If a nation does not know its history, if the country loses its history, then its citizens have nowhere to go.
Mirzhakyp Dulatuly

Astana Summit and Eurasian component

K.T. Zhumagulov, doctor of historical sciences, professor, the head of a chair of World History of Kazakh National University named after al-Farabi, Honorary professor of the University of Gottingen.

The important event happened in the current year – the State from the former USSR took post of the Chairman of OSCE for the first time. This state was the Republic of Kazakhstan – the country increasingly developing in the post-Soviet space.

Carrying out of the Summit in Astana after eleven-year intermission is the result of international recognition and authority of Kazakhstan and our President Nursultan Nazarbayev.

The fact that 75 official delegations from states-participants and the partners of OSCE, as well as the largest international and regional organizations – United Nations, EU, CIS, EAEC, SCO, CSTO and many others, is the evidence of international importance of such large forum, which has been held in Kazakhstan.

The Presidency of the Republic of Kazakhstan in OSCE showed the entire world that Astana can do this, because our country is considered to be a leader in the area of whole Central Asia and it is also the key partner of European Union in the region. Figuratively speaking, OSCE has got a fresh view of the old problems and the new “Eurasian face” with the Presidency of Kazakhstan. Those mechanisms for security, which have been already created by OSCE, are respected in the Republic. However, Astana is clearly aware of the necessity of their gradual modernization.

Speaking on the summit, the President of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev noted that today the start to the formation of Euro-Atlantic and Eurasian community of united and indivisible security is being given in Astana. This summit, according to the head of state, is being held in a new country, which in many ways has become independent due to regulations and principles of Helsinki Final Act, determining the right of states and nations to have a free choice of the development way, sovereignty and territorial integrity.

Uniqueness of this summit consists in the fact it is carried out in the heart of Eurasia, a thousand kilometers away from geographical boundaries of Europe. This fact, first of all, shows the changed paradigm of European security.

Sources of the most dangerous threats and challenges to stability of European continent proved to be outside its limits in the beginning of the XXI century. For example, 43 states, participants of OSCE, involved in the problem center in Afghanistan. Kazakhstan stands for elaboration of complex settlement strategy, restoration of economy and peaceful life.

Burning political crisis in Kyrgyzstan could become a catalyst of new conflicts in Central Asia, - the Head of state emphasized. – We effectively took advantages of all OSCE instruments in cooperation with the leaders from the USA, Russia and other partners to prevent conflict escalation and to stabilize this country. [1]

Now, the main sources of drugs traffic, illegal migration, slave trade, as well as the threat of proliferation of weapon of mass destruction are situated outside Europe. Today many aspects of energy and economic security in Europe depend on the situation in the other part of the world. By the way, this is global financial and economic crisis.

Eurasian security is not a metaphor, but sharp geopolitical fact. Therefore the summit in Astana is a good possibility to analyze OSCE perspectives in global security. The main task of OSCE for the nearest decades is to solve contradictions, to consolidate trust and integration, including the limits of existing interstate associations. Along the “East-West” line, this is the arrangement of interaction between European Union and NATO, on the one hand, and between EAEC and CSTO, on the other hand.

At the same time, the Republic of Kazakhstan didn’t simply become the OSCE platform. It contributed, within its powers, to the overcoming of pan-European identity crisis. It’s proved to be finally evident for many people that Europe can’t live, shutting itself off the rest part of big Eurasian continent, that real new age security is difficult to achieve only within the limits of the Old World, in fact.

As our Head of state declared at the summit, Kazakhstan is ready to be a nexus of Eurasian security. “We intend, - he noted, - to use out presidency in OIC in 2011 for strengthening trust over the whole area of Eurasia. We also offer to start elaborating the issue about comprehensive Eurasian security Treaty” [1].

Last OSCE summit has gone to the world history as a forum, having given a strong impetus for security strengthening, both in Euro-Atlantic region and Eurasia. Meeting of the state leaders in Astana, undoubtedly, has a special meaning.

It’s difficult to overestimate the meaning of the summit in Astana. Literally, the leaders of all member-states of OSCE, the heads of international organizations, including the UN General Secretary gathered together to negotiate in the Independence Palace. In fact, this was the meeting of global level. At the same time Nursultan Nazarbayev afforded to his colleagues, the heads of governments, the rarest opportunity to share opinions on issues, which they were worried about, directly. Secretary of State of the USA Hilary Clinton, the President of Belarus A. Lukashenko, such Presidents as D. Medvedev, M. Saakashvili, A. Aliev and S. Sargsyan gathered at the same table. The Forum gave the chance to express their opinions concerning the future of Kyrgyzstan. European Union also made statements with consolidated position at the summit.

Further there was the most interesting discussion on the protection problems throughout the large area from Vancouver to Vladivostok. The summit participants were unison in opinion that they must not avoid the returning to “Cold War”. Intensification and expansion of dividing lines in Euro-Atlantic and Eurasian space can lead to the serious consequences for the welfare of all mankind. It’s necessary to agree about mutual trust renewal and cooperation continuation with the aim of common security. Exactly in Astana they succeeded in agreement about the creation of “security community”.

The summit elicited community of attitudes of OSCE member-states to settlement of situation in Afghanistan. Kazakhstani policy regarding this distressful country has been approved and evaluated very highly, because our state has set course for humanitarian assistance to the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. A thousand of students from Afghanistan will study at Kazakhstani institutions of higher education.

As the General Secretary Ban Ki-moon noted, Kazakhstan helps to pave the way to the new age of interaction. This is a historical summit. It gave us the opportunity to gain progress in many issues. Especially, it concerns the process of non-proliferation of nuclear weapon. According to the words of Germany Chancellor, Angela Merkel: “First the OSCE Summit is being carried out in Central Asia. It helps us to take a new view of this region. The last summit was held eleven years ago, the world changed from that time, as well as the space from Vancouver to Vladivostok changed too. Astana is the bright example for that”.

The President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev: “The Summit is being held in the eastern region for the first time. And I’m twice pleased to be in the capital of amicable Kazakhstan, because energy efforts and political will of the President of Organization have helped to give a new impetus to pan-European process”. [2]

Prime-Minister of France Francois Fillon noted that the summit in Astana must mark a new decisive stage in political process of strengthening of collective security instruments.

Abdulah Gul emphasized the Turkey, for its part, is ready to promote to the peaceful conflict resolution in Georgia, Moldova and Azerbaijan on the basis of providing for territorial integrity and sovereignty of these countries.

Prime-Minister of Italy Silvio Berlusconi told that member-states of OSCE can do another step forward in Astana, to make a new sense for community of Euro-Atlantic, Eurasian security. First of all it’s necessary to solve existing conflicts to do that and to deal with their prevention by means of closer coordination between institutions and 18 missions of OSCE, which are implemented in local areas.

Thus, this summit went down in the world history under the slogan “Toward the community of security”. Undoubtedly, Astana declaration will assist to constructive decision of the whole problems range, including those in the area of Eurasia. Our country gave the Organization a chance to return its former authority, to become an important instrument for international decisions again. Astana did its best for OSCE. And now the development of this process depends on those who will be engaged in it in future.

1. Nazarbayev N.A. To the integrated area of common values. - Казахстанскаяправда. December, 2, 2010, page 2.

2. The same issue, page 3.