On 11-13 September 2015 in Astana the festive events on the celebration of the 550th anniversary of the Kazakh khanate were carried out. The period of the appearance of the Kazakh khanate was crucial for the whole world since 1465. In the second half of 15 century the key geographical discoveries of Christopher Columbus, Vasco da Gama who formed the united world space – eastern and western hemispheres. As the alternative for the Great Silk Road the sea way from Europe to India was opened. The trade route from Asia to Europe which was developing since III c. BC and till early XV c. AD declined.
In this period the view of the modern Europe was forming. In 1453 the 100-year-old war between France and England ended, the dynasty of Habsburgs in Austria, Germany started to rule. The period of the disunity of France is finishing during the times of Louis XI.
The dissolution of the Golden Horde into 5 khanates: Big Horde, Crimean, Kazan, Astrakhan, Siberian took place. The orthodox Byzantium fell and the Osman empire appeared. The relations between the Islamic and Christian word are sharpening – reconquest in Spain. At the same time 15 century is the blossom of Islam in Central Asia – the construction of the library of Ulugbek and the rise of the mausoleum of Ahmad Yasawi.
The great inventions appear. In about 1450 Guttenberg created the first printing machine which served the start of the media. That is, it was the period of the tectonic changes in the life of the whole world. Today, we can put analogy to that period. New trade relations and unions between East and West. Herewith, the actuality of the Great Silken Road at the new turn of technological and transport-logistic development of the world civilization is raised. Restructuring of Eurasia when one empire fell by giving life to new independent state formations.
Thus, the celebration of the 550th anniversary of the Kazakh khanate is the important step on the resuscitation of own historical experience. During all the previous years, including the Soviet, we lived under the conditions of everyday history which was confined by the formational approach and ideological borders. All the wealth of ancient, medieval and new history reduced to the material relations, questions of the exploitation and type of economy management. Thereat, the focus on the history predominantly the sedentary cultures formed. It was difficult for them to conceive as the wealthy every-day, cultural, historical experience could be transferred through the oral instruments of communications.
The celebration of the 550th anniversary of the Kazakh khanate is foremost the revelation of history as “thing in itself” according to I.Kant, Hegel and J.Locke. The history of the ethnos does not depend on the subjective perception, its negation or confirmation. It exists irrespective of our wish and continues, prolonged in the time, penetrate that period in which we conceive the history as the “thing in itself”, that is today in the modernity.
Today the world is flexible and changes as it was in the second half of 15 century. In particular, it was revealed in the appearance of the phenomenon of female history. The whole history of the ancient world and medieval centuries showed the secondariness of the woman’s role. The example of the great trsarina Tomiris is rather the exception that rule. 15 century is also called the female Middle Ages, when the transition from the representation of women from the position of the witches persecution in the period of inquisition to glorification. In the early time such historical personalities as Jeanne d’Arc who became the head of England resistance revealed themselves. Isabel Castilla who became the head of Spain. In fact, she contributed to the sea travel of Christopher Columbus and discovery of America. There are also famous names in the Kazakh history, for instance, khansha Ayganym, Domalak ana, Bopayhanum, akyn Sata.
In order to survive in today’s world it is very significant to appeal to history again. It nourishes us both with new meanings, and ethnical energy by sustaining for the new deeds in the new time.
The main lesson of the period of the Kazakh khanate was the formation of the specific ethnic feature of the Kazakhs – to unite before the external threat. The nomadic tribes always differed with the independence, to be more precise the outlaws. The steppe envisages the freedom. There is no limitation of the life space as the sedentary people were limited. With the nomadic way of life all the traditions, mode of life, technologies, for instance, preservation and dry-curing of meat, production of kumys, other milk drinks. However, the external threat makes the nomadic tribes unite.
For the wealthy sedentary Asian regions the endless steppes were not attractive because of the rigidity of the climate conditions. But the Kazakhs did not only survive, but also got established on the land. Nowadays, we can be thankful to our ancestors who struggled for each piece of land – these endless steppes, deserts, by knowing that they conceal huge wealth of those resources which today give us the development.
For instance, we can ask – why the Aday people fought for their land, although all across the territory of their settlement in the south-west of Kazakhstan besides sands and barkhans, pricks and shallow waters it was hard to find anything. Because the special attitude to the land of Nomads exists. Nomads do not become native with only one part of land, but comprise all the spaces, in fact travelling, moving from one place to another. Certainly, at that time it was connected with the necessity of the sustenance of the main wealth and capital – cattle.
However, they left the enormous heritage – the ninth territory in the world, taking into account the fact that most territories of the Kazakhs during the period of Stolypin and Lenin reforms were rejected to the adjacent republics. The Kazakhs due to their nomadic character, free spirit do not hold and do not accumulate offences. Initially, the word “Kazak” had neither political, not ethnical meaning, but defined any free spirit who split off from his tribe, did not recognize the power of the legal head and who conducted the life of adventures seeker. Any person being by blood a Turk or Persian, by origin an ordinary cattle breeder or prince in the tenth generation could be a Kazak.
The data of the thematic research in 2013 showed that almost 65% of the surveyed including non-titular nations consider that the Kazakhs by nature are tolerant and have a peaceful character. Only 27 % of respondents suppose that the tolerance is the acquired Kazakh feature after the historical experience.
This natural tolerance allowed Kazakhs to host the removed people. And these people today are grateful to the Kazakhs for their historical mission.
Within this framework, nearly 83% of respondents supported the suggestion of the President delivered at the session of the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan in April 2015 about the establishment of the Day of gratitude of nations. Approximately 90, 2% of respondents see in that holiday the recognition, the sign of fairness that the Kazakhs being in need by themselves during the times of hunger, repressions hosted other nations. 88% of respondents agree with the statement of the President that though the Kazakhs endured much they did not complain of destiny.
The same number of the respondents consider that such cultural and historical acquirements , experience, values help to promote the brand of the country at the international arena, win victories, gain right to conduct huge events as the chairmanship in the OSCE, OIC, international exhibition EXPO-2017.
Meanwhile, especially the creation and consolidation of the statehood became the historical basis for the fact that the Kazakhs stood out in this eternal struggle for survival. It is wonderfully illustrated by the period of the rule of Tauke khan. He created the single set of laws – Zhetyzhargy, which regulated the life of the Kazakhs. During that period the role of biys was strengthened, the society was more exactly structurized. The period of rule of Tauke khan is considered the golden century of the Kazakh statehood. Later was a difficult period being characterized as the 100 year war between Jungars and Kazakhs. The Period of national heroes and batyrs. To this period people relate the saying of Akhmet Zhubanov “Men kazakpyn, myn olip, myn tirilgen”. According to the data 87, 5% of respondents agree with that point of view that Kazakhs endured much in the history and stood at the brink of death but were able to be born again.
All that are the lessons of history for us, that the nation must be united. Foremost, it concerns the Kazakhs as the related to national development ethnos.
Thus, notwithstanding the unfavorable times in economy, Kazakhstan people in majority consider that we should spare no expense or efforts to shoot historical films. It is not as it is fashionable to say brand-making, by that we pay homage to our ancestors. On their shoulders, and more often in the lives the Kazakhstan statehood formed.
In comparison with the non-crisis 2013 year, the number of the historical films supporters did not diminish, but even increased.
This fact one more time confirms that the Kazakh people unite even further before external threats and challenges, revealing the main feature of the formed state – the Republic of Kazakhstan.
During the celebration of the 550th anniversary of the Kazakh khanate more than 40% of respondents see the strengthening of the President’s patriotic idea “Mangilik El” and to a lesser extent the material side.
It would seem that nothing can be eternal. Even eternal Rome was changed by second and third Rome. While the advantage of China – the Celestial Empire is a thousand-year history. However, if to look at the history of Great steppe it practically has no borders and according to the archeological and other folklore, ethnographic research dates back to the epoch of the Arius and earlier history of Andronov period. Owing to various sources the ancient ancestors of the Turks appeared not later than the Neopolitical period (8-9 c.BC) and inhabited the wide steppe and forrest-steppe zone of Eurasia from the Minusinsk cavity in the east to the Carpathians in the west. The most active period of the ethno-genesis of the Turks is considered the end of IV millennium BC, when during 500-600 years they spread to the huge territory from the Transbaikal to the Danube, from the Urals to the borders of the modern Turkey. Such perception of our past is directed to the solution of such problem as the deficit of the historical time. Our history does not isolated within 24 years of independence. Kazakhstan today has got the principal advantage, which our fathers did not have. We are not isolated in the space. We use all the advantages gifted us by nature and history, including that same historical Silk Road. We have access to the seas, which the founders of the Kazakh khanate – Zhanibek and Kerey did not have.
As a whole, the celebration of the 550th anniversary of the Kazakh khanate denotes the new stage of the domestic political development of our country – the development of patriotism with the long-term vision.