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Kimakiya – the largest Turkic center

The work of Gardizi, Persian historian lived in 11th century, is the only one source that transferred the legend about the origin of Kimaks.

The work of Gardizi, Persian historian who lived in 11th century, is the only one source that transferred the legend about the origin of Kimaks. Based on his research, the origin of Kimaks along with Kypchaks and Bayandurs comes from Tatars. Tatar’s entering to Kimaks tribal union took place in the middle of 9th century. Obviously, the legend of Kimaks’ origin had been developed on the basis of ethno-political and ethno-cultural interaction between Kimaks, Kypchaks and Tatar tribes.

The Kimaks khanate with the capital in Kimakiya was one of the largest states of that time. Existence of 16 strong and rich cities also 11 administrative areas witnesses it.

In the 9th and beginning of the 11th centuries Kimaks had ancient Turkic religious belief, among of which the cult of ancestors and Tengrism, with appropriate to it worship to the sun, water, stars, mountains and rivers, took the dominant place. Shamanism was the widespread form of religion, but part of Kimaks was believers of Manichaeism religion of Christianity. It is not exclusion that Islam was distributed among the Kimaks aristocracy. Certain elements of Kimaks’ burials indicate their Muslim roots.

Historians suppose that union to one of world religions (Islam, Christianity) is a certain index that shows the level of social and economic development of Kimaks confederation.

In the social and cultural relation of a Kimaks in many respects adopted traditions which were appropriate for the ancient Turkic environment of the 6th-9th centuries. From the end of 9th century before the beginning of the 11th century they already had developed state.

Based on archeological excavations, Oguzs, Kimaks and Karluks were able skillfully processed livestock production and raw materials, making footwear, ware, quivers, cover for bows, a horse harness and bags. Felt was used for warming yurts and tailoring. Moreover, the clothes were produced from furs.

Many household items, also parts of yurt, ware and boats were made of wood. Moreover, there is an example where skis were also made of wood. Pottery production had been developed. Iron, silver, gold copper and precious stones were extracted. «The local masters make beautiful products from iron», — wrote Al-Idrisi about Oguzs and Kimaks [3]. Luxury goods and jewelry were made of gold and silver. According to Al-Idrisi, tsar of Kimaks wore clothes decorated with gold and golden crown.

1. History of Kazakhstan from the ancient times till present. In five volumes. Almaty, publisher: «Atamura», 2010, 1st volume, p. 325.

2. Al-Yakubi. Kitab al-Buldan (BGA, 7), p. 295.