If a nation does not know its history, if the country loses its history, then its citizens have nowhere to go.
Mirzhakyp Dulatuly

Creative heritage of academician Manash Kozybayev

Creative heritage of academician Manash Kozybayev - e-history.kz

Undoubted merit of M. Kozybayev is an innovative approach to the problems of Contemporary Humanities: «The task of the academic humanities, in this case, consists of a larger education that goes beyond narrow national vision of history, breaking bipolar interpretation of the world, to be attached to the global treasury of historical knowledge. There is a necessity to give a broader perspective to research the reference publication, master advanced technology cliometric surveys, give impetus to more intense development in methodological innovation. «Together with the methodological problems he considered a priority in historical science, questions of ethno-genesis, formation of the Kazakh nation and state, the transformation of Kazakh society, etc. Formula scientific search for truth, in his opinion, should be open discussions «without labeling, in the multiplicity of points of view» (1).

In the creative heritage of academician Manash Kozybayev the period from 1990 to 2002 became the turning time of creative enthusiasm, characterized not only formulation of new problems, but also the formation of a new approach to understanding the entire historical past.

Among the complex issues emerging at this time were set and problems steppe civilization developed its features M. Kozybayev article «Steppe civilization and its lessons." During the 19th and 20th centuries in the literature discussed the question of ownership of nomadic peoples to civilization. The article of M. Kozybayev refuted views Eurocentrist nomads who are «slaves of the steppe», «Prisoner of the climate and vegetation of the annual cycle," invalid «connection to the world," which temporarily included in the field of historical events. The famous English scientist Arnold Toynbee argued that «despite occasional raids on settled civilization date include nomads in the field of historical events, the society is a society of nomads, who has no history»(2).

Disputing the findings of A. Toynbi academician M. Kozybaev proves that civilizations should include continental type civilization has become established from the Altai to the Danube in Dasht-i-Kipchak steppe, most often in literature as Turkic civilization. According to M. Kozybayev, absolutising concept of «step», the researchers are wrong. He defined the Dasht-i-Kipchak steppe features river, mountainous and continental civilization simultaneously.

Defining the natural conditions of «steppe», — M. Kozybaev said: «The natural conditions of the Great Steppe with its rivers (Yenisey Kerulen, Aumont, Irtysh, Edil, Zhaik and Don), mountains (Altai, Ulytau, Karatau, Mugodzhary, Alatau, etc.), with its diversity of vegetation, with abundant wildlife, it could provide an evolutionary development of ethnic groups and states (3).
In contrast to Eurocentrists claiming that the nomads are not able to create a stable social and political institutions, M. Kozybaev explores ancient and medieval state formations on the territory of Eurasia and the neighboring regions: Western Turkic, the Turkic, Karluk Kaganates States of Oguz, Karaganids, Kipchak Khanate Naiman, Kireev, Mongol ulus; then — Ak-Orda, Kok-Orda, Moghulistan, Nogai Horde, and the Kazakh Khanate. These public educations for centuries were in constant interaction nomadic, pastoral and sedentary agricultural and urban cultures, presenting a mixed type of civilization. Turkic peoples lived in Eurasia during the first millennium AD is closely; within cohabitation was forming Turkic Oguz, Kyrgyz and ethnic groups Kipchak. In this regard, M. Kozybaev said: «The unity and continuity in the history and culture of the Eurasian steppes, emerged in ancient times, have not disappeared, but only stained in new ethnic color with the onset of the era of the ancient Turkic» (4).

In the study of steppe civilization M. Kozybaev specify the time of its inception. He thought: «Since the advent of early civilizations to the present day less than six thousand years. Steppe horse-nomadic civilization, in our opinion, began its rapid run from the V century BC, is relatively young. Its core is, no doubt, the Kazakh ethnos»(5).

In modern Nomadology distinguished: early nomads — the Scythians, Sakas, Massagetae, Huns, Sarmatians, «classic» — Mongols, Turks, and later — the Kazakhs and others.
M.Kozybayev’s characteristics of «steppe civilization» include the following components: territory, economic, political, spiritual and cultural life.

The main historical territory «steppe civilization» was the Eurasian steppes, the space between East and West.

M. Kozybaev defines as a special type of «steppe civilization» that combines urban and nomadic civilization-level synthesis, which in the 4th millennium BC There have been important changes in the economic sphere — taming a horse. Source abroad ancient Turkic civilization was Usun State (5th century BC), which, as pointed out by M. Kozybaev were signs of creative evolutionary development (system of government, writing, art, animal style, regular army, etc.)

Special place in the «steppe civilization» had religious beliefs. In the spiritual realm there was clearance Tengrian religion, which had certain plasticity and later organically merged with Islam.
Revealing the content of the steppe civilization by introducing a new categorical historical science unit «steppe civilization», M. Kozybaev outlines its historical significance in the past, present and future. Thus, he points out that in the mentality of the Kazakh people have always been a strong element of tolerance problems inter-ethnical contradictions. He notes: «… since the Great Silk Road in Kazakhstan noticeable principle conscientious attitude, respect for the cultures and customs of other nations. Racism and ethnic superiority is unfamiliar for Kazakh mentality» (6).

Introducing new historical categories — civilization mentality, ethnicity, M. Kozybaev explores the question of where the Kazakh ethnic group in the world civilization. Kozybaev MK examined the history of Kazakhstan and the Kazakh people, in terms of its geopolitical position as a middle territory between Europe and Asia, which housed the Turkic peoples «in the vast steppes of the Great, in the heart of Central Asia, arose and went into oblivion state Huns, Turks, Turks Mongols, to create unique civilization, which is a kind of synthesis of the steppe and sedentary lifestyles, and whose heirs became modern Central Asian nation» (7).

In modern historiography enough multivariate treated ethnic history of the Kazakh people. Kozybaev MK was the author of a scientific theory, «what happened in the pre-Mongol period Kipchak basic, I would say Kazakh kernel with fairly deep cultural traditions, experience a great power. Taips such as Naiman, Kerei, Zhalair, Mangyt, Ongyty and other former title tribes, forming a multi-ethnic «melting pot» with a population of Dasht-i-Kipchak, for two centuries have created a matrix basis of the Kazakh ethnic group. «In contrast to the fairly widespread belief that; Mongol conquest was decisive in consolidating Turkic ethnic group, as a system image Kozybaev MK emphasized: «Phase addition Kazakh nation entered its final stage under the hegemony of Kipchak in the period pre-Mongol conquest, but he was interrupted by the invasion of Genghis Khan and the dismemberment of the empire Kazakhstan ulus»(8).

Innovative approaches were outlined by scientists M. Kozybayev to the history of the White Horde, evolved from the Ulugh Ulus (Golden Horde). The most important source for Mongol and post-Mongol period in the history of Kazakhstan is the «Tarikh-i-Rashidi," study which Kozybaev paid special attention. Disagreeing with the authors of «alternative» history Kozybaev MK emphasizes some ignorant individual representatives of this theory. He remarked: «Ak Orda country Kipchak, after less than a century after the Mongol rule, the state has ceased to be conquerors» (9)

In the creative legacy of M. Kozybayev, the analysis of historical source «Tarikh-i-Rishidi» takes special place; his work «Tarikh-i-Rashidi, «Mirza Muhammad Haidar Duglat» — an outstanding monument of history and culture (1997), «Mirza Muhammad Haydar Duglat about Kazakhs and Kazakh statehood» (1999) (co-authored with K. Pishchulin) raise issues of ethno-genesis Kazakh people, the creation and management of the territory of the Kazakh Khanate.

According to Kozybayev’s definition, viewing this source suggests that «the story of four related Turkic peoples — Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Uzbeks and Uighurs» has common roots. According to him, each of these peoples may consider Mirza Muhammad Duglat domestic historian: «He left a legacy of descendants grade source of historical information on the political, cultural, social and economic life of several Turkic peoples in the 200-year period of their development within a large region, which is occupied by the state Mogolistan…»

Outlining the merits of the author of «Tarikh-i-Rashidi," this source researchers T.Sultanov, K. Pishchulin (10) and others, Kozybaev analysis supplemented by the following provisions: internal factors determining the value of education of the Kazakh Khanate, synchrony of the process in Eurasia, decay superethnos «Kipchak» at the turn of 14th -15th centuries, a short period of formation of the Kazakh Khanate «less than a century after the Mongol rule»(11). Creating statehood coincided with the approval of the ethnonym «Kazakh». The modern term «Kazakhstan» was laid in the study «Tarikh-i-Rashidi," claimed M. Kozybaev. In historical analysis he pointed out the high level of cultural, historical, textual research this source, which glorified the author, determined that this source belongs to the whole East and the whole of humanity.

Scientific Search of academician M. Kozybayev combined with active citizenship, appeal to the most acute problems of the past and the present, the desire to preserve the national identity of the Kazakh language and culture. As a patriot he is concerned about the future of their country. Summarizing research steppe civilization M. Kozybaev notes «Kazakh ethnicity as the unifying principle of the Peoples of Kazakhstan — one of the successors of historical and cultural heritage of the steppe civilization responsible for the solidity of the Peoples of Kazakhstan, for peace and security in the Eurasian expanses, for a progressive dynamic development of the Republic of Kazakhstan, for the implementation of long-termstrategy-2030, as a result of which it would be on a par with developed nations and peoples of the world»(12).

T. Kanayev,
(NKSU named after M. Kozybayev)


1. M. Kozybayev, Problems of methodology, historiography and source history of Kazakhstan (Selected works), Almaty, Gylym, 2006, p.13. 

2. A. Toyinbi, Study of history, 1991, p. 186. 

3. M. Kozybayev, Selected works Steppe civilization and its lessons, Almaty: Gylym, 2006, p. 41.

4. Given works, p. 42.

5. Given works, p. 43.

6. Given works, p. 45. 

7. M. Kozybayev, Selected works, Almaty: Gylym, 2006, p. 15.

8. M. Kozybayev, Selected works, Almaty: Gylym, 2006, p. 16.

9. M. Kozybayev, Selected works, Almaty: Gylym, 2006, p. 68.

10. T. Sultanov, Some remarks on the early Kazakh statehood// Izvestia Academy of Science Kazakh SSR. Series of common science, 1917, p. 54-55. 

11. K. Pishulina, South-East Kazakhstan in the middle of 14th and beginning of 16th century, Alma-Ata, 1977, p. 254-258.

12. M. Kozybayev, Selected works, p. 60. Kazakhstan on the turn of century: reflection and searches. In two books. The first book, Almaty: Gylym, 2000, p. 70-88. 

13. Given works, p. 46.