If a nation does not know its history, if the country loses its history, then its citizens have nowhere to go.
Mirzhakyp Dulatuly

The place of historical and cultural heritage in the system of cultural politics of Kazakhstan


In January, 2004 the State program «Cultural heritage» which became a reference point in cultural policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2004–2006 was accepted [1].

Implementation of similar programs in the cultural sphere became possible as a result of, first, economic development of the country, a country exit from an economic crisis in which it stayed at the end of the last century, secondly, need of complex studying, systematization, introduction to a scientific turn of the documents located in the territory of the countries of the Near and Far abroad, and also studying of the materials which are stored in the state or private archives.

Research expeditions to foreign archives and libraries gave excellent results: it was succeeded to get more than 5 thousand manuscripts and printing editions. In three years scientists of the country carried out restoration of mausoleums, mosques and madrasah, necropolises. Archeologists investigated more than 30 ancient settlements, parking and barrows. Them the Arch of historical and architectural monuments of Kazakhstan — their more than 35 thousand prepares today for the edition. Two of them — Hodzha Ahmed Yassawi mausoleum and an archaeological complex of the Tamgaly — are included in the List of the World Heritage of UNESCO and by that are under protection of UNESCO. The head of state noted huge value of the program for consciousness of the people and national self-identification and placed emphasis on the potential of the Cultural heritage program in the context of interethnic and international mutual understanding of the people of Kazakhstan. For the first time in the history of Kazakhstan, in world history the translation of the unique manuscript which is stored in France, — «Genealogy of the Kazakh khans» was published. The collection of documents includes comments, explanations and indexes in the Kazakh and Russian languages. The head of state emphasized that book series on history, archeology, ethnography and culture will be published further.

The head of archaeological section Karl Baypakov told about excavation which testify to origin of statehood in the territory of Kazakhstan long before the date accepted in the Soviet science. Zharkentsky mosque and the house in Uralsk in which there lived the Tatar poet Gabdulla Tokai, and also Ascension Cathedral in Almaty and the Military and Nikolaev church in Turkestan are restored [2].

Collection monuments of historical and cultural heritage took a special place in cultural policy of the Soviet Kazakhstan. In the 20th years of the 20th century Society of studying of Kazakhstan was engaged in collecting ethnographic, archaeological material. The staff of Society of studying of Kazakhstan by consideration of questions of people’s movements, besides archival materials, used national legends as a source of data on popular uprisings under the leadership of I. Taymanov and M. Utemisov, K. Esimkhanov, K. Kasymov, etc. Members of Society of studying of Kazakhstan collected monuments of national creativity, systematized them and published in the form of collections of songs, published works of scientists about history and culture of the Kazakh people, etc. Thus, the staff of society of studying of Kazakhstan laid the foundation to studying and protection of historical and cultural monuments of the republic [3].

In the 30th years of the 20th century scientific M. Kaznarkomprosa Gavrilov employees it was marked out that Kazakhstan is rich not only minerals, raw materials, but also ancient, original culture. In the territory of the Kazakh steppes it is possible to find traces of the left cultures a little studied by scientists long ago. «M. Gavrilov writes, in reality, the most ancient monuments, mass of the cities, the ancient settlements scattered across Kazakhstan after all still not only are not studied till this moment, not described, they are not registered» [4].

During the post-war period the new, exclusive demands to protection of monuments of culture were made. Specialized institutions and bodies at the Ministries of culture, education, the Institute of history, ethnology and archeology of Ch. Valikhanov organized at Academy of Sciences Kazakh by the Soviet Socialist Republic began to be engaged in preservation and protection of historical and cultural monuments. Specialized institutions were engaged in coordination, carrying out researches, studying, drawing up a scientific assessment and promoting of monuments, the solution of questions of the theory and practice of protection, questions of preservation, restoration and cultural use of historical and cultural monuments, providing the special methodical help in process of protection of monuments and when performing problems of preservation, restoration and cultural use, the solution of questions of the organization of scientists, teachers of higher education institutions, teachers of city and rural schools for education at future generation of a sense of responsibility for a condition of historical and cultural monuments, respect for history. Institutes of protection of historical and cultural monuments rather closely cooperated with others of establishment, schools, with the museums, etc. At the regional local history museums local history circles which entered, besides experts, local historians, historians, geographers, school students and students were created. Similar local history circles received great popularity in Semipalatinsk, North Kazakhstan, East Kazakhstan areas [5].

Due to the fact that the territory of area stretches on the big square, it is rather difficult to track a condition of monuments. Therefore for preservation of archaeological monuments and timely carrying out restoration works the special role of regional departments of the museums, teachers of history and geography of rural schools is noticed. It should be noted that at the excavation made by the Kazakhstan archaeological expeditions students of teacher training colleges, universities and pupils of schools actively took part that, in our opinion, is an important point for education at younger generation of feeling careful and respect for history and culture. The museums of the republic somewhat promoted the accounting of monuments of culture in area, their protection which is subject to use, preservation, restoration, their cultural use, promoting and promotion among the population. Only the museum and regional cultural enlightening departments were practically engaged in questions of the accounting of monuments, their certification, as a result of such actions work on establishment of security zones of historical and archaeological monuments wasn’t organized up to standard and many historical and cultural monuments were unaccounted, not studied, unprotected [6].

One of the main requirements for preservation of a historical and cultural monument is the accounting of monuments thanks to which there is possibility of their protection. Throughout all last century museum workers were engaged in it. The museum was engaged in collecting subjects of material culture of nomadic life of Kazakhs, in this regard took active part in complex expeditions, archaeological expeditions. For example, together with the North Kazakhstan archaeological expedition the regional local history museum of North Kazakhstan worked.

Area of study, protection and broadcast of monuments of historical and cultural heritage rather serious and thin business therefore scientists, the staff of regional, regional and local managements, departments of protection of historical and cultural monuments has to participate in the solution of various affairs which can infringe on interests of protection of monuments finally. Construction of buildings and communications can be referred to such affairs, water management, mountain constructions, electricity drives, etc. Due to the sale of the land plots of special and more attentive relation from employees of land committees are demanded by the earth where historical and cultural monuments, selling such land and building such construction is prohibited. The state some historical and cultural monuments located in the territory of the republic were declared by national property, national historical and cultural monuments, that is they are a considerable component of cultural heritage of the republic and demand special protection. Besides group of immovable monuments — the ensembles and complexes of monuments, territories representing special historical, scientific, art or other cultural value — can be declared by historical and cultural reserves [7].

One of the directions of modern cultural policy is creation on the basis of ancient and medieval ancient settlements and barrows of reserves museums which will be included in system of tourism infrastructure of the republic [1, 89].

There are special rules about research and excavation of archaeological monuments of culture. The right for carrying out archaeological researches and archaeological works has only Institute of archeology named after A. Margulan,
regional and regional archaeological expeditions. All movable archaeological monuments found at excavation or it is casual are property of the state and brought in the museums for preservation.

While carrying out the excavation works or introduction of economic works in the territory where the historical and cultural monument settles down, it is necessary to observe the principle of shared responsibility for safety of objects of history and culture, i.e. responsibility of the citizens and the organizations which are administratively operating of all levels.

Institutes on research, protection and restorations of objects of historical and cultural heritage also exercise control of carrying out in life of political, educational and cultural functions of certain historical and cultural monuments.

In the early nineties last century, in the conditions of disintegration of uniform allied system of the organization of culture, its Kazakhstan part got a tendency to disorder and disintegration. Traditional forms of the cultural organization and cultural life broke up in the eyes. Position of cultural workers and art was the extremely difficult. According to the State Committee of the republic in the sphere of culture it was occupied: in 1990 — 90 thousand people, in 1995 — 65 thousand [8, 64].

The cultural policy represents an integral part of a state policy of the country. In the law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «About culture» of December 24, 1996 N 56–1 state policy in the sphere of culture is defined as «a package of measures, accepted by government bodies on revival, preservation, development and dissemination of culture» [9]. In living conditions of the USSR there was only one model of culture — the Soviet model which was presented by the institutes corresponding to it, is widespread and influenced all spheres of public life. During welfare transformations in the sphere of culture there were a preservation of structure of the developed cultural space and creation of conditions for painless transition to the new economic relations. After decline of economy in 90’s of the 20th century, since 2000 declared in Kazakhstan by Year of culture, the situation in the sphere of culture considerably improved and positive tendencies were outlined in work of cultural institutions. Since 2000 I increased number of the museums, the capacity of concert halls increased, the network of clubs in rural areas extended [10].

The state policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the sphere of culture is pursued on the basis of the principles of freedom of creative activity of citizens; equal rights and opportunities of all citizens in creation, use and distribution of cultural values; protection of historical and cultural heritage; developments of the education systems and education promoting familiarizing with values of the national and world culture, esthetic education of children studying youth in all educational, educational organizations irrespective of form of ownership; exceptions of monopolistic tendencies in the sphere of culture; combinations of the budgetary, commercial and charitable beginnings in financing of culture; combinations of the state and public beginnings of the organization of cultural activity; combinations of professional and nonprofessional (amateur) creative activity; developments of cultural ties with the Kazakhs living abroad as one of factors of preservation of integrity and mutual enrichment of the Kazakh national culture. The state guarantees publicity, openness when developing the main directions of cultural development [9].

Despite democratization of management in the cultural sphere, on creation and acceptance of a number of the laws directed on improvement and stabilization of situation in the cultural sphere there are problems which demand the urgent decision. Such problems include: low social security of cultural workers and art, representatives of creative specialties (artists, film actors and theater, people, musicians), wear of the equipment and acquisition of new tools, scenery, etc. These problems are especially noticeable in the village where there is no own theater, movie theaters where clubs are used not for designated purpose. «The program of development of the sphere of culture for 2006–2008», approved by the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan, sets as the purpose within strategy of entry of Kazakhstan into number 50 of the most competitive countries of the world integration of the Kazakhstan culture in world cultural space with preservation of the best traditions of classical and folk art, thereby solving problems about which it was told above, and the task puts the following: «improvement of standard and legal base; … creation of conditions for development of art and activity of gifted persons; international cooperation and presentation of the best achievements of the Kazakhstan art abroad; material support…» [10, 10].
It is necessary to tell that now, in the conditions of cultural development and creation of conditions for preservation, restoration of cultural heritage of the Kazakh people, came to tell time not about promoting, and about broadcast of cultural heritage, cultural experience, historical and cultural wealth to the subsequent generations. The task of government bodies has to include ensuring comprehensive protection of monuments of culture and possibility of broadcast of rich historical and cultural heritage of the Kazakh people down — from generation to generation. The modern cultural policy pursued in the Republic of Kazakhstan, first of all, it is aimed to provide safety and effective use of historical and cultural property of the country.

In the field of archeology, ethnology, the cultural science and stories modern society are faced by a problem of attraction of school and student’s youth to the actions directed on protection and protection of ancient monuments, to participation in the archeological excavations, ethnographic researches and other actions promoting growth of cultural level of younger generation and increase of interest of students to studying and preservation of monuments of historical and cultural heritage of the republic.

G. Ilyasova
(NKSU named after M. Kozybayev)

1. A state program «Cultural heritage» for 2004–2006»//Collection of acts of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 2004. No. 2, page 82–97.

2. http://www.khabar.kz

3. TsGA RK. f.693. оp. 1. d.68. p.3, 21.

4. TsGA RK. f.693. оp. 2. 29. p.3.

5. TsGA RK. f. 1876. оp. d. 300. p.116

6. TsGA RK. f. 1876. оp. d. 300. p.118.

7. About protection and use of historical and cultural heritage: The law of the Republic of Kazakhstan of July 2, 1992//Sheets of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 1992, N 15.

8. The quote on: N. Erimbetov, Formation of cultural policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan: The thesis on competition of an academic degree of the candidate of politological sciences, p. 2002 — 129.

9. The law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «About culture» of December 24, 1996 N 56–1, 1997.

10. The program of development of the sphere of culture for 2006–2008//Library. 2006. No. 1, p. 4–21.