Destinations and routes of the Great Silk Road.
The name of the ancient city has saved to this day. It is a settlement near Shymkent, in the center of which is the remains of a medieval settlement, which was one of the biggest centers of the Silk Road.
Slaves, white cloth, weapons, swords, copper and iron were exported from Isfijab. From Isfijab caravans went to the east to Taraz of through the city of Sharab and Buduhket. Taraz - one of the largest cities of Kazakhstan, was already known in the VI century. It is here Turkic Kagan Dizabul in 568, recieved a diplomatic embassy of the Byzantine emperor Justinian II led by strategist Zemarh. Sources called Taraz city of merchants. In addition, it was the capital of the Turgeshes and then Karluk and karaganid.
Near the city of Taraz was city of Dzhamukat, mentioned already in the VI. The ruins of Dzhamukat are in Talas valley near Jambul, on the right bank of the river Talas, in front of village of Mikhailovka. The ruins are now called Kostobe - Double hump.
In the plains of the valley stood Atlah city , near the walls of which occurred battle in 751 between Arabs and Chinese forces for influence. Not far from Taraz on the trade route, which was going down along the Talas to the north there were Adahket and Deh Nudzhikes towns.In the mountainous part of the Talas valley were well-known cities like Sheldzhi , Sousse, Kul Tekabket . they are emerged near the silver mines .
In Talas Valley caravans also come by the road from the Ferghana Valley through the mountain pass Chanach on the Chatkalsky ridge and Karabura in the Talas Alatau. The " Fergana " and " Semirechensky" direction of the Silk Road were connected by this segment of the road.
From Taraz to the east, route went to the Kulan city. The area between cities Taraz and Kulan belonged to Karluks. On the way to the Kulan, Silk way passed through the city Kasribas, Kul - Shub and Julie-Shub. From Kulan further to the east were cities Mirka and Aspara on the distance of four farsahs from each other. Then caravans went through the cities Nuzket Harradzhuvan to the Dzhul. From Dzhul the road led to Saryg , then to the " village of the Turkic Kagan " and Kirmirau .
From Kirmirau the road led to one of the largest cities in Seven Rivers Navaket (Chinese Xingcheng ) . Both titles are translated as Novgorod . Navaket was the residence of Turkish Hagan and city of Sogdians.
From Navaketa through Panjakent ( Bundzhiket ) road resulted to the largest city of Seven Rivers Suyab - the capital of the Western Turks ( then Turgeshes , Karluk ). Chinese and Arab travelers had written about city before the X century. The role of the capital proceeds to Balasagun , an early name of which was apparently Beklig or Semekna .Balasagun known as the capital Karahanid then Karakitai whose destroyed it at the beginning of the XIII century. The city was rebuilt , but in the XIV century lay in ruins . The location of these cities is not far from the modern city of Tokmak and corresponds to the two famous medieval monuments - Fortresses and Akbeshim Burana.
Silk Road from Suyab was either the northern or the southern shores of Lake Issyk -Kul. On the southern segment of the caravans passed through major city Upper Barsahan and northern marked the remains of small caravanserai, the names of which have not survived. Then, these ways have joined near the Bedel Pass, and through him or Tashrabat Silk Road led to Aksu and Kashgar .
Path passed from Issyk-Kul basin through the 'Santash' pass and 'Karkara' valley led to the Ili valley and then along the right bank Ili through the valleys Useka and Khorgos - in Almalyk , and on the northern tip of the Taklimakan Desert , through the oases of Hami and Turpan - to Dunhuang in China .
In the X-XII centuries .one of the branches of the Silk Road crossed all the Ili valley from the south- west to north -east.Offshoot began in Navakate , then went on through the Bundzhiket and Kastek pass led to the northern slopes of the Trans-Ili Alatau. There was also another way - from Balasaguna . The sacred Urun - Arj mountains were a reference to guide. The route passes through small towns in the foothills of Trans-Ili Alatau , who were on the spot Kastek , Kaskelen and Almaty, and reached the city Talhiza which is located on the northern outskirts of the city Talgar. Here, at the foot of the mountains on the right bank of the Talgar river are the ruins of a large medieval fortress . Talhiz was a major center of transit trade.
In Ili valley caravans also come by another way: from Kulan , Aspary or Nuzketa to the cities of the middle and lower reaches of Chu. Through Tashutkul ford road went to the northern slopes of Chuiliyskih Mountains to the cities along the northern slopes of the Trans-Ili Alatau.
In Talhize Silk Road forked.The southern part went through the Issyk , Turgen , Chilik to the Ili crossing near Borohudzira, and then on the right bank Ili it walked through the Horgos Almalyk, connecting with a route that ran here from the valley of Issyk -Kul. On this section archaeologists have found the ruins of the small town of Issyk , Turgenev , Lavar and large Chilik town . On the right bank of Ili road went through a modern settlement Kok -Tal and Mr. Dzharkent . In the area of Kok- Tala was located Ilibalyk town.
North of the road Talhiza stretched along the Talgar river to the crossing on the river. Or in Kapchagai gorge. After her path led to Chingildy , then pass through the Altyn- Emel road descends into the Koksy valley and reached the town of Ikioguz which was located on the site of the present s. Dunganovka . William Rubruck calls the city Ekviusom . It is here found one of the largest settlements of the Ili Valley. In this city, as evidenced by visiting him in 1253, Wilhelm Rubruk lived " Saracens " (Iranian merchants ) .
From Ikioguz the route went to Kajalyk ( Koylaku ) - the capital of Karluk dzhabgu. The city was famous for its bazaars. It Muslims than Christians lived, had their church. It is reported by the ambassador visited the city of Louis IX of the Mongol Khan Mongke monk William Rubruck. Kajalyk was the capital of the Karluk , which in IX - beginning of the XIII century belonged to the Northeastern part of the Ili Valley . He was in the valley. Cymbals, on the outskirts of Antonovsky. Not far from Kajalyk , according to a note Rubruka , was a Christian village , which is also passed through the Silk Road . Then he followed the valley Tentek and rounded the Alakul through Dzungarian gate leads into the valley, and from there through Shiho Beshbalyk went to Dunhuang and domestic China.
In the south- eastern tip of Alakul was a city that travelers XIII century called "the capital of the region."
From Isfidzhab was also a caravan road in Arsubaniket on Arysi in Otyrar - Farabi and further down the Syr Darya - the Aral Sea.
On the caravan route that ran along the Syr Darya, most major cities have been Otyrar - Farabi and Shavgar . The name of the first is still preserved in the name of a large settlement, located near the confluence of the Syr Darya Arysi .
Otyrar was host of many caravan routes. Hence, one road led to Shavgar, and the other - on the crossing of the Syr Darya to the city Vasidzhu . From the way he was walking up the Syr Darya through Oguz city Syutkent in Shash and down - in Jenda . Hence, also, through the Kyzyl- Kum desert track was laid in Khorezm, Urgench , and then - in the Volga and the Caucasus. This segment of the Silk Road was particularly busy in the XIII century and passed through Jenda , Shed , Shed -Batu and Kaffa .
Shavgar known sources already in the VIII. , It corresponds to the mound Chui- Tobe , located next to Turkestan . At the site of the modern Turkestan near Shavgar in X-XII centuries formed the city of Iasi, where he lived and preached a famous poet , Sufi Ahmed Yasawi.
Shavgar way of going to the city Yangikent - Oguz, the state capital Hence, there was also a road through the Kyzyl- Kum desert in Khorezm .
Shavgar of Iasi and later through the pass Turlaev road access to the northern slopes of the Tau and ran parallel to the one that ran along the Syr Darya. In this way, stood the city of Suzak , Urosogan , Kumkent , Sugulkent . The conclusion is either in the lower reaches of Talas, where climbing up to Taraz , or walked along the western shore of the lake through the city Biylikul Beruket -Parquet and Hutuhchin also Taraz .
From the Silk Road, the main road, passing through Kazakhstan and South Seven Rivers, pulling back roads to the north and east, which were in the areas of Central and Eastern Kazakhstan steppe in the Dasht-i Kipchak, later known as the Sary- Arka , to the banks of the Irtysh , the Altai and Mongolia. Here was the prairie path that moved tribes mounted nomads. Rich in cattle, wool, hides, metal parts of Central Kazakhstan were involved in trade relations, including international ones, and are included in many of the Silk Road caravan routes.
From Otyrar through Arsubaniket , valleys Arystandy , Chayana , topping low mountains Tau , Shavgar of Iasi and the pass Turlaev of Sauran and Signak of Yangikent road out in the steppe of central Kazakhstan and reached the shores of Sarisu and Kengir , Turgay and Ishim. Here the remains of medieval fortifications: Bolgan Ana, Jaman -Kurgan, Nogerbek - Daras , Dombgaul , Mila Kuduk, Ormambet . Apparently, it was mentioned here should be contained in the medieval sources of the city. Zhubin , Kongliket , and summer quarters Ortag Keytag , ore development and Garbiana Bakirlytaga .
Through the city of Taraz Adahkes and Deh - Nudzhikes was a trade route to the Irtysh - Hakan Kimaks to the residence and further into the country on the Yenisei Kyrgyz.
Ili Valley was connected with the Central Kazakhstan road that ran along the northern slopes of the mountains Chuiliyskih, followed by Chu in its lower reaches and then to the shores Sarisu.
Another route depart from the north- Ili in Chingildy and through passes and Koktal Boyauly - in Balkhash, and then along the river channels. Ortasu or where the remains of the city and the Acts of almost connected north and south shores of the lake , leaving the strait width slightly greater than 8 km . Caravans crossing the strait and wade out to the mouth of the river. Tokrau , and then along its banks went to the foothills Ulutau .
From the north- Ili the retreat direction , the envelope Alakul the west and Tarbagatai leads to the Irtysh in the ground state Kimaks. In Tarbagatae and located on the banks of the Irtysh Kimak of Banjar , Hanaush , Asturias, Isan and "capital Hakan " - a huge city surrounded by a fortified wall with an iron gate . Cities were linked Kimaks trade routes to cities on the Yenisei Kyrgyz, Uyghurs in Mongolia and Eastern Turkestan oasis.
Trade and commodities. Silk Road first served for the export of Chinese silk. In turn, Rome , Byzantium, India, Iran, the Arab Caliphate , and later from Europe and Russia were on it frankincense and myrrh , jasmine and amber water , cardamom and nutmeg , ginseng and bile python, carpets and fabrics, dyes and minerals , diamonds, jade , amber, coral, ivory and " fish tusks ", silver bullion and gold coins and fur , bows and arrows , swords and spears and many others on the Silk Road was carried on a sale of the famous "potokrovnyh" horses Fergana, Arab and «nisiy» horses , camels and elephants, rhinos and lions, cheetahs and gazelles , hawks , peacocks, parrots and ostriches.
Silk Road spread crop plants: grapes, peaches and melons, spices, sugar, fruits and vegetables, fresh herbs.
However, the main subject of trade remained silk. Along with the gold he was an international currency, they are gifts to kings and ambassadors, paid a salary of mercenary troops and government debt.
Silk and part of the goods which passed along the Silk Road, settled in the cities of the Kazakh section. Archaeological finds - vivid evidence.
Among the rare finds for its intended purpose , which are important for the study of international trade, is a treasure of silver Otyrar . According to its composition, it is the monetary and clothing. The composition of the coin collection is unique treasure : there are mints East Turkestan cities - Almalyk , Pulad and Emil ( washed ) , Ordu al- Azzam , European - Crimea , Asia Minor - Sivas , Konya , Tabriz , Kazakhstan - Jenda . Time coinage belongs to the second half of the 60s. XIII century the hoard contains a sort of «business cards» city on the Silk Road .
Silk Road extended not only products, but also the fashion for artistic styles that could have a social order and, falling on fertile soil in a specific ethno-cultural environment, received widespread.