«We need to look into the past in order to understand the present and foresee the future»
N.A.Nazarbayev

The end to the First World War

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The end to the First World War
Today the whole world celebrates the date of the finish of World War I into which all the world superpowers including Russia are involved. About the role of Kazakhs scientists will share their opinion

Today the whole world celebrates the date of the finish of World War I into which all the large world superpowers including Russia are involved. About the role of Kazakhs scientists will share their opinion

And today we will draw attention to the enlightenment of the First World War from the position of winners of the countries of the Triple Entente (the USA, England, France). The article “End of World War I” describes the participation of the USA at war. Although the US did not declare war against Germany till 1917, it was involved into the war since the very start by supporting the allies with supply of weapon, ammunition and food. 2 May 1915 by the German submarine boat was sunk the British passenger liner Lusitania. 1195 passengers including 128 Americans died. Americans were indignant and pressed the government in order to enter war. The President of the USA Woodrow Wilson delivered speech for peaceful end of war. He addressed to both sides to regulate the war by diplomatic means, but unsuccessfully.

In February 1917 the Germans declared about the company of endless underwater war. They planned to sink any sheep which neared to the shores of England notwithstanding whether it was a military ship, trade or passenger ship. 3 April 1917 Woodrow Wilson took the floor by declaring the America would enter war and restore peace in Europe. The United States declared war to Germany on 6 April 1917, American troops joined the French and English troops in the summer 1918.

Fresh and not exhausted by war American soldiers were not appreciated in the struggle with Germans. The victory of allies in November 1918 was not exceptionally the consequence of American intervention. Quick development of military technologies brought to the fact that by 1918 tanks and planes became usual phenomenon. German commander Ludendorff  was a brilliant commander and won the decisive battles with Russia in 1917 that led to the exit of Russia from war.

In 1918 he declared that Germany had to win war then the allies had to be beaten at the Western front. Notwithstanding the fact that initially his attack was of successful character the allies restored the positions and eventually they pushed out Germans back. In 1918 in Berlin and other cities of Germany there were strikes and demonstrations of population, not contented with consequences of war. British sea brigade of ports of Germany led to hunger of hundred thousand of people. Socialists were waiting for the chance to capture Germany as it happened in Russia.

In October 1918 Ludendorff retired and German fleet rebelled. The end was close. 9 November 1918 Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated from the throne. 11 November the leaders of both sides conducted meeting in the headquarters of railway carriage of Ferdinand Fosh in Kompiegne. The cease-fire was signed at 6 am and came to force in 5 hours.

People celebrate the finish of war on bus. 1918, London

British service BBC in the article "End of the war and remembrance” dedicated for schoolchildren used pedagogical technique pointing that the First World War finished at 11 am on the eleventh day of the eleventh month, in 1918 Germany signed the cease-fire prepared by Great Britain and France. In early 1918 Germany was in a more profitable position and it was expected that it would be able to win war. Russia already left the field of battle before that, what made Germany even stronger.

“As London greeted the end of war”: The Daily Mirror on 12 November 1918 Germany launched the “Michael” in March 1918 in which they pushed Britain far back to the north along the river of Somma. However, when England and France contracted that the German plan of fast victory met with failure.

Germany and its allies understood that there is no more possibility to win war. The Triple Alliance was collapsed. Several causes of that concluded in the fact that the Plan of Shliffen was not success in 1914 and Verdun operation did not realize in 1916.

Germany lost great struggle in France and German fleet set strike and refused to continue war. Besides, in April 1917 the United States entered the war that gave to the Triple Entente the additional power.

Germany was not enough strong to continue struggle especially with the entrance of the USA into war when hundred thousand of fresh American soldiers arrived in France. It added the great military power to the forces of Triple Entente. The management of German army addressed the German government to cease the military acts.

Caesar Wilhelm, head of Germany abdicated from the throne 9 November 1918. Two days later, Germany signed the cease-fire document and guns stopped. Residents of Great Britain, France and other countries which supported them, celebrated the end of war – war, which lasted for 4 years and 4 months. In London the huge crowd gathered at the Trafalgar square.

French troops go to the front

France describes the end of war in the following way.

World War I. 1918

During several months, in the period from March to July 1918, Great battle in France helped the forces of allies.

30 March: bombing of Paris by Germans.

14 April: General Fosh was appointed the Commander-in-Chief of allied troops.

18 July: Second fight at Marne. French, English, Italian and American troops started the great attack not allowing the intervention of German soldiers to Flanders.

About 300 000 people (from two sides) died.

In August and September: many French cities were liberated from German occupation.

26 September: The attack of Fosh in Lotharingia.

9 November: German emperor Wilhelm (William) II abdicated.   

11 November: Signing of the Agreement on the cease-fire in Compiegne at the Land of cease-fire which marked the end of the First World War.

 

By Arman SULEIMENOV

Translated by Malika MURSALIM

The article is prepared on the materials of foreign information agencies