He was born in May 12, 1879 in the foothills
Zhilandy of Makanchi-Sadyrovskogo district of Lepsinsk country of Semey region.
His father Tynyshpay was from the noble Kazakh family and was the member of the
land committee, created by the military governor of Zhetysu the General G.
Kolpakovsky. In 1889 he brought his to the city
Verny for training. Mukhamedzhan successfully completed a two-year preparatory
class and then began to study in Verny gymnasium. For successful study he
constantly received certificates for good performance. According to his high
school characteristics “…Tynyshpayev with big and constant interest became
engaged in Russian history and the history of Russian literature and culture.
In particular, he soon proved equally capable to study mathematics ancient
languages and Russian literature”. In 1990 M.
Tynyshpayev graduated Verny gymnasium and enrolled in the Petersburg State Transportation
University named after Alexandre I due to request of the director of Verny gymnasium
M.Vakhrushev. In this request was mentioned that “…the student Tynyshpayev in
all aspects is a model student with outstanding capabilities, so I consider as
part of duty to ask Your Majesty to provide scholarship to Tynyshpayev as
without it he would not be able to continue his education at university”.
In St. Petersburg, M. Tynyshpayev lived
in Turkestan dorm, which was organized by the order of the Governor-General of
Zhetysu. He was paid 420 rubles annually, 60 of which were provided for the
purchase of essential clothing, shoes and school supplies. Mukhamedzhan
Tynyshpayev had training in the steppes of Kazakhstan, where at that time the
railway Orenburg-Tashkent was in construction. In 1906 he participated in the
survey expedition of A. Golembiyev on the study of future tracks Turkestan-Siberian
Railway. In the same year M. Tynyshpayev passed his school exams, defended the
course project on the subject “Construction of the Turkestan-Siberian Railway”
and was awarded with engineer certificate with the right to draft and produce
all kinds of construction work, also with the right to the rank of a collegiate
secretary when joining the civil service.
In 1906 he started to work as engineer on the construction
of the Mid-Asia Railway. Mukhamedzhan took an active part in the construction
of a bridge across the River Amu Darya.
In February 1907, he was elected to the 2nd
State Duma from Zhetysu area. On June 3 of the same year the State Duma was
dissolved and Mukhamedzhan returned to Turkestan.
Since 1911 Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpayev worked as the head
of department and then as the chief engineer of railway construction area
called Ursatevsk-Andizhan. In 1914 he went to work for the construction of
roads Zhetysu (beginning Turksib), where he was the head of a small section of
the railway line, and then the chief engineer of the line from Arys to
After the February Revolution of 1917, in April was created
Turkestan Committee by the Provisional Government in order to solve the issues
In 1917, he as a delegate from Zhetysu area, I
participated in All-Kyrgyz Congress in Orenburg and became one of the delegates
to the All-Russian Constituent Assembly. In 1917 he was elected as Prime Minister
of Turkestan autonomy, but due to the divergence of views with elected Foreign
Minister Mustafa Chokay left his post and went to Tashkent. Chokay, as Prime
Minister of Turkestan autonomy in December 1917 participated in All-Kyrgyz
Congress in Orenburg, where Alash (Kazakh) autonomy was proclaimed and joined
the Government “Alash Orda”, the chairman of which was Alikhan Bokeikhanov.
In 1919, M. Tynyshpayev moved to Turkestan where
Soviet power was established. In 1921, he was appointed as the head of the
department of water resources of Ministry of Agriculture and Food (from 1946 known
as the People’s Commissariat for Agriculture - Narkomzem) of Turkestan in
Tashkent. In 1922, Narkomzem appointed M. Tynyshpayev to a similar position in Shymkent.
July 22, 1922 he lost his wife Gulbahram, the mother of his three children:
Iskander, Fatima and Dina, who died of cholera. ThereafterMukhamedzhanTynyshpayevreturnedtoTashkent.
In 1924 he was invited to Kazakh Pedagogical
University, which was opened in Tashkent, to work as teacher of mathematics and
physics. During this period he had been collecting information about the origin
of zhuzs with description of the history of the Kazakh clans, formed the table
of genealogy of tribes with short description of life and death of khans,
batyrs, biys and akyns. He also lectured on the subject in the Turkestan
department Russian Geographical Society. He published the researches: “ The
burial Koksu and mound Kaylak”, “History about tribal composition of the
population of Tashkent district”, “Kazakhs in 17th and 18th
centuries”, “Victory and defeat of Kazakhs”, “Materials on history of
Kygyz-Kazakhs people”. He devoted a lot of time to community service and
In 1925, M. Tynyshpayev was offered the position of
chief engineer on improvement of the city Perovska (former Ak-Mechet
(White-Mosque), renamed in Kyzyl-Orda due to change of the capital of Kazakh
SSR from Orenburg. Under his leadership were build houses and administrative
buildings of brick, was designed and built channel Sarkyrama to provide water
March1, 1926, M. Tynyshpayev moved to Alma-Ata and started
to work as the director of transportation department of Zhetysu province. Under
his leadership were built road Alma-Ata — Pishpek (now Bishkek), was conducted
the researches on the construction of roads Alma-Ata — Taldykorgan and proposed
the new version of road Alma-Ata — Khorgos.
In January 1927, by the proposal of Ryskulov M.
Tynyshpayev was included in the Committee on the construction of Turksib, which
was created in December 1926. Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpayev actively participated in
the preparation of the “staff on maintenance of the road”. By his initiatives
were created courses, where 60 young Kazakhs were trained.
He worked on the development of the project (known as Chokparsky
version) on laying railway tracks through Chokparsky that saved 25 million and
almost a year earlier the construction of Turksib was built. In 1928, he
insisted to maintain the Balkhash version of the route opposed to Lepsinsk, so
it helped to save about one million rubles in the construction of one hundred
thousand rubles a year in railway operation. M. Tynyshpayev worked on the
correction of the errors of Alma-Ata station made by the design engineer.
In September 1929, the head of Turksub construction V.
Shatov issued a decree about the formation within the production department of
Turksib a special service — parts of the way, the head of which was appointed
In those years M. Tynyshpayev married to Aziza Shalymbekova,
but their marriage did not last long. ShewithherlittledaughterYenlikmovedtoMoscow.
August 3, 1931, he was arrested because of denunciation,
but after long criminal investigation the evidence was not found. His third
wife Amina at that time with his little son Daulet went to hiding. He insisted
to give his son his wife’s surname Sheikh Ali. The next arrest M. Tynyshpayev was accused and
in April 20, 1932 was given the penalty – 5 years of exile to Voronezh. Being
under the supervision of technical department, he worked in the office of construction
of a new railway line Moscow- Donetsk. After
his return from exile he went to build a railroad Kandagach-Gur’ev, where he
got sick, and then he moved to Tashkent.
In November 21, 1937, M. Tynyshpayev again was
arrested as an “enemy of the people” and shot. September 29, 1959, by the decision
of the Supreme Court of the Kazakh SSR M.Tynyshpayev was rehabilitated. In
February 1970, he was rehabilitated by Prosecutor’s Office of USSR and the
Military Prosecutor of the Turkestan Military District.
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