«We need to look into the past in order to understand the present and foresee the future»
N.A.Nazarbayev
This day in history
29
September

Formation of the Interior Troops of Republic of Kazakhstan. Interview with General Bulat Dzhanasaev

432
Formation of the Interior Troops of Republic of Kazakhstan. Interview with General Bulat Dzhanasaev  - e-history.kz
Lieutenant General Bulat Dzhanasayev in an interview for our portal spoke about the difficult formative years of the Internal Troops of Kazakhstan, which he put a lot of effort.

B. Dzhanasayev had a distinguished career, which can be jealous, but you can admire and take an example. He was the commander of the Republican Guard commander Semipalatinsk district, Deputy Minister of Emergency Situations Ministry, Deputy Minister of Defense, deputy of the Supreme Council, chairman of the Committee on Defense and Security. But before they were «hot spots».

Interethnic conflicts

«By the will of fate in the Soviet time, I got into the Internal Troops. After the Military Academy named after Frunze served as Chief of Staff of a motorized infantry regiment in White Church of the Kiev Military District. We were the only regiment in the USSR, which was deployed to the state of war.

In 1988, the whole regiment on 15 airplanes we flew to Yerevan to impose a curfew (Ed. At this time in Armenia the growing wave of hostility between Armenians and Azerbaijanis and opposition sentiment). But the trouble does not come alone. December 7, 1988 in Armenia, the largest earthquake happened, we left their initial objectives and went to clean up the rubble, rescue people.

In June 1989, there were «Fergana events»: the population of Uzbekistan started to displace Meskhetian Turks burned entire villages. Pulled back and part of the army units and internal troops, cadets and military schools. At the same time it was decided to form a special part of the operational use in all the «hot spots» of a large country. I was in the 100th Division operative purpose Novocherkassk Rostov region and headed the 47th Operations Regiment (Lugansk Kiev Military District), which I had formed of the officers, soldiers, sergeants, warrant officers of all arms of the USSR Armed Forces.

While in the internal troops of the USSR was one division — named after FE Dzerzhinsky, which was stationed near Moscow. The second became 100th Division, specifically formed for action in the Caucasus. Later she performed his military duty in the territory of Nagorno-Karabakh.

Colonel-General of the USSR Supreme v. Shatalin suggested me to go to Fergana in the newly formed brigade operational use and occupy the position of deputy commander. I agreed, because it was closer to Kazakhstan. In October 1989, I departed to a new duty station. I headed Fergana Brigade battalions, which provide protection of public order….

Then famous Baku events happened. Occasion of «Black January» in 1990 when Azerbaijan fell into Armenian pogroms and general strike. Our team raised the alarm, all battalions nearly two thousand people started sending in Baku. There we lost five soldiers of the Internal Troops, which literally just been called. In February, I was summoned to Baku to lead this team. Soon after the events in Parkent near Tashkent.

Command of training regiment

In March 1990, the leadership of the Interior Troops of the USSR asked me to head the Interior Troops training Regiment near Alma-Ata. At the military council in Moscow approved my candidacy and April 1 I arrived to command the training regiment.

In 1991, the band of the regiment pushed me to the Supreme Council. In September this year, I was elected to the Supreme Soviet of the 12th convocation. Then I was appointed commander of the brigade task in Alma-Ata, it provides protection of public order.

Formation of the Republican Guard of the Republic of Kazakhstan

In 1991, after signing an agreement in the Bialowieza Forest of disintegration of the USSR the President N.Nazarbayev decided to create the Republican Guard. On behalf of the President, we, together with the first Minister of Defense of Kazakhstan Army General Sagadat Nurmagambetov went to work on education Guard.

March 16, 1992 issued a decree on the establishment of the Republican Guard of Kazakhstan, which was formed on the basis of my brigade. We began to recruit officers as natives of Kazakhstan, and from all the former Soviet republics. We have distributed them in different divisions: operational battalions, government protection and special battalion. In May 1992, I scored 500 recruits who came from all over Kazakhstan. When set for a service in the Guard, we take into account growth: soldiers and officers had to be not less than 178 cm, health and good physical condition.

May 7, 1992 Decree of the President formed the Armed Forces of Kazakhstan. By this time I got ahead of colonel. Kazakhstan’s leadership has decided to elect 365 people to the Supreme Council, the establishment of the Defense and Security Committee of the Supreme Council and the election of the chairman of the Committee me. In July this year, I handed over the command team to another person and went to work on a permanent basis in the Supreme Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

What difficulties did you encounter in creating Guard?

— First, provision and budget was tight. Guard is elite troops and the soldier had to dress nicely. It was necessary to overtake new military equipment from Armavir. Buildings required of repair. We all worked on enthusiasm: once we were assigned to, trusted, we should have done.

Soon I started my work in the legislature. Along with several reserve officers who have served on the Committee of National Security, Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Internal Troops we began to prepare block military law «On Defense», «On the Status of Servicemen», «On the Internal Troops," «On the Border Troops," „On CBN“, „On pensions“, etc. In the short time we did a great job: developed and adopted a number of laws of war, without which the army and other security agencies to work impossible. While working on military law was a lot of debate, because they were taken in Kazakhstan for the first time. It was hard: 365 deputies expressed their opinions and each had to be taken into account.

Formation of Interior Troops of Kazakhstan

1992 were tough times. Our Armed Forces were formed very late compare to other former Soviet republics. There was confusion. Officers and soldiers, called up from the other states, left home. People, vehicles and properties were taken away from the country. Only in the internal troops at this time more than 1,000 people deserted their units and were wanted. We need to understand where they are and what they do.

In December 1993, I was one of those who appealed to the people of Kazakhstan to the fact that our Parliament 12th convocation and a very large single-mandate outlived itself, that we need a new professional parliament. December 7, 1993 the appeal was published in the „Kazakhstan Pravda“. Parliament was dissolved.

March 7, 1994, I was elected for the second time in the Parliament of Kazakhstan. When the first time I was part of the Parliament, we have done a lot: a special committee for the soldiers drove by parts, talking with officers, to raise their morale. After a few months they have not been paid.
The Internal Troops had a lot of problems

September 22, 1994 N. Nazarbayev called me and appointed as Commander of the Internal Troops. The President has set to me big problems. It was necessary to form a team of the Internal Troops. When I reported to my deputy general situation three days I held his heart, because he did not know where to start. There were many problems, foremost were food and clothing. In the early years, we have served the soldiers sent home in civilian clothes, and washed their uniforms and dressed newcomers.

We worked day and night, through trials and errors. Officers were not enough, so we had to assign warrant officer ranks, organizing a course. I must say, these officers who came out of warrant helped us. Also there was a lack of commanders. We had to appoint political officer as commanders.

Barracks were in disrepair, many had no heating it was the winter of 1994. 56 colonies across Kazakhstan guarded the internal troops. There were separate military camps and companies. There was not enough fuel, to take out soldiers to patrol. In the cities at this time robberies began, people were afraid to go out at night, do you remember that hats were stealing. Minister of the Interior was appointed Lieutenant-General B. Baekenov and we with him at night went to Almaty and checked how the soldiers had been served.

The task of Interior Troops is to protect the colonies, convoy of prisoners and remand prisoners. All special motorized units of police I had to rebuild to the part in operational use. There was a need to ensure public order, but to act when emergency situations were declared.

Servicemen of the afternoon wore reshape parts form a combined-arms and in the evening — police, walked along the streets, the citizens saw their police guards. We have opened a new part of operational use in Atyrau, Aktobe, Kokshetau, Semipalatinsk and Aktau.
I come to grips with issues of training and discipline. For me, it has become the cornerstone. Internal forces gradually started to get back on track. Much attention I paid training officers, sergeants and soldiers. Every year we hold competitions for the right to wear maroon beret. These competitions were very heavy. From 40–50 only 3–4 men military handed over on the maroon beret.

In military exercises, which were carried out on an ongoing basis, I myself first went to the ground and performed standards. Those who showed up my result, is being awarded. I tried to have an incentive to soldiers. I personally visited all parts of the country. I still remember where every part of the dog kennels, bath, dining room, bed, etc. Every fall I flew freestanding company and tested ready for winter. I had such a principle — better once to see for him.

Certainly, in this difficult time, I had help of my colleagues and associates: General D.Salhani, General I. Komarov, General W.Sanabayev, General B, Tskhai, Colonel A. Abez, Colonel Zh. Mamin and General A. Togusov. Young people, who I can say grew, helped me so much, they are: current Commander R. Zhaksylykov, General A. Seraglio, General Ye Rustemhanov, General B. Abzhanov and others.

When soldiers feel better?

Perhaps we ourselves have created difficulties, but I believe that there were no light days. Today provision many times better, but still service in the internal troops (now National Guard) is heavy.

I initially did not tell you this story. The President made a decision to protect external borders Kazakhstan. When I was a commander, we have created two companies of the Border, two of the Armed Forces, one of the Internal Troops.
In 1995, the company of the Interior Troops passed the Pshihavr gorge in Tajikistan, heading to cover the border, where a large number of drug traffickers held. Mujahideen opened fire on our troops. 17 people died, 54 were injured. All night I took out the dead soldiers. With Tu-154 we took the chair and it transported the wounded in hospitals all Almaty. In each part there is a monument to fallen soldiers, Kazakhs, exercising international duty in Tajikistan.

Forge of officers

Internal troops were lacked of officers, so in 1997 it was decided to open a military academy. Within four hours, I endorsed the decision of the government schools in the opening four ministers: Economy, Justice, Education and Finance. There were two types of positions military school: Semey or Petropavlovsk. The proposed building in Semipalatinsk proved unsuitable, and we decided to open a school in Petropavlovsk.

April 17, 1997 I brought to Petropavlovsk a new chief of the College Major General A. Dyukeneva. For several months we have done this amount of work, which requires a half years. We did the barracks, rebuilt a new dining room in a thousand places, prepared infrastructure, and August 1 College opened the doors to the first 250 students.

In December 1997, the President handed over to our college military flag. Today it is a military institution of the MIA of RK (National Guard), due to of which the Internal Troops are fully staffed with officers.

„From the Interior Troops we did the army“

On an ongoing basis, we carried out military exercises, shooting. I even said by some that we have made of the Internal Troops Army, it was true. Special forces „Berkut“ was created. In its formation was made a large contribution of Major-General W. Sanabaev.

Every year we organize the collection and military councils in the territory of each brigade. Some of these charges I remembered. We began to interact with the Internal Troops of the Russian Federation. At the gathering in Uralsk large delegation of Internal Troops of Russia headed by Deputy Commander came. Seeing our base, they were very surprised that in such a short time, you can do such a great job.

This town (Ed. SPTU-5), in which we now are with you, we have created together with the Task Force. Spruce and pine I brought from Almaty — all in order to improve the working conditions of officers of the Main Department of Internal Troops of the Republic.

No matter how hard, but we kept a sports team. We were in the state Bekzat Sattarkhanov, Lyudmila Prokasheva, Serik Sapiev and Yermakhan Ibraimov. I also paid attention to the cultural program. Military band is still exists and hold galas. It also releases newspapers and magazines».

How joked during an interview with General B. Dzhanasaev, it takes 20 hours instead of an hour to tell you. Indeed he has something to share. Now it is difficult to imagine a situation where a task in front of you to form troops to maintain order within the country at a difficult time when the state is determined by the course of the formation and development. He stood bravely and honorably. And who knows who else so human coped with this task.


Ludmila VYKHODCHENKO


translated by D.TAUKEBAYEVA

June 26, 2014
Polls
What item of Kazakhs’ material culture do you have at your home?