If a nation does not know its history, if the country loses its history, then its citizens have nowhere to go.
Mirzhakyp Dulatuly

On the development of the individual problems of Kazakhstan's history


Theoretical heritage of M. Kozybayev is more than one hundred scientific and journalistic works on various issues in the history of Kazakhstan. He was at the forefront of new developments conceptual history of Kazakhstan: Kazakhstan under colonialism and totalitarianism, the history of the Kazakh state, etc. In the last few years, «Kazakhstan at the turn of the century: Reflections and origins», «Past and Present» he suggested new methodological approaches to the study and evaluation of the events of the past.

This gives more historical accuracy to consider certain questions of national history. In particular, the trends of socio-economic development of northern Kazakhstan at the turn of the century.

At the beginning of 20th century the economic development of Northern Kazakhstan was farming and ranching focus, sufficiently well-developed trade and was devoid of large industrial enterprises. Akmola and Atbasar counties had a well-developed pastoral economy, and Petropavlovsk and Kokchetav agricultural counties. At the same time, a proliferation of seasonal work in the village and the village. Number of craftsmen in 1913 were as follows: the leather and footwear industry is 212 people, 740 people metalworking, sheepskin and fur — 130 people. Most widely received fisheries listed in Petropavlovsk and Kokchetav Counties. Atbasar and Akmola counties, rich for raw materials, playing the role of provisioning. Led to the development of trade development of industrial enterprises in the primary processing of animal products and farming. In the context of Akmola Province, devoid of big industry, handicraft industry is of particular importance because the task of providing the population with goods could be carried out largely by artisanal and small-scale industry. First cooperative organizations appear in Petropavlovsk county in the late 21st century and counted 33 cooperative in 1913, and by 1917 — 1660. To a certain extent this contributed to the country’s economic collapse, which caused failure of supply and shortages of goods. In addition, the development of trade, the growth of commodity-money circulation could not lead to an expansion of credit operations. Among Kazakhs appear traders who organized special trade associations, lent money at interest. All these processes have contributed to the emergence of agricultural laborers or «seasonal work» (shepherds, salaried workers in seasonal processing of livestock feed).

Russia’s economic development needs, included in Zauralye spaces required reliable vehicles. In 1894 Siberian railway passed through Petropavlovsk. One of the consequences is an increase in the influx of peasants into the territory of Northern Kazakhstan. In 1907, for example, Akmola region took 1st place in the number of immigrants accepted. The total number of persons on the edge was 502,595 people in the period from 1906 to 1909. The intensity of land expropriation herdsmen had increased as migration movement: in the Akmola region in 1893–1901 for the needs of displaced persons was 1.5 million des. of land region and 1908–1910. 2.3 million des. of land.

Emergence of farmers changed herding appearance of steppe. By 1910, there were 555 peasant villages in Akmola region, crop area was 1.6 million in 1915, grain — 60.8 million pounds.

Another consequence of the construction of the railway was the development of cooperatives in the province creameries. It is known that in the early 20th century, the level of development of Russian cooperation was high enough. Butter production center of Russian cooperation has become Siberia. North Kazakhstan by geographical location, climatic conditions and features of economic development became involved in this process and actively participated in it. Thus, in the Peter and Paul Siberian Branch of the Union creameries cooperatives comprised: in 1914 — 49, in 1916 — 52, in 1917 — 60….

Involvement of northern Kazakhstan into a nationwide economy and market economy led to a crisis of the traditional forms of farming, on the one hand, and on the other provided a fairly wide variety of forms and levels of economic development, and in particular this applies to cooperation.


1. GASKO. F. 10. Op. 1. D. 1197. L. 1.
2. GASKO. F. 10. Op. 1. D. 277. L.1.
3. Itogi pereselencheskogo dvizheniya za vremya s 1896 po 1909 gg. T. 1. S.48.
4. TsGA RK. F. 64. Op. 1. D. 1259. S.21.
5. Sbornik statisticheskih vedeniy o dvizhenii skota i urozhaev v KazSSR s 1880 po 1922 gg. Orenburg, 1922. S.50.
6. GASKO. F. 10. Op. 1. D. 1290. L.75.

L. Kozorezova
(NKSU named after M. Kozybayev)