If a nation does not know its history, if the country loses its history, then its citizens have nowhere to go.
Mirzhakyp Dulatuly

New approaches to the problem of periodization of Kazakhstan’s history

New approaches to the problem of periodization of Kazakhstan’s history - e-history.kz
Methodological seminar on «Actual Problems of Periodization of Kazakhstan’s History» was held in the Institute.

Kinayatuly Z., Doctor of Historical Sciences, Principal research scientist, member of the Department of Ancient and Middle Ages History of Kazakhstan, and Usenbay K.Z., Candidate of Historical Sciences, Head of the Department of Ancient and Middle Ages History of Kazakhstan. Dauletkhan A., Candidate of Historical Sciences, and Azhigali S.E., Professor, Doctor of Historical Sciences, also took part in the discussion on the seminar’s topic.

Doctor of Historical Sciences Kinayatuly Z. presented to the participants of the seminar his report related to some theoretical and methodological issues of history’s periodization. During his presentation reporter outlined foundations and features of history’s periodization (on the example of works and methodologies of Kant O., Jaspers K., Grinin G.E., Engels F., Vyatkin M.), European concept and Chinese concept «Jun Go» which means «central or median state» («Орталық немесе жер кіндігі мемлекеті»), as well as ethnocentrist theories.


Researcher expressed his opinion that after the series of transformations and system changes the basis of Kazakh statehood formed starting with ancient Turk states and Medieval Mongol Uluses. The scientist also introduced for attendants the features of periodization of Kazakhstan’s history during Independence year, presented the following variant of periodization: 1) ancient history of Kazakhstan; 2) period of Turk states (Saks, Usuns, Kangly until Oguz state); 3) age of Kimaks and Kypchaks; 4) Kazakhstan in the years of Mongol Uluses: Juchi’s Ulus, White Horde; 5) Period of Kazakh Khanate; 6) Kazakhstan as a part of the Russian Empire and the USSR; 7) Period of Independence.

Candidate of Historical Sciences Usenbay K.Z. during his report focused on the basics of periodization of history and presented to the participants of the seminar the following variant of periodization of Kazakhstan’s history:

1226–1277 — Ulus period. Horde (White Horde) Ulus as a part of Juchi’s Ulus.

1277–1300 — formation of independent state (ulus) of White Horde, Equal rights with other Mongol Uluses.

1300–1310 — Period of home policy crisis. Civil discord.

1310–1341 — protectorate of the Golden Horde.

1341–1366 — formal vassalage. Weakening of Horde’s power.

1366–1378 — period of independence. Termination of the process of ethno-political isolation.

1378–1428 — weakening and collapse of White Horde.


In general, in opinion of scientist, Kazakhstan’s history during XIII–XV centuries is not a one integral stage of historical development; it is divided into the series of relative components which are ethnic, political, social and economic.

Candidate of Historical Sciences Dauletkhan A. focused on the actual problems of periodization of Kazakhstan’s history and shared his opinion about the writing of 10 Volumes on the History of Kazakhstan. On behalf of the Institute the researcher proposed the common version of periodization of Kazakhstan’s history. As was marked by the scientist, we have to use the experience of the world historiography while writing these 10 Volumes.


Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor Azhigali S.E. in his speech outlined that the problem of history’s periodization is very significant nowadays. The scientist proposed to take into consideration ethno-cultural features in periodization. At the same time, in his opinion, despite some limitations of history’s periodization, worked out during the soviet time, soviet methodology has doubtless achievements in the investigation of this question. The reporter marked the importance of adoption of such term as «nomad (steppe) civilization». As a whole, the researcher considers that during the writing of 10 Volumes it is necessary to deal with the issue of periodization seriously.

translated by  I.KUZMENKO

June 6, 2014