Completion of the formation of the Kazakh nation
Completion of the formation of the Kazakh nation
The Mongol conquest had on the whole a great influence on the course of ethnic processes in the territory of Kazakhstan. It was the most important political factor, qualitatively changed the course of development of ethnic groups in the region, has opened the way to the addition of new ethnic and social communities. The previous evolutionary formation paths of the above-mentioned large feudal nations on the territory of Kazakhstan were interrupted. In the ethnic sense many aspects of life of the local population has changed in particular the ethnic composition of the population has changed, the shape of Ethnos-social organizations, socio -economic conditions of its life, etc.
The above mentioned new ethnic group the Turkic and Mongol tribes, which appeared on the territory of Kazakhstan in the era of the Mongol invasions. The number of the Mongols was relatively small compared with the conquered peoples , but they were ruling class and the core of the military forces in each of them educated ulus - states. In the Golden Horde Mongols were only a quarter of the troops , from 40 thousand in the early years to 100 million by the turn of the XIV century. The army of Batu Khan named in sources Kupchak because 3/4 of it consisted of Kipchak and other Turkic tribes. On the territory of the steppe of Kazakhstan , where he received Ulus Orda- Ichen was about the same as the Mongol army , "Out of the troops of Jochi Khan - said Rashid al -Din - he was in charge of one half, and the other half - Batu . Up to 200 thousand nomads of Mongolian and Turkic tribes from the Altai and Southern Siberia ( kungrat , Barlasov , baarinov . Dzhalai , etc.) in the Seven Rivers and moved to the middle of Prityanshane .
But gradually Mongols have dissolved in the numerous Turkic peoples, adopted their language and customs. On the vast territory of the Golden Horde, except Kipchak who made up the bulk of the population, lived Kangly, Naiman, Kerayit, Uysun , kensgesy, Argyn and many others. Arab geographer and traveler Al- Omari very vividly described in the XIV century, the process of assimilation in the Golden Horde : " In ancient times, the state was the country Kipchak , but when they took possession of the Tatars , the Kipchak became their subjects. Then they mixed and intermarried with them, and the land prevailed over natural and the racial qualities of them , and they all have exactly became like Kipchak , as if they were one with them genus so the Mongols settled in the land of Kipchak , entered into a marriage with them and stayed with them to live on their land ( Kipchak ). This observation applies to the eastern part of the Golden Horde - the territory of Kazakhstan.
Involved in the wars of conquest , the nomads of the eastern part of the Dasht-i Kipchak not always returned to their former habitats, they remained in the new conquered territories ( Bulgaria , South Russia ). Part of Kipchak under the pressure of Mongols moved to other areas within the Northern Kazakhstan and Western Siberia. There also were gone Naiman , Kereity . This led to the decrease of population in their native land, to weakening of the economic potential. Particularly strong Mongol conquest violated the existing ethno-political structure in the Seven Rivers. Former urban and rural part dissipated , gone to other places, part of the type of farming has changed . Capturing the Mongols better pastures , especially in East Kazakhstan and the Seven Rivers , inevitably led to the ousting them from the indigenous population, and division of the seized territory by Mongol nobility in Uluses led them to uncoupling ethnically related groups. Have been described similar changes in Southern Kazakhstan.
With the formation of the Mongol Empire and formation of uluses, integration of tribes and nations was accelerated, both lived in this territory and migrated from the east. New social structures, feudal holding, Uluses significantly changed the ethnic map of the region. Divided the local population to " thousands " and " Tumen" , divided the nomadic tribes into several ulus , the Mongols mixed population , moved they large arrays to new habitats . Replacing close family relationships to territorial relations helped accelerate process of the consolidation of the nomadic population to the nation. In the western part of the Golden Horde, this process was faster than in the east, on the territory of Kazakhstan , due to a more favorable economic conditions - in terms of the ratio of sedentary and nomadic areas , the preservation of old and construction of new cities - and more intense social development of the Golden community.
With the establishment of Mongol rules Kazakhstan have developed a particularly difficult environment for ethno-political development of the local population, because of the exceptionally adverse social and economic consequences. The reduction of the area of urban and agricultural culture in the Mongol era due to the current economic condition did not contribute to the survival, increased the proportion of nomadic cattle-breeding sector of the economy , slow social development, one of the main manifestations of which was strengthening of the surviving forms of social organization - all of this strongly influenced to the course of ethnic processes. The destruction of the economy led to the rupture of economic relations that hindered the ethnic cohesion.
But gradually economic life was restoring . Began to revive the city in the south of Kazakhstan, the centers of agriculture in the former areas of settled culture, was expanding exchange of goods , household contacts of the population of different regions was restoring, which provided communication of tribes, tribal organizations, and other ethnic and political groups . These processes were associated with the history of the formation and consolidation of the Ak- Horde, Khanate Abulkhair Khan, Nogai Horde and Moghulistan. In these states appeared more favorable conditions for the political, economic and social development of the population of East Dasht-i Kipchak and the Seven Rivers, networking and cooperation in all its forms of social life than it was in the Mongol Uluses. Politically united ethnic tribal areas, small ulus and ownership that occurred as a result of civil wars and wars of the Golden Horde and Chagataidskom state, said States have revealed a more solid , ethnically segregated State organization , ensuring territorial and political unity of tribal associations, the possibility of development of economy, culture, peaceful contact people in different regions of Kazakhstan.
It is known that an important condition for the merger of tribes in the nation is the self-development of the economy, economic relations. That's when the nomadic and semi-nomadic cattle breeding with special need were establishing business relations with adjacent territories settled agricultural and urban culture due to the nature of these different-economic areas. It was creating a single economic region with a population of stable relations in economic terms and in ethno-cultural, ethno-political, household contacts were established not only between members of a closely related ethnic groups , but also other ethnic groups.
In the first half of the XIV-XV centuries, during the Ak-Orda, the state of nomadic Uzbeks. It was stabilizing the ethnic composition of the tribes in the territory of Kazakhstan, smoothed out the differences between local and moved many Turkic, Mongolian tribes, were establishing common features of different ethnic tribal groups. These states in the composition of the population were essentially multi-ethnicity. The ethnic composition of the Ak- Orda, Khanate Abulkhair (States Uzbek nomads , the Nogai Horde was basically identical . They were inhabited by Turkic-speaking tribes, known in the written sources of the time under the collective term ethno-political (etnopolitonimom) "Uzbek": Kipchak, Uysun, Kongrats, Kerayit, Mangyts, Argyns, Karluk, Kangly, Naiman. In addition to these sources call tribes and clans Burkut, Kyyatov, Utarchi, jati, Chimbas, Kenegs, Durman, Karlaut, Taymasov, Shadbakly, Madjars, Oirats etc." Many of these tribes are known in the Kazakh Middle and Little zhuzes . Another part of the turn of the XV-XVI centuries . went to Central Asia and took back the name " Uzbek. " In the Nogai Horde Kipchak tribes , Kangly , Naiman , Uyshun kungrat and became part of the Nogai peoples , along with Mangyts , Alshinami , Ktay , Tama , As and others. These were Turkicized and Turkic tribes and clans that were common to a number of Turkic peoples of Central Asia and Kazakhstan , scattered and mixed on the vast territory of the region's by the tumultuous events XIII-XIV centuries. These nations were formed in the era of the Middle Ages almost simultaneously. Formation of this occurred not in isolation but in close contacts of ethnic groups in the political relations of state associations, economic and cultural population. As part of these states ethno-political processes of development were to some extent common for the Uzbeks , Nogai , Karakalpaks , Siberian Tatars , Kazakhs.
Seven Rivers, is part of Mogulistan, inhabited by tribes known in medieval ethno-political sources under the collective term " mogul " : duglaty ( Dulaty ), Kireity (kirei), Kangly (bekchiki), Karluk, kurlauty, Barlas, Сhorasy, dzhalairy, Uysun, Kushchi, Koonchi, Kaluchi, Bulgach and others, numbering more than 30 items. The bulk of these clans and tribes became part of another branch of the Kazakhs - Great Zhuz. Another part of the moguls went to Eastern Turkestan , where they became an integral part of the Uighurs, and the third part - went to Prytyanshane becoming a part of the Kyrgyz.
Originating in ancient historical and ethnographic regions - in the tribal Kypchak and Usun union, and Ak-Orda, and Moghulistan in XIV-XV centuries preserved the continuity of the main ethnic core of the local tribes of ancient Kazakhstan. Ethnic basis of these States and the Kazakh Middle and Great zhuzes were respectively the same local Turkic tribes - the nucleus from certain ethnic territory around which for centuries the progress of formation of ethnic nationalities grouped indigenous and immigrant, family related and unrelated, whole and fragmentation, Turkic and Turkicized ( assimilated ) tribes , clans and their subdivisions .
Staying of these tribes in the states of Ak- Orda, Nogai Ulus (Horde ) , the Khanate Abulkhair , Moghulistan , their common historical fate, such as the common struggle against the power of the khans of the Golden Horde , the need for unity to resist the aggressive policy of the feudal rulers of neighboring states (in particular, Timurid Maurya, Oirats ) contributed to the consolidation of the ethnic population. Unifying factor is the common culture in the broadest sense, including the spiritual and material culture. Entering the different state entities, the population of Kazakhstan in the XIV-XV centuries enjoyed one language, while at the same time, the researchers noted the continuity of the language in the majority of tribal groups and tribes in the pre-and post-Mongol states in the area. The characteristic features of the language were fixed during this time and quite correspond with language monuments kypchaks literature XIV-XV centuries. The historical memory of the people concentrated in folklore - the epic songs , legends . Continued to developing features of the economic and social life , material and spiritual culture of the nation. Anthropological material relating to this time, says the unity mainly anthropological type of the population that is identical to the Kazakhs of following time."
Prolonged entering of population in separate states in the XIV-XV centuries, as before in the Mongol ulus, impact factors noted above was increased , due to which on Kazakhstan territory, there were several knots of ethnic consolidation in the form of three zhuzes. The tribes of each of Kazakh zhuzes were linked by common nomadic routes and had a common ethnic territory, coinciding with the main part of the territories of these states. Great Horde occupied the area from the Syr Darya to the Seven Rivers inclusive, it consisted of Uysun , Kangly , Dulaty ( duglaty ) , Albanians , suany , srgeli , ysty , Oshakty , shaprashty , Zhalair and other Middle Horde occupied areas of Central and North- Eastern part of Kazakhstan , in its structure - Kipchak Argyns , Naiman , Kongrats , kireity , Karluk kinds and other Junior Horde occupied the lower reaches of the Syr Darya , the shores of the Aral sea , the northern part of the Caspian depression. It is composed of tribal association alshyn and tribes such as the Adai , Alash , baybakty , zhappas , tazlar , Kara- Sakai, et al Karakesek '' Time and mechanism of formation zhuzes remain unexplored . Leads sources belong to the late time , but the emergence of components zhuzes , ie, the largest of these tribes in the territory of Kazakhstan was fixed up in the exposition of many historic events in ancient and medieval times .
The main content of the ethnic history of Kazakhstan at the time, was the completing the formation of nationality, the isolation of the tribes in the Kazakh zhuzs, promotion tribes and clans, complementing the ancient autochthonous ethnic cores on their territory, fixed sources of XVII-XIX centuries. You can tell that by the turn of the XV-XVI centuries Zhuzes emerged were already established, but their formation and redistribution the polarization of tribes occurred in previous centuries with the lengthy process addition of nationality, through the ethnopolitical community of the Kipchak, Uzbeks, Nogai, moguls and simultaneously with the entry of certain genera and other tribes to form the Turkic peoples. Final completion of the process of ethnic consolidation of the Kazakh nation slowed by disunity of separate parts, that were part of several government entities. It should be noted that, in XIV-XV cc numerous migration was continuing. Thus, during the wars of Timur Mogul Group moved from Seven Rivers to Central Asia. During the Abulkhair Khan migrated to it tribes of kaluchi, ibulgachi, from the Mogulistan, at some point kirei moved from Seven Rivers to the Middle Zhuz, Nogai-Mangyts moved from the west to the Syr Darya; at the end of the XV century many clans and tribes from the eastern Dasht-i Kipchak moved to Central Asia with Muhammad Shaybani Khan. All of this has destabilized the political situation and made it difficult to consolidate the ethnic population of the vast territory of Kazakhstan.
State Association in the second half of XV-XVI centuries the major ethnic groups of the Kazakh nation and its ethnic territory accelerated the completion of the formation of nationality. Unlike the khanate Abulkhair and Ak- Orda and Moghulistan , the Kazakh Khanate was a broader and more solid ethnic base - it was the current Kazakh nationality. For the first time after the Mongol conquests were united into one state almost all Turkic clans and tribes east Dasht-i Kipchak , Turkestan and the Seven Rivers .
We must consider the issue of ethnic community population in the south of Kazakhstan and the rest of the territory occupied by the Kazakh ethnic group . Written and archaeological data confirm the correlation of the population of the area with the inhabitants of the eastern Kipchak and Deshti Semirechye not only the traditions of economic , political and cultural development, but also ethnogenetical kinship , common ethno-political destinies. On the territory of South Kazakhstan and South West Seven Rivers has long been the butt of the two main ethnic components of formation of the Kazakh nation , the two major communities etnopolitichsskih ancient Kazakhstan - Kipchak confederacy of tribes in Central, Northern and Southern Kazakhstan and Usun union of tribes in the south-eastern Kazakhstan , which became the basis of the Middle and Great zhuzes Kazakhs. Their ethnic territory stretched north and north- east of the middle Syr Darya and the Tau . From the lower reaches of the Syr Darya in the north- west and to the north stretched the land of the Kazakh Little Horde . In fact, all three Juz went to the territory of the medieval Turkestan, that is, to a large part of modern Shymkent region . In Turkestan ( the area near Syr Darya and towns of the area Tau ) in the XIV-XV centuries . lived Kipchak Kangly , Kongrats , Argyns , duglaty , Mangyts , dzhalairy , representatives of other Kazakh and Uzbek tribes and clans . Some of them ( Kipchak Kangly ) lived in this territory since ancient times , while others ( Kongrats , dzhalairy ) settled at the Mongol conquest , although it included a lot of local labor and fragments of tribes , handing them their name , and still others ( duglaty , Argyns , Mangyts , etc.) were here during the wars and migrations under Timur and Barak , and Abulhayrs Dzhanybske , Mogul Khan and Muhammad Yunus Shaibani . Sources of fixed and living together Kazakhs , Uzbeks , Karakalpaks in Turkestan at this time. At the end of the waqf charter XVI century. Signak residents in the neighborhood and its called Kazakhs , Turks (Uzbeks ) , Arabs (descendants of ancient conquerors ) , Karakalpaks . Prolonged stay in the territory of Turkestan various clans and tribes that made up the Kazakhs and Uzbeks Mangits and moguls , led to the ethnic diversity of the local population , the emergence of particular ethnic component of the Kazakh nation , typical for South Kazakhstan. Together with the strengthening of the Kazakh Khanate and the acceleration of the process of consolidation in the nation was composed of the Kazakh clans and tribes who were subordinated rulers Mogulistan , the Siberian Khanate , the Nogai Horde. The collapse of the Nogai Horde , territorial and ethnic Nogai proximity to Kazakhs were the prerequisites for joining the eastern group Nogai ulus to the Kazakh Khanate and the entry of this part of the Nogai in the Kazakh ethnic group in the Little Horde .
The developed nation with the second half of the XV century. known among neighbors and in written sources to reflect current events as " Kazakhs " ( Cossack ) . The origin of the ethnonym Kazakh has long been a subject of debate researchers, reflected in the many legends of the people, folded them about their origin. " In the sources the term was used first asocial sense and means" man , separated from his gosudastva , tribe, clan and forced to lead the life of an adventurer " ( VVBartold ) . According to " Tarikh - and Rashidi " and other sources, the term" Kazakhs " was used to refer to a political group led by Janybekov and Giray , who wandered in the Seven Rivers , first in the form of " Uzbek - Kazakh " ( Uzbek Cossack ) , then " Kazakhs " ( Cossack ) . in the XV century. terms " Uzbeks " and " Kazakhs " do not have a clear ethnic values . So, Ibn Ruzbikhan at the beginning of XVI century. said: "Three of the tribe belongs to the Uzbeks, who are the Glorious in the realm of Genghis Khan. now one of them - shibanity khan and his majesty after a number of ancestors was and is their lord. second tribe - Kazakhs, who are nice all over the world through the power and fearlessness , and the third tribe - Mangyts , and from them the kings of the Astrakhan . With the strengthening of the Khanate Dzhanybek and Giray Kazakhs became known all population subservient to them . Gradually the term " Kazakh " has acquired an ethnic sense and began to be used as an ethnonym to refer to the already established Turkic peoples of Eastern Deshti Kipchak and southern Kazakhstan . One of the latest and most comprehensive summaries information from written sources of the eastern Kazakh term and its social and ethnic interpretation presented in the book S.G. Klyashtorny and T.I. Sultanov.
Real historical consequence of life of the Kazakh Khanate , long-term development of the Kazakh state in its policy framework was unified Kazakh nation . Consciousness of the people of ethnic unity reflected in the epics , in a bitter struggle with Shaybanidami and Ashtarkhanids Maurya, Siberian and Russian authorities in the Irtysh and the Altai, Dzungar taishas in the Seven Rivers , and in the lands of the East Kazakhstan Kazakh people defended their indigenous ethnic territory , in the XVI century . mentioned in written sources of the term " Kazakhstan "
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