Social and economic guarantees and differentiation of the distributive relations
In the modern world the problem of overcoming and management of process of sharp social differentiation remains to one of the sharpest. With it are connected a sustainable development of economy developed and developing countries, radical structural transformations of world productive forces and adequate increase of labor productivity, as bases of rational employment and population life support. According to definition of the World bank at the international poverty line (1,25 dollars the day, reconsidered in 2008 in the prices of 2005) still exist 1,4 billion people. The international agencies consider that more than 100 million were brought to poverty in result of rise in prices for the food in 2007-2008 and that the global financial and economic crisis of 2008-2009 increased their number by 200 million people. The delay of restoration of number of the workplaces which have decreased as a result of global recession and the increased danger of a financial default in the leading countries of the European union remains the main problem interfering decrease in level of poverty in the short term. Meanwhile, lack of clarity in methodology of measurements of an indicator of poverty, the maintenance of social indicators and standards both for the certain countries, and in the international aspect complicates an objective assessment of a minimum level of life support. FAO the UN (the food and agricultural organization UN) in 2009, discussing top-level social problems, I accepted broader determination of poverty including deprivation of opportunities of satisfaction of certain requirements, social. isolation and lack of participation of public life.
The inequality was even more sharply shown in the last decade at the international level and in the majority of the countries. More than 80% of the population in the world live in the countries where differentiation of the income extends. The poorest 40% of the population on a planet gain only 5% of world income, while the richest 20%-75%. The international organizations instead of more concrete approach to conditions and factors of economic growth and a social status in each of the countries, recommend to replace national strategy of development by globalization, liberalization of the market and privatization. Instead of achieving the continuous growth and economic stability, such policy would make the countries more dependent on the power of the developed countries and an environment of the international finance, and also global instability which became more frequent and serious because of difficulties of regulation of a world economic crisis at a stage of change of technological ways.
The most important lesson of the critical moment – need for sustained economic growth and structural transformation of economy with implementation of programs of employment and social obligations for smoothing of sharp social differentiation of society. Such approach has to be filled with the corresponding industrial investments and economic policy, and also the financial means intended for their support. Defenders of policy of economic liberalization referred to success of quickly developing economy of the east Asian countries. But any of these countries didn't follow completely economic liberalization. Instead of this government promoted development and industrialization support, increase of a role of agriculture and a services sector, and also improvement of technological and structural capabilities.
Structural transformations and scientifically reasonable social policy have to lead to rational employment, existence at all decent work, and the government has to have enough power and financial opportunities to allow them to play a priority role in ensuring adequate multidimensional social protection of citizens. Within the last three decades of domination of market fundamentalism and neoliberalism the rupture of social policy from strategy of economic development was observed, intervention of the governments in these questions was limited. National strategy of economic development weren't accompanied by universal social programs of improvement of welfare of people. They were often substituted for separate donor programs of decrease in poverty, somehow: microcredit and involvement programs in business activity of the poorest part of the population, a component so-called "the pyramid basis" which brought a certain positive effect, but didn't lead to any notable results.
The report of the UN on a social situation in the world, represented each two years (RWSS 2010), called "Poverty reconsideration", assumes to think over anew efforts on decrease in poverty on the basis of equal and viable economic development of the developed, developing and underdeveloped countries which the unregulated market couldn't provide. The social structure of the American society (where as a whole the balance between the world of wealth and the world of poverty is more safe, than in many others the country) is very informative in this plan. About 0,5% of the population of this country own more than 50% of assets and actions, this layer is adjoined by 4% of the highest managers and managers, and also to 16% of highly paid people from MSB and a services sector, the others 51% - simple hired labor and 30% - poor and absolutely poor people. On an active phase of crisis 2007 and 2008 the middle class appeared the most injured and in the West, and in CIS countries, including in Russia and Kazakhstan.  About sharp differentiation of social structure of the population according to the income it is visually possible to judge by data structure of bank deposits in Kazakhstan. At us in the country a half of all deposits is the share of 0,1% of all deposits. That is one thousand share of investors owns a half of bank deposits in the country (according to RK National Bank). And on Agency materials statistically, savings have only 17% of the Kazakhstan families, besides generally this money holds on unforeseen circumstances, education of children, treatment, apartment renovation and houses, a funeral and weddings.
Naturally, criteria of poverty in the different countries depend on a level of development of economy and existence of resources. Kazakhstan – the rich oil-extracting state having considerable volume of gross domestic product. Usually on the general and shower lifting of gross domestic product judge the economic capacity of the country and an initial basis of social wellbeing of the country. Therefore the President of RK N.A.Nazarbayev sets a task about annual 7% gross domestic product growth till 2015 and achievement of shower production of gross domestic product in the country to 15 thousand dollars.
Gross domestic product per capita, 2010 (at par purchasing power)
GDP per capita, thousand dollars.
Kazakhstan, surpassing in the total amount of gross domestic product all other CIS countries, except Russia, on a shower indicator concedes to Russia and Belarus. At the same time gross domestic product indicator, covering the total amount of the made material benefits and services for a certain period, has the generalized character and reflects the reached quantitative (gross) result of economic growth. However gross domestic product doesn't give a picture of real situation and conditions of activity of the certain social countries on a property status and activity conditions. The general tendency shown especially for the last two decades, sharply increased social inequality and differentiation of the income not only between "the North – the South", "the West – the East", but also in separate groups of the countries is. Therefore over the developed countries, especially to the USA and the Eurozone countries, near data on gross domestic product give indicators of employment and a condition of a labor market. Our gross domestic product as the parameter of growth of economy doesn't coordinate with social indicators of activity of the population, is perceived as a general initial parcel of social welfare. Meanwhile unemployment rate in the republic for June 1, 2011, according to Agency statistically, made 5,4%, i.e. 469,2 thousand people. Real unemployment is much higher because 40% of economically active population have no firm income. It in the basis so-called "self-busy" which number on official statistics exceeds 2,7 million people; "self-busy" don't take a constant place of work, are generally employed on seasonal, unskilled types of work. Naturally, they прерывны and employment of a certain part of these people has "fragmentary" character, at any time they can appear out of work and besides "attend" to job search. They belong generally to lyumpenizirovanny, not - and to low-skill segments of the population, natives of the village and part of uncomfortable city youth. In Kazakhstan according to Agency statistically in population structure the number of youth aged from 15 till 19 years reaches 1,5 million people, and together with age group of 20-24 years exceeds 3,1 million. The considerable unoccupied part of this population is interrupted by casual earnings, and the part is occupied on a personal farmstead in suburbs and in the village. Certainly, in the majority they officially aren't registered as the unemployed in bodies of Ministry of Labor and a social security, their unstable earnings aren't fixed by tax authorities. Problematic there is an implementation of the provision of the Kazakhstan-2020 program about coverage by 2014 of 40% self-taken with accumulative pension system. There is a problem of inspection of social structure self-occupied, their differentiations on social orientation and social expectations to the medium-term period. Only during the joint close work of economists-trudovikov and sociologists it is possible to develop the comprehensive program of employment and social orientation of big army "self-busy" and migrating youth, this considerable part of economically active population which neobustroyennost can be in the future threat of antisocial performances. According to the industrialization Program on the large cities, certain territories and in the village it is necessary to allocate system of accurate priorities of the industrial and innovative purposes and the corresponding directions of their realization, especially on labor-consuming branches and spheres where qualified personnel of workers from among unoccupied youth will be to be attracted and prepare on the basis of the organized set.
The problem of rational employment and social wellbeing of the economic active population and members of their families, as we know, is defined by such statistical sizes, as the minimum and average salary, a living wage and the minimum consumer basket, etc. by which initially are guided for an assessment of social living conditions of members of society and consecutive overcoming of sharp differentiation in the conditions of their activity. The state established certain social standards on the basis of which it is possible to estimate, whether worthy conditions for life are created in society. One of them is the living wage – the necessary income of the srednestatichesky inhabitant of the republic which is in turn equal to the cost of the minimum consumer basket which call the minimum set of food, goods and services in natural and value terms. 60% of contents of a present consumer basket make food, and other 40% - nonfoods and services. According to official information, the living wage in Kazakhstan consists of 43 names of products and services. Now the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection together with the International Labour Organization conducts researches, and in the near future our living wage which for 2011 makes 16851 tenges, will be reconsidered. It in a certain measure and is reasonable because consumer prices of goods and services, especially after the introduction in the Customs union and the Common economic space organization intensively grow, applying on Russian, and in the long term and the European level. It is a question of quantitative parameters and expenses on medical and utilities, education and communication services, housing repair, purchase of goods of long using, etc. The method of calculation of a living wage in Kazakhstan as experts consider, both on food, and on nonfoods and services doesn't correspond to parities of purchasing power of world convertible currencies, in particular dollar, euro and pound sterling. Therefore a consumer basket of our countries in nature and at cost are incomparable. In particular, the salary on the average about the country is lower, the more her inhabitants spend for products and services. At the same time in pre-crisis 2008 in France the share of expenses on a food made 12 percent, and in Germany, Austria, Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands – only nine. The standard and statistical method of calculation of a living wage in the country is applied only at definition of a food basket which neither according to the content of norms, nor on structure doesn't conform to the international standards. The cost of expenses on nonfoods and services is defined by a way of increase in cost of the maximum food basket on the fixed share. If to consider a high and unpredictable jump in prices of both groups of goods and the services entering into a living wage, scientific bases of formation of categories a living wage and a consumer basket, as certain state social standards of living conditions of people raise big doubts. It is necessary to change the principle of development of a consumer basket. According to experts-economists, it is necessary to proceed from needs of people, instead of budget opportunities. During an era of globalization and general informatization the model of the person, the person not standard and irrational, especially youthful and mature age in which priorities are displaced on level of the standard standards in civilized societies and inquiries changes. Not to consider this prepotent influence of universal culture not only in aspect spiritual, but also in a daily life, it is already impossible for material culture. Now in many states the social block of the budget is formed of about 40% and more from gross domestic product. At us in the country for formation of the social budget it is used 2-3 times less. In the same measure concede also social standards. At normal fullness of the budget social problems would have a sufficient basis for the decision. It belongs not only to a consumer basket, but also to an average salary. So, in particular if in England it about 3,5 thousand in terms of euro, in Kazakhstan the same size makes about 500 dollars (from level of an average salary of 75 thousand tenges). Speech has to go about scientific bases of formation of social indicators, its parameters, proceeding from rational needs of members of society, instead of from conditions of their physical survival. In 2010 the budget on social expenses made 20% of the budget and 5% of gross domestic product. The minimum consumer basket in any way doesn't correspond to physiological needs of the person. Growth of consumer prices of food each five years double, besides the prices of the qualitative products making a basket of a balanced diet intensively grow. It is insistently necessary to prepare scientifically reasonable offers on introduction of a rational consumer basket, an assessment of the risks connected with increase in the public social expenditures and as a whole to rationalization of structure of expenses of the state budget, really opening its social orientation.
The increase in gross domestic product doesn't mean that the standard of living will automatically grow. At preservation of former system of the distributive relations the further growth of national wealth won't lead to decrease in relative level of poverty; moreover, it won't be possible to overcome a tendency to increase of an excessive social and economic inequality. Thus more than 2/3 totals needy and the poorest are occupied in economy. Certainly, to try to raise standards of life for all, being guided by a standard of living of "gold billion" in the world – business unreal. According to the Russian economist R. Grinberg, "if all 6 billion planet will have conditions as, say, in Denmark, one more Earth" is required. Criticism of consumerism, in his opinion, very hypocritical occupation … 5 billion want to live as well as in the developed countries. It is incorrect to seek to live everything, being guided by the countries "Gold billion. " Lag of developing countries on a standard of living and compensation is caused first of all by historically developed labor productivity level, lag of scientific and technical and production potentials. Gross domestic product – economic power of any state directly depends on productivity of the ordinary worker and the scientific and technical personnel: how many made, so much and earned. Russia in the first decade of the XXI century by efficiency of work conceded by 3-5 times to G-7 countries. If to mean that gross domestic product indicator per capita definitely corresponds to the size of real salaries (shower production of gross domestic product in Russia and Kazakhstan at par purchasing power corresponded as 15,9: 12,5 thousand dollars) that is simple to present even more considerable lag of Kazakhstan on a performance level and compensations from Russia, and the more so from world level, especially in branches of real economy and agrarian sector. Costs of the personnel in prime cost of goods in the USA – the main item of expenditure (50-60%) in their total value. Sharp contrast in levels of compensation and respectively population standards of living over the countries is definitely shown in an hourly average rate of compensation in the sphere of production at the beginning of the XXI century on developed and to developing countries: in Germany – 32 dollars, in France – 19, in China – 0,57 dollars, in India and Indonesia don't reach and 30 cents.
Statistically on CIS countries, in Kazakhstan the average monthly nominal salary on one worker takes the second place after Russian. In Russia the minimum wage (MW) is increased since 1.06.2011 from 4330 rub to 4611 rub. These are about 23977 tenges. In Kazakhstan the minimum wage is increased from 14952 tenges in 2009 to 15990 tenges since January, 2011.
It should be noted also that in Kazakhstan which has entered into the Customs union, the prices of the main food differ from Russian a little, and in certain cases even is more expensive, for example, on the dairy. Even petrol prices and fuel which in Russia were earlier significantly higher, in 2011 were leveled. Comparative dynamics of distribution of workers by the sizes of the added salary pays attention. According to official statistics, for the last years the tendency of increase in a share of workers with a salary higher than 75400 tenges is noted. Their share in 2010 made 30,9% that in comparison with 2005 is 25,3 percentage points more. At 65,9% of hired workers its size fluctuates from 25001 to 75000 tenges, at 2,8% - from 12001 to 25001 tenges. In 2010 it made five minimum wages (MW). If to mean that MZP and a living wage at us in the country almost coincide, even on official statistics in Kazakhstan 66% working hardly make ends meet. Especially, when in dependence the same 65,9% of workers have some more million unemployed and those who receives to 25 thousand tenges. It is necessary to refer to the same category and a share of the population having the income is lower than a living wage. In their first quarter 2011 was about one million – 909,1 thousand people, i.e. 5,5% of the population of the country. to the same in the republic in May, 2011 unemployment rate made 5,4%, in other words 469,2 thousand people can't find the appendix of the work according to qualification and extent of preparation. In rural areas the share of the population having the income is lower than a living wage, exceeded a share of the population having the low income in the city district more than three times, and made 9% (675,5 thousand people) .  the analytical material characterizes a measure of social differentiation and degree of employment and the income of various categories of the population. The state and in any society couldn't create at all times equal access to wealth and living conditions for all though can declare these principles. The international standards of social payments, compensations, etc., established for the poorest countries, apparently, hardly are acceptable for such developing states rich with resources as Kazakhstan. Nevertheless local standards of social standards and the compensations dependent equally on structure of economy and a labor productivity level, demand more rational distribution of the income from mineral resources and other means which remain in the state. Situation when the income of the enterprises left the country, and the credits came in the form of investments of the offshore companies, is unacceptable and causes reasonable claims from ordinary workers and poor sectors of society. In this case there is a question of that, the structure of property is how perfect and statement of a question of more large-scale social policy corresponding to the constitutional status of Kazakhstan as the social state is urgent.System of social indicators and standards
The variety of social and economic processes in the conditions of formation of social market economy assumes rather wide set of indicators and indicators by means of which it is possible to estimate not only a level of development of the main spheres of life support of the person, social and economic potential of the population, to reveal tendencies of changes in social development of society, but to expect possible negative economic and social consequences that allows to increase efficiency and effectiveness of realization of social policy.
The major indicator in many respects determining parameters of level and quality of life of the population, level of the income is. In the sphere of the income of the population indicators and the indicators defining degree of an economic inequality in the income between various social groups of the population have special value. Number of most often applied treat coefficient of concentration of the income (Jeanie's index), the coefficient of differentiation of the income of 10% most and 10% of the least wealthy population and a share of the population having the income is lower than a living wage.
Quantitative parameters of these socio-economic indexes and the indicators, recognized by the international organizations as the most optimum for ensuring social stability of society, make:
- the coefficient of concentration of the income (Jeanie's index) has to be no more than 0,250 - 0,260;
- the coefficient of differentiation of the income of 10% most and 10% of the least wealthy population shouldn't exceed 7-8 times;
- the share of the population having the income is lower than a living wage, shouldn't exceed 10%.
Range of fluctuations in indicators of differentiation of the income is explained by bigger or smaller degree of liberal views of economic policy: in the USA where liberalism in economy is traditional, differentiation of the income makes 6:1, in Western Europe, on the contrary, liberalism considerably concedes to traditions of the state paternalism therefore differentiation is much less - 4-5:1, in Sweden - 3:1.
The certain notion of social and economic differentiation of the population can be received, having considered dynamics of distribution of the monetary income of the population on 20 percent (kvintilny) groups for 2000-2010gg.
For this period the population share with the highest income (the fifth group), 38,0 total amounts which have made in 2010 of the income, decreased by only 3%. It means that substantially there was growth of the real income of highly profitable groups as the absolute volume of a gain of their income much more exceeds increase in the sizes of the income of low-profitable groups of the population.Distribution of the income of the population on kvintilny groups for 2000-2010.
Population income, including on 20 percentage groups:
the first group (with the smallest income)
the fifth group (with the highest income)
Income of the population defines a basis of real consumption of families. On the basis of the analysis of socio-economic indexes of personal consumption it is possible to give more exact and full assessment of occurring shifts in distribution of the vital benefits. In the course of personal consumption of people becomes the carrier of a certain circle of the requirements which satisfaction is carried out through consumption of various material benefits and services.
The complex of indicators and indicators of personal consumption includes three groups of the indicators defining:
volume and quality of consumption of food;
structure and structure of material and property potential of households;
level and quality of using material and household and social services.
In world practice structure of consumer expenses of the population is recognized to consider as a peculiar indicator of material well-being. The share of expenses on a food is lower and expenses on nonfoods, and especially on services are higher, the standard of living is higher.
Level and structure of consumed services is an indicator of quality of life of the population. To increase in the income there is a satisfaction not only basic needs of the person, but also expenses on using different types of services grow. The latest high technologies create the market of high technological services, informatization of production and society led to increase in requirements of the population in information products and services, there is growth of tourist services and active forms of rest. The most optimum structure of material and social consumption, in our opinion, is reflected in the rational consumer budget where the share of a food makes 20%, nonfoods - 35% and services - 45%.  ]
Dynamics of structure of consumer expenses of the population of the republic for 1995-2010gg. reflects decrease for this period of a share of a food from 59% to 44% which else remains rather high. It should be noted that decrease in a share of a food happens not only as a result of increase in volume of consumption of food and increase of their quality, but also substantially because of the continuous growth of consumer prices, especially tariffs for housing-and-municipal services. Besides, need of payment of housing-and-municipal services compels the population to change structure of consumer expenses towards restriction of other consumer goods and services.
Structure of consumer expenses of the population for 1995-2010., %
Consumer expenses - everything, including:
Needs of the person for food in comparison with other requirements have priority value. The most important condition of maintenance of health, working capacity and active longevity of the person can be reached and kept only on condition of full satisfaction of physiological requirements for energy and feedstuffs in necessary volume. The satisfaction of needs of the person in a safe, good and adequate nutrition is recognized by the UN and many countries of one of the most important state tasks. Therefore ensuring food security of the country is a basis of material welfare of the population and economic independence of the state.
The food security is defined by a complex of criteria and indicators which reflect its condition in world, national and individual levels. One of the most important indicators of a condition of food security both on world, and at national level, by criterion of FAO (The food and agricultural commission of the UN), is the average annual output of grain per capita which has to be not less than 600 kg.
In system of the indicators defining national food security, self-reliance level the most important types of the food is key. Thus, first, production which production has priority value for ensuring food security is allocated. Such basic food concern to them, as bakeries, sugar, vegetable oil, meat and dairy products, fish.
Secondly, it is necessary to define, to what quantitative parameters there has to correspond self-reliance level these major types of the food. By estimates of leading experts of the All-Russian research institute of agriculture of Russian Academy of Agrarian Sciences, as threshold values of food security on separate food the specific weight of domestic agricultural, fish production and the food in a total amount of commodity resources of domestic market has to make: grains - 95%, sugar - 80%, vegetable oil - 80%, meat and meat products - 80%, milk and dairy products - 90%, fish and fish products - 80%, potatoes - 95%.
The insufficient level of production of the food causes import in the volume necessary for satisfaction of requirements of the population of the country. Criterion of food security of the country, used in international payments, the level of the import food which isn't exceeding 20% of total amount of consumption, or being at the level of not higher than 30% in relation to food resources is.
For an assessment of food security at individual level such indicators, as coefficient of sufficiency of food are used; coefficient of availability of a food; daily caloric content of a food for various social and professional groups; the content of the main feedstuffs in a daily diet (proteins, fats, carbohydrates) and their ratio, etc.
Sufficiency of consumption (coefficient of sufficiency of consumption of the main food) can be defined as the relation of actually developed daily food allowance to a standard indicator. Other not less important indicator reflecting quality of consumption, the availability of consumption testifying to existence of necessary social and economic conditions and factors of its providing is. Availability of consumption (coefficient of availability of consumption) is defined as the relation of cost of a food basket to an average salary (the average per capita income).
Formation of the market of consumer goods, especially products of light industry for years of economic reforms happened against sharp decrease in a domestic production and filling of this niche with import. As a result, there was a reorientation of the Kazakhstan consumers on cheap, often low quality import goods. The republic shouldn't depend on import in providing with goods of mass demand which were made in the country during the prereform period in the wide range and appropriate quality. Development of the textile and light industry, being in many developed countries the branches forming the budget has to become the most important direction of economic policy of the state. Besides, it must be kept in mind that the textile industry along with the food is included into number of 5-7 branches defining long-term specialization of national economy in non-oil sector.
Realization of policy of social modernization of the country causes priority of the solution of tasks of increase of level and quality of personal consumption of the population of the republic to what the situation which has developed in this subsystem testifies.
The most important problem of regulation of processes in the sphere of consumption of the population in the conditions of existing differentiation both on the volume and structure, and on quality of consumption of the material and social benefits is ensuring their availability to various social and property groups of the population. The solution of the problem of increase of level and quality of material and social consumption is connected not only with building of food resources, development of a consumer complex and growth of the income of the population, but also with price control to consumer goods and services. Ensuring price availability of consumer goods and services for all social groups and groups of the population is the most important direction of growth of welfare and society human development.
Need of the concrete analysis of the sphere of work and employment is caused by changes social экономическосго provisions of separate groups and segments of the population as a result of transformation of the relations of property, distribution, the organization of work, emergence of new tendencies and the directions in labor and social mobility. Economic transformations qualitatively changed social and economic structure of society, led to appearance of hired workers, a class of owners, independently busy, jobless that, in turn, assumes use of system of indicators and the indicators defining a condition and a level of development of this major sphere of activity of the population.
For an assessment of level and quality of labor life the complex of the indicators including number of economically active and busy population, number of hired workers and independently busy, unemployment rate, number taken on economy branches, a share of hired workers with a various education level and qualifications and other indicators is used.
For years of formation and development of the market relations by natural reaction to decrease in a standard of living, unemployment growth, deterioration of material living conditions there was an increase in self-employment. Independent employment is the work based on a personal initiative, independence, the responsibility, allowing financially to provide itself and the family.
Adapting for new economic conditions, the population uses all social and economic resources which are available at its order. The special social importance of independent employment consists in change of the social status, in overcoming of waiting and passive installations, in increase of labor and social mobility. .
According to RK Agency statistically from total number of the self-busy population which number in 2010 made 2664,6 thousand people, 62% were occupied in agriculture, 22,1% - in trade and car repairs, 15,9% - in other types of economic activity. Considering rather high level of the self-employment which has made in 2010 of 33,3% of the busy population, and also its role in providing material living conditions, special approach to management of its development as the population being in job search, doesn't seek to be independently busy is necessary.
However processes of improvement of quality of labor potential of society in the conditions of industrial and economic development of the country are connected with formation and increase in number of the middle class being in any state a basis of economic and social stability. Therefore to trace tendencies of its formation, to form conditions under which it could be approved in society and to become the most important source of social and economic development are problems of modern social policy of the state.
In a complex of the indicators defining structure, number and potential of middle class, indicators and parameters of material security, education, social and economic behavior enter, that is approach to research and an assessment of middle class as multidimensional social and economic phenomenon is used.
For determination of number and structure of the Kazakhstan middle class we used the following socio-economic indexes: income, consumer potential of households, including a food, property security, using different types of services; level of development of qualification resources (education, skills, qualification); extent of social and economic adaptation to new living conditions; self-identification.
Information base for determination of number and structure of middle class are materials of special sociological polls, data of selective examinations of the house farms conducted by RK Agency statistically, and also statistical data on level of the income and population distribution by the sizes of the income, an average salary, savings, existence of real estate, property security, an education level, about distribution of the busy population by types of economic activity, about forms of self-employment and other indicators.
In the republic experts of the top and average skills of such industries, as mechanical engineering, chemical, food and light industry, workers of science, education, health care, culture could make a real basis of middle class. For example, in 2010 compensation level in production of cars and the equipment in relation to a srednepromyshlenny indicator made 75% whereas in 1991 this indicator made 98,6%, in the food industry, respectively - 66,5 and 82,6, in textile production - 39,3 and 88,3, in the chemical industry - 71,5 and 93,6, in education - 46,4 and 61,5, in health care of-48,0% and 61%. The main social and economic resource of these potential representatives of middle class are education and professional qualification.
Stimulation of economic activity of the population, creation of necessary conditions at which each person will provide with the work worthy conditions for and the family, becomes the main reference point of social policy of the state at the present stage. Formation of middle class in Kazakhstan is possible on the basis of increase of the labor income and receiving new market sources of the income. The solution of this task will promote not only to replenishment of structure of middle class at the expense of his potential representatives, but also to growth of welfare of considerable part of the population of the country.
Special value has the analysis of size and dynamics of social norms and standards and their ratios with the actual indicators. Social standards in the sphere of the income and consumption include the minimum size of a salary, the minimum size of pension, the sizes of social benefits, a living wage, a consumer basket. Dynamics of ratios of standard sizes with the actual indicators give the chance to estimate efficiency of social policy and social protection of the population.
In system of social indicators and indicators the consumer budgets of the population which are among complex and backbone social standards as their sizes and structure are initial for justification of quantitative and qualitative parameters of many socio-economic indexes have the extreme importance.
The system of consumer budgets of the population includes a living wage, the social consumer budget and the rational consumer budget, reflecting different level of material and social consumption. The size and structure of the consumer budget of any level are formed depending on a complex of such social economic factors, as physiological requirements, a floor and age, national traditions, conditions and a way of life, climatic conditions, an education level, the social and professional status, working conditions (weight, harm, mechanization level).
Most fully the methodology of creation of consumer budgets of the population of different level of prosperity is developed in the All-Russian center of a standard of living. This system of the standard consumer budgets being criteria standards of level and quality of life of the population, includes: consumer budgets of low prosperity (budgets of a living wage) and social acceptable (recovery) consumer budgets; average prosperity (consumer budgets of average standards of life); high prosperity (consumer budgets of high standards of life). Comparison of the actual monetary income of the population with system of standard consumer budgets of different level of prosperity allows to allocate the social groups of the population which qualitatively different on level of the current monetary income and structure are caused by them of consumption
Now there is a need for use of all system of consumer budgets which differ degree of satisfaction of material, social and spiritual needs as their volume and cost are initial for calculations of many social economic indicators.
The most important in system of the social indicators defining a standard of living and extent of social and economic differentiation of the population, the living wage which is used for is: determination of the minimum sizes of main types of the monetary income and other social payments, trackings of real dynamics of key parameters of cost of life, establishment of line (threshold) of poverty, carrying out policy of social protection and support of the most vulnerable categories of the population, etc.
When forming a consumer basket of a living wage at the present stage it is necessary to proceed from the accounting of the processes happening in branches of education, health care, housing-and-municipal sector, and also in the market of consumer goods and services. These processes have direct impact on volume and quality of consumption by the population of material benefits and services and have to be taken into account when developing social standards.
In a basis of new structure of a living wage the standards determining volume of consumption not only material benefits, but also social services have to be put. Such living wage assumes first of all increase in standards of consumption of food, nonfoods and services, and also their new filling, that is increase in a share of nonfoods and, especially, services in a consumer basket. Such social standard will allow to estimate adequately a standard of living of various layers and groups and by that to promote efficiency of social policy on improvement of quality of life of Kazakhstan citizens.
Overcoming of existing social and economic disproportions in compensation of various branch and professional groups requires strengthening of a role of the minimum size of a salary. As criteria of determination of the minimum wage the social standard calculated on the basis of a living wage of able-bodied population, reproduction of labor of simple skilled work reflecting a minimum level has to serve. Use of the minimum wage calculated on the basis of a consumer basket of able-bodied population, reflects objective conditions of reproduction of labor.
It is possible to approach to determination of the minimum wage from a position of establishment of its ratio with level of an average salary. This indicator depending on level of economic development to be in many countries in the range from 40 to 60%, in the republic for a number of years it didn't rise higher than 27%. Use of a living wage of able-bodied population will allow not only to define real level of the minimum wage, but also will promote establishment of more reasonable ratios in levels of a salary of employees of various branches, the enterprises and professional groups.
For an assessment of a real standard of living of the population and separate social groups it is possible to use a ratio of the shower monetary income with the size of a living wage, the social consumer budget, the rational consumer budget. It will allow to allocate social groups on level of material well-being and consumption type, to trace dynamics of changes of a share of the needy population, to reveal degree of social disproportions and in due time to correct the main directions of policy of social protection.
The solution of tasks on increase of the income of the population and decrease in their differentiation is connected, first of all, with providing the minimum social guarantees in the sphere of the income (a salary, pensions, social benefits) which initial basis is the consumer budget defining socially necessary level of life support.
The minimum consumer budget allows to determine the necessary volume of resources for compensation not only physical and intellectual expenses, but also for social reproduction of the person, development and improvement of quality of its potential. Therefore its size can form a basis for definition of the valid requirement of society in the consumer benefits, and also for development of medium-term programs on increase of level and quality of life of the population as this consumer budget is the social standard of higher level, than a living wage.
In the conditions of dynamically developing economy of the republic and realization of active social policy it is necessary and it is possible to carry out transition from the living wage calculated generally on compensation of power expenses of a human body to use of qualitatively new consumer standard, providing a necessary consumption level not only material, but also the social, cultural benefits and services. Such standard is the minimum consumer budget that will give the chance to reveal the strongest social disproportions and to develop effective measures of social protection of the population.
Transition to construction and use of the minimum consumer budget is the objective process caused, first of all that the living wage as the basic social standard ceased to correspond to the changed social and economic conditions of activity of the person.
Scientific development of the minimum consumer budget and technique of construction and calculation of size of the minimum consumer budget would allow to begin formation of regulatory base for use it in social policy. Application of the minimum consumer budget will allow to estimate adequately a standard of living of various segments of the population, to receive a better understanding about the main indicators of welfare of the population and will give the chance to estimate a choice of the main directions of increase of a standard of living of the population.
In the conditions of realization of strategy of industrial and innovative development of the country and carrying out active social policy it is necessary and it is possible to carry out transition from the living wage calculated generally on compensation of power expenses of a human body to use of qualitatively new consumer standard, providing a necessary consumption level not only material, but also the social, cultural benefits and services. Preconditions for transition to development and use in social policy of the national quality standard of life will be as a result created.
For an assessment of qualitative parameters of social development of society the rational consumer budget reflecting high welfare and developments of the personality has the special importance. It is qualitatively new consumption level, in the direction to which there is a development of necessary needs of the person as the rational set is developed not only taking into account social and economic, social demographic, climatic conditions and factors, but also taking into account essential improvement of quality of consumer goods and services and emergence of their new types meeting modern requirements. The volume and the structure of consumption defined on the basis of rational norms and standards, can become a basis of definition of necessary resources of the consumer benefits for the perspective period.
At creation of the rational consumer budget it is necessary to consider changes in structure of needs of the person, and also emergence of new requirements. The rational consumer budget reflects development of the progressive tendencies connected with increase in expenses on housing in the present stage, services of education, culture, health care, rest, information services on the basis of increase of their quality and a variety of services, instead of at the expense of a rise in prices and tariffs as it occurs now. Reduction of a share of products has to be relative at absolute increase in expenses at them.
The rational consumer budget is based on scientifically reasonable norms of consumption of the material and social benefits and the services necessary for full satisfaction of reasonable needs of the person. It includes a balanced diet, qualitative housing, high security with subjects of long using, modern equipment of household and cultural purpose, innovative goods, high-quality services of health care, education, rest, and also other, consumer goods available in the market and services.
The solution of problems of industrial and innovative development of the country, set by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A.Nazarbayev, directly is connected with human development and improvement of quality of life of all Kazakhstan citizens. The social standards corresponding to the international criteria are necessary for estimation of cost of life. The standard reflecting various aspects of life of the person has to meet these requirements.
Development of the national quality standard of the life including such social components as compensation, pensions, social insurance, standards of a social family support, standards of educational services and health care, standards of providing the population housing, standards of the general and information culture of the citizen, ecological safety, at the present stage becomes the most important direction of improvement of system of social standards. As the national quality standard of life is a complex indicator, for its development, first of all, it is necessary to define social standards of the major spheres of activity and life support of the population of the republic.
In system of the indicators defining level of security of the population with the major social services, the main are the indicators reflecting limit threshold values, menacing to quality of potential of society, are:
share of the public expenditures to gross domestic product;
the sum of expenses for the services, defined on the basis of the state social standards of security;
coefficient of availability of socially significant services as a percentage to the cumulative income of a family.
Among these indicators the amount of financing of social expenses as a percentage to gross domestic product, directed on education, health care, science, ensuring the ecological safety which size is in direct dependence on level of economic development of the country is key.
The increase in the state investments in development of priority branches of the social sphere having key value for formation of the human capital - a major factor of economic growth and society development, will allow to solve a number of tasks, the major for transition to model of sustainable social development. First of all, growth of social investments will provide accumulation and further improvement of quality of human potential of society. Not less important is improvement of conditions of employment and compensation increase in the budgetary branches where a manpower possessing high qualification is concentrated.
Specifics of the sphere of material and social consumption of the population is caused by market regulation of processes of production of material benefits and services and the state guaranteeing minimum necessary level of life support to all members of society. The main directions of increase of level and quality of consumption of the major material benefits and socially significant services are connected with development of agriculture and a consumer complex of the republic, with increase in the amount of financing of the branches providing social reproduction of the population, with realization of the mechanism of increase of the real contents of the income of the population and measures of support of social and vulnerable layers.
Efficiency of social management substantially depends on use of scientifically reasonable system social economic indicators and indicators on the basis of which it is possible not only to estimate objectively a real situation and tendencies of changes in level and quality of life of various social groups, but also to estimate possible negative consequences that, finally, will promote successful realization of policy of social modernization of the country.
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