If a nation does not know its history, if the country loses its history, then its citizens have nowhere to go.
Mirzhakyp Dulatuly

Kazakh oratory

951
Kazakh oratory - e-history.kz
Oratory reached its peak in ancient Egypt, Assyria, Greece, Rome, and India.
Orator (lat.) — a person who has a gift of eloquence. Orator’s speech is peculiar with the high mastery of word possession, ability to speak figuratively, convincingly, concisely. Ancient Greeks took the oratory lessons from recognized teachers, tried to grasp all its rules and mysteries. In Ancient Greece the outstanding masters of the oratory were considered Aristotle, Demosthenes, Cicero, Plato. 


Orators of the Kazakh people were brave and fair, knew the laws well, were not timid before khans and sultans. Aitys — the competition in the oratory. Poetic oratory gains the specific significance, when meaningful events occur in the life of country, when the danger threatens the native land, human honor and dignity are touched. Thus, in the years of the great people’s distress (“Aktaban shubyryndy”) Tole-bi, Kazybek-bi and Aiteke-bi took the historical stage. Biys had the excellent knowledge of history, customs and traditions of their people, their outstanding activists, and heroes. One can include sayings-proverbs, wise utterances, widely spread among people. 


Speeches of Kazakh orators are notable for the concise, emotional, figurative nature, semantic significance. The sample of eloquence can serve the heritage left by Kazakh biys — Tole, Kazybek, Aiteke, Maiky, orators Zhirenshe, Asan kaigy, Syrym. The speeches of judges, passing resolutions on the land litigations, issues on the orphans and widows’ fates, compensation of the damage caused to people, were also parts of oratory. Orators could demonstrate the mastery in the disputes on the question discussed. Certainly, not everyone could join the argument in legal case. Yet, talented speakers among ordinary people influenced the development of the literary language, art of eloquence. 


Syrym Datuly’s oratory. 

Since younger years Syrym was a recognized orator. For justice and dignity in disputes, litigations he was called bala bi. S. Datuly led the national-liberation movement directed against colonial policy of the Russian empire and the tyranny of the khan’s nobility. Syrym’s younger sister described her brother in the following way: “Everybody was talking about Syrym’s three peculiar qualities: first — Herculean physics, second — daring nature, third — wisdom. I would compare him with an eagle or tiger. 


Polish journalist A. Yanushkevich wrote as follows: “I believe more in the amazing flexibility, pungency of mind and thought of Kazakhs. What easy words they have! Each of them can be used both for explanation, and confrontation to the counterpart’s arguments, even children’s consciousness and mind develop quickly”. Syrym Datuly’s physics, facial features are perfect, he is as cast out of steel”. Syrym is an outstanding orator. He used his gift for the explosion of the politics of tsarism and khans for the unification of people in the liberation struggle. Syrym was distinguished with dignity, honesty, respect and love for his people. 


When Kazakhs were taken away the fertile lands with basins, arable lands, pasture lands, land of fathers and great-grandfathers, batyr Syrym delivered the speech to defend his people. His eloquent speech was filled with pain, compassion, indignation; he called to fight, defend his land, criticized Esim khan, who did not support the national-liberation movement. Inventive, imaginative, bold sayings of Syrym stayed in people’s memory. Witty, fair, inspirational speeches of batyrs, biys, orators are unconditionally the lessons of verbal skills, samples of eloquence. They urge people to unity, accord, friendship, justice and humanity.

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