, „as anatomists cut corpses“ as long as it was consistent with the earlier „types of government“, and now — „the program of the party“, filmed in a purely clerical and paper, still — formalistic spirit». [3]
«Considering land as own property acquired by the blood of fathers, Kyrgyz, when joining the Russian citizenship, did not think that the government will allow itself to encroach on private property; Meanwhile, the tsarist government created laws that for no reason, just to right of the strong, all Kyrgyz steppes recognized state property, the consequence of which creates a migration movement in the Kirghiz steppe and the best plots of land transferred to the migrant and the worst — remained in Kyrgyz «wrote A. Bukeykhanov.

Exposing the essence of colonial migration movement in the Kazakh steppe, A.Bukeykhanov who participated in the expedition to study the F. Scherbyna Kazakh lands, wrote: … an introduction in the country steppe situation created a bureaucratic way, without any consideration to the true needs of the population, disrespect for the law from the government which has set in place last its discretion, complete disregard for the rights of the individual administrative violence, invading all aspects of life, disregard for the spiritual and economic interests of the Kyrgyz, artificially supported by the ignorance of the masses — all this led to the impoverishment of the population, and its cultural development stagnation [4].

At a regular session of the State Duma A. Bukeykhanov said: On the resettlement issue that is so important for the whole fateful life of Kyrgyz (Kazakhs — SI) and for their further development, there is a need to stop.

Settlers from European Russia were mainly in the northern counties of the steppe regions. According to the governor’s statements in 1905, there were: in the Akmola region: Kazakhs — 484, 456, peasants — 205, 515, as a percentage of the peasants and the Kazakhs — 42%. Over the past three years, especially in 1907, the influx of immigrants was particularly strong, so that these relations have changed significantly in favor of the peasants. So, according to the Resettlement Administration in 1907 moved to Akmola region 12,000 families [5].

Further A.Bukeykhanov wrote that «In one 1907 set aside for resettlement and land expropriated from Kyrgyz lands to Kyrgyz steppe 54,000 or 810 thousand acres, including one in the Akmola region 510,000 acres, including mainly on the northern counties area, where land has brought anguish Kazakhs, saying bureaucratic language, resistance to the authorities». [6] Everyone remembers the carnage between Kazakhs and peasants in Petropavlovsk county in June 1906 In this collision involving hundreds of armed settlers and Kyrgyzstan as a result — a few dead on both sides [7].

In one of the issue of «Kazakh» newspaper A. Bukeykhanov explaining reactionary colonial policy, wrote about empowering Kazakhs 15 acres of land, «officials using their power, trying to make Kazakhs get land. «If you do not wish to take the land, then remove by»- they say. What is this law — outraged A. Bukeykhanov. — In what state there our Constitution, why the king so unfair to his subordinates, why not take into account natural conditions of the region, the psychology of the people, especially nomadic farming? [8]

A. Bukeykhanov sees the fatal consequences of getting Kazakhs allotments. «If Kazakhs take land, they cannot use it properly and will be forced to sell, as did the Bashkirs and in a few years will remain without land." Similar thoughts on the land question in the Kazakh steppe and expressed Ahmet Baitursynov. Responding to the article D. Seydalin placed in „Ay-Kap“ for № 13,14,15. A. Baitursynov writes that the transfer of ancestral lands Kazakhs peasant settlers rise to legitimate resentment among the local population. „Announcement of the Kazakh lands owned by the state was a mistake“, — says the author in his article „Resentment Kazakhs“. And he further explains in detail the essence of the order of the Council of Ministers of Russia from June 9, 1909 the seizure of land from the Kazakhs, consisting of 12 points.

A. Bukeikhanov, active member of the expedition F. Scherbyn, wrote: „The Kyrgyz (Kazakhs) of Kokchetau district under threat of beatings, not allowed resettlement county surveyor to make repeated surveying for allocation to Vsevolodsky site. Their lands were already surrounded on three sides by the peasant allotments: surveyor wanted to cut them off, and the fourth side open more tightening, so over the Kirghiz (Kazakhs) noose. That they could not overpower“[9].

This could not perturb the true sons of the Kazakh people. That’s the way he wrote about it A. Bukeykhanov at the time: „Special issue — what to expect in the future farmers and Kirghiz? (Kazakhs). Best lands of the northern district of the Kyrgyz (Kazakh) Steppe lands similar to Samara province.

In 80 years served as a steppe colonization and even number of the series large-landed provinces. Nowadays — she gives annually not less than 6–9 m shower settlers. In hastily and mass migration of peasants to the Kyrgyz (Kazakh) steppe is quite possible her virgin will plow earlier than farm have time to take a more intensive form. Kirghiz (Kazakh) steppe, deprived of the age-old virgin land would be barren and modern technology in peasant farming ceases to harvest. Here repeated crop failures familiar southeastern Russia. Spray excellent pastures Kirghiz (Kazakh — SI.) steppes and drawing them into the wilderness, a farmer would be left with nothing, and the Kirghiz (Kazakhs — SI.), who lost by the time of their pastures, eventually fail, if only proletarianizeв new life conditions, they do not move to the mining works in the city“[10].

S. Ibrayev
(NKSU named after M. Kozybayev)

Reference:

1. Bukeyhanov A. // “Kirgizyi”. Formyi natsionalnogo dvizheniya v sovremennyih gosudarstvah. Pod redaktsiey A. I. Kostelyanskogo. S.-Peterburg, 1910.:.577—600; // “Shyigarmalar”, Almatyi, 1994; Baytursyinov A. //Ak zhol“, Almatyi 1991.
2. Ostafev V. Kolonizatsiya stepnyih oblastey v svyazi s voprosom o kochevom hozyaystve. // spiski Zap. Sibirskogo OIRGO. Kn. 18, vyip. 2, Omsk, 1985, pp. 38–39.
3. Sedelnikov T. Borba za zemlyu v kirgizskoy stepi. SPb., Elektropechatnoe t-vo Delo, 1907, Alma-Ata, 1991, YuZ.
4. Bukeyhanov A. Kirgizyi. Formyi natsionalnogo dvizheniya v sovremennyih gosudarstvah. Peterburg-Petrograd. 1910, p.595.
5. Bukeyhanov A. “Kirgizyi”. // Formyi natsionalnogo dvizheniya v sovremennyih gosudarstvah. Pod red. Kostelyanskogo A. I. Peterburg-Petrograd, 1910, p 586.
6. Ibid, p. 586
7. Ibid, p.585
8. Bukeyhanov A. Shyigarmalar. Almatyi, Kazahstan, 1994, p.19.
9. Bukeyhanov A. Kirgizyi. // Formyi natsionalnogo dvizheniya... pod redaktsiey Kostelyanskogo A. I. Peterburg-Petrograd, 1910, p.585.
10.Bukeyhanov A. Kirgizyi. / Formyi natsionalnogo dvizheniya v sovremennyih gosudarstvah. Pod red. Kostelyanskogo A. I. Peterburg-Petrograd, 1910, p.585.

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