The prologue of the final collapse of the USSR was "parade of sovereignties". Such a name in journalism in those years was a process of sovereignty of the Union republics. Moscow could not solve any of the accumulated national problems, and it provoked a movement of national republics of the formation of independent states. In a few months, all the Soviet republics adopted a declaration of sovereignty, the rule of law over the national union. The most important result of parade of sovereignties was the movement of political power from the center to the republic.
Due to the need to adopt the "Declaration of Sovereignty", the situation in the society in October 1990 was not easy. Special resonance caused in the national and the Union press an alternative draft "Declaration of Sovereignty", proposed by the members of the group "Democratic Kazakhstan".
Discussion of the Declaration draft was stormy. As a result, the "Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Kazakh SSR" was adopted on 25 October 1990 and in November 1990 on its basis - the Law "On the improvement of state power and governance structures in the Kazakh SSR".
President became the head of the executive power; the Council of Ministers was transformed to the Cabinet of Ministers. Government formation was the prerogative of the President. Vice-president of the country was established. There was a union of apparatus of the Head of State and the Council of Ministers into a single Office of the President and the Cabinet of Ministers of the Kazakh SSR. An advisory body - the Council of the Republic was formed under the President of the country.
Declaration of State Sovereignty, proclaimed the principle of supremacy of the Constitution of the Kazakh SSR and the laws on the territory of Kazakhstan, the right to suspend the action of the USSR acts on its territory that violate the sovereign rights of the republic. With this Declaration started the actual implementation of the republic its national sovereignty.
The Declaration of October 25, 1990 the indivisibility and inviolability of the territory of Kazakhstan was fixed, the country was defined as a subject of international law. Announcement of the exclusive property of the Republic of all natural resources, economic and scientific-technical potential allowed Kazakhstan to pursue an independent economic policy. The first, declaration renounced the class approach to the definition of the social basis of the state and declared national character of statehood. The Declaration was the basic underlying legislative act that started the stage of further development of the state and legal system of the country by way of registration of full independence.
The historical significance of the "Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic" is that it gave real content of state sovereignty of the Republic, recalled Kazakhstan own statehood, which had a long history, emphasized the principle of territorial integrity and declared the system of separation of powers, an essential principle of the Republic functioning as a democratic and legal state.
In honor of this by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated October 18, 1995 "About holidays in the Republic of Kazakhstan", October 25 was declared a national holiday of the Republic of Kazakhstan - the Day of Republic. However, on April 22, 2009 the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Holidays in the Republic of Kazakhstan" was amended. The law abolished the celebration of the Republic Day and increased the celebration of the holiday "Nauryz". However, not even being a public holiday, it is necessary to remember this historic event, which played a role in the formation of statehood of Kazakhstan.
Here are some excerpts of this historic document
Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
The Supreme Council of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, expressing the will of the people of Kazakhstan, aiming at the creation of decent and equal living conditions for all citizens of the Republic, consider the primary task of the consolidation and strengthening of friendship between the peoples living in the country, Recognizing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the right of nations to self-determination, aware of the responsibility for the fate of the Kazakh nation, based on the determination of the creation of humane democratic legal state, proclaimed the sovereignty of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic and adopts the present Declaration.
1. The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic is a sovereign state which voluntarily merged with other republics of the Union of Sovereign Republics and build relationships with them on a contractual basis. Kazakh SSR reserves the right to withdraw from the Union.
2. Kazakh SSR adopts the conservation, protection and strengthening of national statehood. The revival and development of indigenous culture, traditions, language, and national dignity of the Kazakh nation and other nationalities living in Kazakhstan is one of the most important tasks of the state of the Kazakh SSR.
3. The territory of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic within the existing boundaries is inviolable and indivisible and can not be used without consent. Any violence against the constitutional order of the Kazakh SSR, public incitement to violation of the integrity of its territory, as well as inciting ethnic hatred on the part of political parties, public organizations, mass organizations, and other groups or individuals prosecuted.
4. Citizens of all nationalities constitute the people of Kazakhstan, and it is the sole bearer of sovereignty and source of state power in the Kazakh SSR, exercises state authority, both directly and through representative bodies on the basis of the Constitution of the Kazakh SSR. The right to speak on behalf of all the people of the Republic belongs to the Supreme Council of the Kazakh SSR.
5. Kazakh SSR has its own citizenship and guarantees each citizen the right to the preservation of the USSR citizenship. Citizens residing in the territory of the Republic are guaranteed all the rights and freedoms provided by the Constitution of the USSR and the Constitution of the Kazakh SSR, irrespective of their nationality and political affiliation, origin, social or property status, sex, religion, occupation, place of residence. Encroachment on the civil and national equality is punishable by law. Kazakh SSR guarantees the social, political and religious organizations, mass movements operating in the Kazakh SSR, different legal opportunities to participate in public and social life. Kazakh SSR regulates the migration processes in the Republic, between the Republic and other republics.
6. State power of the Kazakh SSR has supremacy, independence, completeness within the Republic, as well as in external relations in the framework defined by the Union treaty. Kazakh SSR independently solves all issues related to the political, economic, social and national-cultural development in the Republic, its administrative-territorial unit, determines the structure and competence of the state authority and administration, as well as symbols of the republic. <...>
By Arman SULEIMENOV
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