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Revolutionary commoners in Kazakhstan.

18 September 2014

In cultural development of Kazakhstan of the second half of the XIX century the noticeable contribution was made by the revolutionary commoners, leaving links in Kazakhstan. In the region there was a number of narodnichesky circles in which many questions including national, but their main direction consisted in educational activity were discussed.

One of the centers of scientific researches of Kazakhstan was Orenburg in which there was a department of the Russian geographical society and Turgaysky statistical committee. Among their members there was N. Dmitriev, B. Skalov, P. Dobrovolsky, some other exiled. Together with them Kazakhs T.Seydalin, B. Daulbayev, S. Dzhantyurin, B. Nauryzbayev, etc. worked.

Uralsk where various materials gathered and processed was the center of study of local lore, were published in the form of articles.

Important cultural and scientific center was Omsk where political exiled united in office of Geographical society and Akmolinsky statistical committee. Among their active participants were F.Shcherbina, G. N. Potanin, N.Petropavlovsky, A.I.Svedentsov, L.K.Chermak, D. Klements, V. Ostafyev, N. M. Yadrintsev, them adjoined A.Bukeykhanov, M. Chormanov, N. Dzhetpysbayev.

The center of studying of the Kazakh edge in Semipalatinsk was obliged by the emergence by political exiled E.P. Mikhaelisa, S.Grossu, A.Leontyev, etc.

Scientific institutions of Tashkent where populists P.I.Pashino, G.S.Zagryazhsky, D. Ivanov, G.Usov, I.Geyer, E.Smirnov, etc. were engaged in scientific activity were the center of studying of Youzhny Kazakhstana. In close connection with them there were local regional specialists. In "Materials for statistics of Turkestani edge", "The collection of materials for statistics of Syr-Darya area", "Turkestani sheets" the set of researches of the narodnichesky direction was issued. In Semirechye, True populists G.S.Zagryazhsky, R.I.Metelitsyn, V.A.Monastyrsky, A.Flerov, K.Werner, S. M. Dudin and a number of exiled of Poles were engaged in scientific activity.

Exiled revolutionaries investigated the past and the present of the Kazakh people from populism positions. So, they always included social and political affairs in ethnographic descriptions. Their researches and article, as a rule, had social sounding.

In the second half of the XIX century the set of historical and statistical, ethnographic, geological and geographical expeditions worked at the territory of Kazakhstan. As a rule, revolutionary commoners were their active participants. Representatives of local nationalities, most often Kazakhs took part in each expedition as conductors and translators. They one of the first entered contacts with revolutionary commoners. Translators not only perceived a lot of things, but also with readiness shared those data which had, were carriers of knowledge, material and spiritual culture of the people, knew steppe legends, the major decisions биев, the provision of a common law, rituals and ceremonies, system of maintaining cattle breeding economy, a kochevaniye way etc. Subsequently many of these questions found reflection in scientific works of populists.

Such relationship of representatives of two people, the first numerous contacts between them, promoted rapprochement of Kazakhs and Russians. The creative commonwealth of the Kazakh and Russian representatives put democratic basis in development of the Kazakh public thought. Representatives of the Russian democratic and revolutionary thought in a counterbalance to imperial colonialists promoted development of the friendly relations between Russian and Kazakh the people.

Together with I.Altynsarin in Boundary board of the Orenburg Kazakhs, political exiled A.N. Pleshcheev, with M Muravsky, the Polish exiled M.I.Wiener, A.Pashkovsky, M. Lukashevich who couldn't but have impacts on formation of outlook of the Kazakh educator worked. In 70 — the 80th through the Orenburg department of Geographical society and the Orenburgsky Listok newspaper of I.Altynsarin it was connected with E. Page Starshinsky, G. S. Karelin, A.A.Tillo. All of them were exposed to tsarism prosecutions. Exiled P. N. Raspopov who was in the confidential relations with I.Altynsarin was the companion of revolutionary democrat D.I.Pisarev on university.

Striking example of personal and ideological contact of the Russian commoners and the Kazakh educators are relationship of Abay of Kunanbayev with E.P. Mikhaelis, N.I.Dolgopolov, S.S.Grossom, A.Vlekom. The Narodnichesky outlook, and first of all the thesis about a debt of the intellectuals to the people, is accurately traced in I.Altynsarin's spiritual heritage. Great interest in the past and the present of the people, its future pulled together I.Altynsarin and A.Kunanbayev with revolutionary populists.

In fight for a society reorganization revolutionary populists paid much attention to the illegal and legal press. In the territory of Kazakhstan in some cases they were organizers of periodic and proceeding editions, took part in all local editions. "Turkestani sheets", "The Orenburg leaf" on the pages published a set of materials on the Kazakh subject. On the Kazakh subject materials were published in the Vostochnoye Obozreniye newspaper which edited N. M. Yadrintsev and I.I.Popov. In it problems of life and a life of the Kazakh people, country resettlements, health care in the region rose. Narodnichesky materials got and on Siberia newspaper pages. The basis and the first years of the edition of the Omsk newspaper "Stepnoy Kray" are entirely obliged to activity of narodovolets. Narodnichesky materials on the Kazakhstan subject were published and in "The Astrakhan messenger". A significant amount of materials about the Kazakh people and the Russian peasants immigrants was published by Orenburgsky Listok and Turkestanskiye vedomosti, Turgayskaya gazeta newspapers. Many correspondents of these editions were under public and secret supervision of police.

Participation of revolutionary populists in development of pedagogical thought and school education in Kazakhstan was multidimensional. In theoretical documents of the narodnichesky organizations questions of national education were noted especially. Populists saw in the teacher of the propagandist and the propagandist, the tutor of younger generation, considered necessary fight against a formalism, cramming, awakening of interest to the doctrine, performance of a civic duty before pupils and the people.

Populists in Kazakhstan studied a condition of education among the Kazakh and Cossack population, and also among peasants immigrants. Exiled B.I.Stseborsky, N. M. Yadrintsev, G.B.Baytov, V.A.Ostafyev, M. Kulizhnov, S.L.Chudnovsky, L.Chermak, S. P. Shvetsov were engaged in studying of school business in edge. The condition of education in the region was analysed on areas and the cities: the condition of schools, number of pupils, structure and position of teachers, financial position of pupils, teaching level are shown. Thus the special attention was paid to statement of primary education. Populists legally considered that the imperial administration in Kazakhstan "indifferently treats national education", supported broad education of the Kazakh people. In figures and the facts they showed low level of Muslim education, considering that such school "can't give serious knowledge to the pets". Liberal populists in a counterbalance to it tried to legalize Muslim education. Ideas of liberal populists were closed with official installations of the authorities. In the region liberal populists considered as the best type of schools the Russian-Kazakh agricultural schools. But in the Kazakh boarding schools and agricultural schools level of the organization of educational process wasn't put on due height. In too time in an education system they opposed bureaucracy, arbitrariness of district chiefs, fought against beggarly position of schools and severe conditions of work of teachers.

Revolutionary populists were not only theorists in the field of school education, but also the practicians, seeking to realize the ideas, in particular, among the Kazakh people. Such is there was B.I.Stseborskogo, L.P. Stepanova, K.Shcherbakova, E.Bekaryukova, N. Belyaev, A.Shaytanova, D. Gusev, D. Denish, A.Prozorovskogo, K.Dudoladova's activity, And. M Skorkovsky, E.Nechvoladova, A.Kalycheva. In different places of Kazakhstan with the assistance of revolutionary populists care societies about primary education" were open ". They conducted the activity in Semipalatinsk, Kustanai, Aktyubinsk, Petropavlovsk, Tashkent, Auliye-At, True.

Under their influence the first group of the Kazakh youth went to study in higher education institutions. The unification of the Russian and Kazakh youth, was promoted by the Kazan university, special educational institutions of Omsk.

Physicians populists worked in the various districts of Kazakhstan and were closely connected with inhabitants of the Internal horde, districts of Akmolinsky area, Semipalatinsk, Turgaysky, Ust Kamenogorsk districts, Syr-Darya and Semirechensky areas. They were authors of numerous descriptions and reports of a medical and sanitary condition of the Kazakh steppes. Such materials were published in local departmental editions. With medical care in auls and the cities of Kazakhstan populists took out a difficult situation on public court. In their materials the distress of the Kazakh and Russian population, lack of necessary medical care, distribution of various diseases (D.L.Dedlov, L.A.Kuznetsov, V. Ostafyev, etc.) was opened.

In the period of epidemic of cholera, typhus, a scurvy, doctors populists showed dedication. They organized medical aid stations, cared of drugs, under trying conditions carried out receptions of patients, worked in hospitals, anticholera and antityphus barracks. For life of people doctors populists L.K.Kuznetsov, D. D. Bekaryukov, S. N. Florovsky, K.A.Belilovsky, A.Budkov, L fought. 3 . Anchor buoy, A.A.Polubinsky, etc. Hunger and epidemic of cholera of 1892 were especially heavy. In these conditions for populists in Kazakhstan in force there were theoretical provisions of ideologists of the 70th of the XIX century about a debt of the intellectuals to the people.

In the conditions of 70 — the 90th doctors populists put strong bases of the Russian-Kazakh cooperation in the field of medicine. Populists and Kazakh paramedics during hunger and epidemic in various places of Kazakhstan worked together.

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