If a nation does not know its history, if the country loses its history, then its citizens have nowhere to go.
Mirzhakyp Dulatuly

External regional threats to Kazakhstan's security

Some problems in Central Asia have global or even institutional character, hence combined efforts of the international community are necessary.

Among the external challenges menacing to national security of the RK and the CA region as a whole, it is necessary to note the following:

1. Certainly, the first of all, it is such scale problem as a modern situation in Afghanistan especially in a context of coalition forces withdrawal in 2014.
2. The second, are non-proliferation and intense global tensions around of the nuclear program of Iran.
3. The third challenge is the next wave of financial and economic crisis which can seriously shake a financial systems of the CA countries and it may has essential affection on social and economic development and reflection on the regional security system.
4. The last is a problem of counteraction to information threats and maintenance information and cyber-security.

Kazakhstan is interested in steady and stable development of Afghanistan from which territory threats of the international terrorism, illicit drug trafficking, religious extremism proceed. Kazakhstan issues that world community and the UN are called up active and effective role in the process of political settlement and reconstruction of Afghanistan in close cooperation with the government of the IRA.

The Kazakhstan government supports efforts of Afghan Government directed on consolidation of the Afghan society and transformation of the country in the civilized democratic state.

Kazakhstan advocates an active Afghanistan’s involving in integration processes in region, the strengthening of mutual economic and humanitarian cooperation, including the ways through stirring up of the Kazakh-Afghan intergovernmental commission’s activity, the promotion of Kazakhstan’s production and investments on the Afghani market, the training of the Afghani qualified experts in Kazakhstan in the fields of economy, industry, finance, transport and education.

The policy of Kazakhstan in the field of disarmament and non-proliferation of WMD is defined by country’s foreign policy, the basis of which is adherence to consolidation of international safety, development of cooperation among the states, to increase the role of international organizations in settlement of global problems and conflicts.

The policy of our President N. Nazarbayev is directed on nuclear weapon elimination and strengthening of non-proliferation system, has been recognize by the international community and has fixed global leadership of Kazakhstan in sphere of disarmament, non-proliferation and nuclear security.

The first step that laid the foundation of Kazakhstan’s future policy of non-proliferation was the closing of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, still being a part of the USSR in 1991.

The Lisbon Protocol also contained obligations of Kazakhstan, Belarus and Ukraine and to join the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as the countries not possessing the nuclear weapon. On December 5 1994, at the OSCE Budapest summit Russia, the USA, Great Britain signed the Memorandum of Security Assurances in connection with Kazakhstan’s Accession to the NPT as a denuclearized state. This document recognized Kazakhstan’s full and strict performance its obligations on complete withdrawal of nuclear weapon from its territory. China and France also assured Kazakhstan of their security guarantees.

On December 13 1993, the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Kazakhstan ratified the NPT. Kazakhstan’s joining the NPT was an important stage in realization of country’s foreign policy. As a member of the NPT, Kazakhstan strictly adheres to obligations of the Treaty, a unique multilateral agreement in the field of control over nuclear weapons obliging members to undertake measures on nuclear disarmament. On February 14 1994, Kazakhstan became a member of the IAEA.

The Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) in Seoul marked a significant step towards establishing more effective nuclear security across the globe. President Nursultan Nazarbayev told other government leaders at the summit that the world had taken great strides towards achieving global nuclear safety in the two years since the first Nuclear Security Summit was convened by U. S. President Barack Obama in Washington.

Problem of economic security threaten not only to region, but also each state of the world without exceptions. Combination of internal and external tools is the only way to overcome common difficulties. Our President repeatedly offered global and regional initiatives of reforming the world economic order. Thus it is necessary to emphasize the importance of regional economic integration institutions.

The Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC) was established on 10 October 2000 in Astana as an international economic organization. The Eurasian Economic Community is one of the most developed regional organizations in the CIS space. Participation in this regional association is one of the priorities of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy. The Eurasian Economic Community is one of the most developed regional organizations in the CIS space. Participation in this regional association is one of the priorities of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy.

On 1 January 2010, the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia was initiated. In a short time, the three states did an enormous work, including the development and adoption of the Unified Customs Code and the Unified Customs Tariff, the establishment of the supranational body — the Customs Union Commission. There is operating the common customs territory among three states. The countries began to apply unified customs duties and unified measures of non-tariff regulation of foreign trade. The functioning of the common customs territory of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia has created a common market, which does not involve tariff and non-tariff barriers. Subsequently, the states of the Central Asia and other EurAsEC members can join the Customs union. The Customs Union has served as a platform for creating a higher level of integration — the Common Economic Space (CES), which started on 1 January 2012. The CES will provide the principle of four freedoms (free movement of goods, services, capital and labor). We should also underline that the creation of Eurasian economic union (the Treaty was signed in May 29, 2014 during the meeting in Astana) is the next great step on the way of building stable, flexible, strong economic system.

For the last years intensified cooperation in the frameworks of the CIS, there has been created FTA within the structure of the organization. CISFTA was signed in 2011 by 8 CIS member states: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Moldova and Armenia. The agreement has replaced more than hundred bilateral documents, regulating a regime of free trade on the space of the Commonwealth.

The problem of information security become more actual. Taking into account strengthening role of the mass-media, increasing role of public opinion, development of Internet, issue of information reliability become more important. The certain forces are capable to operate public opinion, by means of concealment, forgery, distortion of the information. It is important to understand that an information bomb having blown up in one place, can damage all world community, in view of speed and distribution availability of information. Informational war manages more cheaply than traditional, but renders not smaller influence on consciousness and behaviour of society.

Taking into account development of the threat, the states and the international community should toughen the control over information, having protected the population from the provocative data, but thus measures should be applied not to detriment of a speech freedom.

Thus, analyzing external security challenges it is important to emphasize, that their regulation is extremely inconvenient by means of only regional tool. Preventing of external threats is impossible only by efforts of the CA states, some problems have global or even institutional character, hence combined efforts of the international community are necessary. The dynamic of global security strengthening is decreasing, partly it is connected with some defects and misbalance in the global order, however in existing frameworks it is possible and necessary to solve security issues.

Makubayev Yu.

Master of Humanitarian Sciences