In the Message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan — the Leader of the nation Nursultan Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan «Strategy „Kazakhstan-2050“: a new political policy of successful state» it was noted about need of taking measures to the complex solution of problems of migration . Thus, study of a problem of repatriation as one of a component of population’s migration demands special attention.
After obtaining of the independent state in 1991 the problem of repatriation of Kazakhs to the Republic of Kazakhstan rose in all growth.
In 1993, the return of compatriots to the historical homeland had been preceded with and without quota.
To implement the Resolution of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan of April 15, 1993 No. 1184 «About a quota of immigration and measures for the organization of resettlement of compatriots from the Islamic Republic of Iran and other states», Resolutions of the Cabinet of May 27, 1993 No. 437, of September 23, 1992 «About providing social and economic privileges to representatives of foreign Kazakh diaspora during resettlement to the Republic of Kazakhstan» the Ministry of transport of Kazakhstan were prepared No. 791 four special passenger trains.
In 1993, 630 families, 35010 people from the Islamic Republic of Iran were transferred by them. In August 1993, 64 families, 916 people were settled in Taldykorgan area, also in November 99 families, 487 people in Almaty area and 285 families, 1723 people moved to Chimkent area. Trains were accompanied by the officers of the Ministry of Transport, doctors of railway hospitals and employees of transport police.
Passengers were provide with hot meals and snacks during their way.
Also in 1993 the West Kazakhstan region accepted from neighboring countries of 203 families of compatriots (459 people), including, 181 families from Russia. 148 families lodged in Uralsk and Aksay, and other 55 families — on rural regions of area. Immigrants in rural areas generally were provided with houses. Provision of housing for compatriots in the cities of Uralsk and Aksay was complicated.
More than 40 families of immigrants were in need.
In 1994 through department of migration about 10 apartments of the leaving citizens from area were found possibility of purchase .
Problems of migration and the related questions were discussed in specially created commission of Mangistau regional administration on social protection and migratory processes. At meetings of this commission activities of district municipal administrations, Departments of Internal Affairs, social protection for execution of decisions of the directive bodies connected with resettlement of the compatriots who showed willingness to come back to the historical homeland were considered.
In 1993, 916 families, numbering 3331 person: from Turkey 75 families — 344 people, Turkmenistan 451 families — 1589 people, from Uzbekistan — 300 families — 1137 people, from the Russian Federation 90 families — 261 persons arrived to Mangistau area. Lump sums were paid to all families and transportation costs in the sum of 300, 0 thousand tenge were paid.
Immigrants from Turkey settled down in three regional centers and in Zhanaozen. In Kudyk village of the Karakiyansky area the former building of a regional household combine was allocated to them, the «Otan» shop and sewing shop is open.
Financial support rendered to the arrived compatriots the enterprises assigned to each family and the organizations. Total amount of financial support in the form of the food, household goods and a kids’ wear were 15 thousand tenge. For those who wanted to build individual hose to allocated with lands. For children of compatriots from Turkey were organized special classes with coverage of 116 children, adults were trained at will on short-term courses. People of old age were paid pensions in the established state amount . On April 1994, 231 families of immigrants from the Republic of Mongolia (at a quota — 200) were settled in the territory of Zhezkazgan region. All measures for the solution of problems of the compatriots who came back to the historical homeland were taken in the area. They include 1222 people, 461 among them were at working-age and 335 people were employed. The number of the families which received house — 208 and hostel — 23. From among families of immigrants were enlisted in higher educational institutions — 10 people, professional educational institutions — 15 people .
325 people in comprehensive schools, 30 people were arranged in preschool institutions and 62 people received pensions. Despite of this, in area from the republics of the former USSR and other states arrived 3 families to Balkhash, namely from Latvia — 2 and Hungary — 1. Thus over a quota arrived 31 families from the Republic Mongolia, including 20 to the Agadyrsky area from which 16 families were placed in farms of the Zhanaarkinsky area, and 4 in the item in Upper Kayrakta and to other areas. For the purpose of provision of housing and for creation of other social conditions from fund of transformation of economy 640 thousand tenges were allocated. At the expense of these means it is acquired 26 sq. (houses), including in the Agadyrsky area — 18 houses, Zhanaarkinsk — 5 apartments, Zhezkazgan — 1 and in Balkhash — 2 apartments. Besides at the expense of city and regional budgets, and also from means of the enterprises and the organization apartments in the city of Satpayev — 3, Balkhash — 1, the Zhanaarkinsky area — 1 were acquired.
According to the resolution of the Cabinet of the Republic of Kazakhstan of May 27, 1993 No. 437 the uniform allowance was paid to each family member who arrived to the territory of area in 1993. Total amount of the given grants was 124, 5 thousand tenge, including heads of families — 40, 8 thousand tenge, members of families — 83, 7 thousand tons.
On actions for resettlement of families from the Republic Mongolia 580736 tenge through migratory service, including on transportation of their property, for food and temporary residence in hotels were allocated 456236 tenge.
Among the immigrants of working-age 339 people had specialties, including machine operators — 47, cattle breeders — 102, drivers — 20, builders — 23, workers of national education and medical workers — 36, other specialties — 103.
On the industrial enterprises (Zhayremsky and Kayraktinsky combines) 92 people are employed. For their rational employment, preparation and professional development of able-bodied members of families of immigrants to Agadyrsk and Zhana-Arkinsk areas courses on training of drivers and machine operators were created.
For 1993 1509 compatriots (426 families) came back to the Kostanay area, including 126 from Mongolia and 300 from Russia. The decision of the head of regional administration for No. 158 of July 10, 1993 created the commissions on expeditious consideration of the questions connected with reception and arrangement of families of immigrants from Mongolia and Russia points of the organization and temporary placement are organized. Measures for timely employment of immigrants were taken. They filled up generally workplaces of cattlemen, shepherds, milkmaids, machine operators of the rural enterprises. Besides a lump sum, were allocated cattle for a farmstead.
Generally the housing was provided to all immigrants. On means (800 thousand tenge) allocated from fund of transformation of economy in 1993 it is constructed 23 and it is bought 31 individual houses and apartments.
At the same time, it isn’t executed an immigration quota from Mongolia (from 200 families are moved 126), complexity of providing families with housing is the reason. So, 50 families of immigrants, taking into account arrived in 1991–1992, lived in hostels, a hazardous dwelling or are settled to relatives. Target construction of housing for them at the expense of the bank credits wasn’t kept. Lack of credit resources did not allow regional office of National bank to allocate the credits to the arrived compatriots on individual and cooperative construction.
The resolution of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan established an immigration quota for 1993, including in Taldykorgan area of 550 families. In performances of the Resolution of the President and the Cabinet of the Republic of Kazakhstan Taldykurgansky by the regional administration accepted 2 orders where to each area the immigration quota was finished, actions and the regional commission on reception of immigrants are approved. According to these actions reception and moving of 450 families of immigrants in number of 2196 people, including from Iran 136 families, Mongolia of 286 families and 28 families from the republics of the CIS were organized. 65 families in number of 360 people, all from Iran, moved to the Shymkent Region because the close relatives and members of families who left at the first stage were settled there. From total number arrived able-bodied population made 804 people, or 36, 5%, including 471 women or 58, 5%. From among the able-bodied are employed the 456 person, including 165 women .
403 people from total number of the arrived had no professions and specialties. The immigrants who arrived from Iran had no professional education that complicated their employment. From total number arrived children till 16 years made 1095 people, or 49,8%, of them school age 447. In schools 365 children, in kindergartens — 103, in technical training college — 25, in lyceum — 5 and universities — 11 people. All immigrants were captured by professional survey from bodies of health care, 30 people received the medical, stationary assistance. All immigrants who arrived in 1993, according to the contract and schedule from means of immigration fund were completely given out single allowances. Besides, it appeared to the compatriots who arrived from Iran constantly financial support from farms and locals.
For construction of housing and arrangement of families of the Kazakh nationality in Taldykorgan area 440, 0 million rubles, which according to the order of the head of regional administration, were allocated and distributed between areas. On January 1, 1993 on these means were acquired 71 inhabited housing constructions and are distributed between needy. Among the arrived 337 families received housing and 44 families received lands for construction. Thus many of them lived on a distant-pasture site. On the central estates of farms there were no free housing constructions. Also immigrants received cattle for private use. In total in 1993 1260 cattle, generally they are milk cow, from 5 to 10 heads of sheep were allocated for each family.
The order of the head of regional administration at head department of work and employment, created department of population shift and it was offered to heads of local administrations about definition on places of authorized representatives of department of population migration .
Thus, regional administrations took all measures for implementation of decisions of directive bodies of the compatriots connected with resettlement who showed willingness to come back to the historical homeland.
However, a number of the ministries and departments, heads regional administration did not achieve appropriate execution of all requirements and position of the determined by the Resolution of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan of April 15, 1993 No. 1184 «About a quota of immigration and measures for the organization of resettlement of compatriots from the Islamic Republic of Iran both other states» and the decisions on its realization made by the government.
Candidate of historical sciences, senior research associate of Institute of History and Ethnology named after Ch. Valikhanov
1. The message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan — the Leader of the nation Nursultan Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan «Strategy „Kazakhstan-2050“: a new political policy of the taken place state». http://www.akorda.kz/ru/page/page_poslanie-prezidenta-respubliki-kazakhstan-lidera-natsii-nursultana-nazarbaeva-narodu-kazakhstana Accessed 03.04.2013.
2. AP RK F. 5 N. Op. 1. 3889. p. 71–72.
3. AP RK F. 5 N. Op. 1. 3889. p. 106–107.
4. AP RK F. 5 N. Op. 1. 3889. p. 77.
5. AP RK F. 5 N. Op. 1. 3889. p. 79–81.
6. AP RK F. 5 N. Op. 1. 3889. p. 82.