Ethnogenesis, history, culture and spirituality of all the Turkic peoples, including Kazakhs are depicted in Old Turkic Orkhon monuments. Knowing these values in the era of global associations, social cataclysm, the leveling of national cultures and languages today is in need and demand more than ever. These written records fully reflect the spiritual representation of Turks, their understanding of time environment, quantity, and more important for the analyst, show a network of social relations — the problem of power and control in Turkic Khanate, the restorate of the heroic figures of the Turkic world, reveals the issues of peace and war relationships with sister tribes and enemies.
Hagan and Turkic people.
In terms of permanent campaigns and wars, internal tribal conflicts, maintaining parity consensus with powerful neighbors such as China, the Arab Caliphate, Sogdian State, Blue Turks, according to historians, were a formidable force, which occupied immense living space and kept a vast territory under their rule. As written by A. Kadyrbaev, except for the resettlement of Arabs during the Arab conquests VII–VIII centuries, and Europeans during the development of newly discovered continents — America and Australia after the great geographical discoveries, no other nation or even group of nations, ever settled in such grand scale. Moreover, in this époque, the spiritual culture of the steppe rises to the next level — there is a Turkic writing, borrowed ans self-made, and Turkic literature, imprinted by these writings. Ancient Turks are also attached to the world religions — Buddhism, Christianity, Judaism, Islam and master achievements of other civilizations — the Arab, Byzantine, Persian, Indian, Chinese.
It is ironic that the very existence of the ancient state among researchers led to a controversial opinion. In some historical documents in translation v. V. Radlov, S. E. Malov, ancient Turkic society is described as a confederation of tribes or tribal alliance, although the expression «public service», «polity» are found in the translations of very same v. V.Radlov,M. P. Melioransky, S. Malov.
The latest historical and Turkological literature proves that the ancient Turks had indeed a powerful state, (the eternal el), which was able to resist the Chinese empire, which was reckoned with many medieval states such as the Byzantine, Arab Caliphate, Sogdian state.
According to P. Melioransky, the boundaries of the Turkic state in the east stretched to Kydyrkan mob (now Khingan Range) and in the east to the Temir-kapyg.
Special system of government and public administration existed in the ancient Turc state, and the state itself was divided into three parts: the center (Ward), right wing (Tardush), left wing (Toles). The supreme power belonged to the kahan, and according to the law of turks inherited not from father to son, but from brother to brother. The hierarchy of socio-political relations existed as it was in any other state: Hagan (Khan), Turkic people, Shad, apa-tarhany, military chief (buyruks), heroes of war (er), and captive slaves.
Proceedings of the texts shows that a strong social stratification existed in the state of Turcs: there were rich and poor, strong and weak, Tonykok allegorically calls them «fat and lean sheep." Social conflict was observed between those who ruled and those who were in the submission: between hagans and beks on the one hand, and ordinary people on the other.
Kagan — the main political face of Khanat. «Khan had el and headed Budun. (S. G. Klyashtorny). Kagan was elected only from an aristocratic family — «Ashin turcs». He was a head of civil administration within his own tribal union (the people) of his seniority in the genealogical hierarchy of clans and tribes and acted as the leader, the chief judge and high priest. At the same time he headed a political organization created by his political alliance, served as a military leader, subjugating other tribes and forcing them to pay tributes and taxes.
a) overlord, sovereign;
b) the governor;
c) the military commander;
d) the owner of the land;
e) the chief judge.
Tegins — heirs of Empire.
Dzhabgu, shad, Elteber — higher state titles, they belonged to hagan’s genus.
Buyruk, tarhans — performed judicial functions.
Tudun — Hagan’s governor, on conquered lands. They controlled the collection of taxes and sended tribute to Hagan’s rate
Beks — the rulers of clans and tribes.
Kara Budun — the main dependent population Kaganate.
Tats — the slaves.
According to law, the supreme power passed to his brother from his brother and nephew of his uncle. Such an inheritance of power L. N. Gumilev calls «ladder ascent». According to the scientist, the Chinese considered such a procedure meaningless and intervening in the affairs of Turkic, simply ignored it. In the era of late Turkic khanate, after the death of Kutlug Kagan, Turks have restored the old law, when Mochur had become Kapagan-Kagan. «But he was influenced by Chinese culture and thought best for himmselves to pass the throne not his nephew Mogilyan, but to his son Fuguyu,. Aware that violating the law should be done gradually, he recreated the rank of «fellow Khan» (Kucuk Khan) and granted it to his son and set his nephew as a shad for the tardush, ie west wing of the Turks, and gave him the solution of the most dangerous of military tasks «(Gumilev).
It is known that a violation of legitimacy throne, led to enmity and bloodshed among the closest relatives of Kapagan-Kagan. Kultegin, whose military prowess was known throughout Kaganate, kills his nephews and without violating the old law by not taking the title of khan himself, builds on the throne of his elder brother' — Bilge-Kagan. Historians point out that violence has touched the family and closest advisers Kapagan-Kagan, except Tonykoka, whose daughter was married to Bilge-Kagan. Apparently, the massacre stunned the nation, as Bilge-Kagan recalls: «When I became the Khan, Turkic people were grieving that they (now) must die, were looking up (the throne), with calm eyes. Ie If the family is so reprised, what can be the possible fate of ordinary people. «Calm eyes» — the power of nomadic people spirit, who more than once died, and was ready to meet hardships adequately.
The Problem of Power in the text of the monument is one of the main problems. Content side of the texts are aimed not only not to describe the events of the ancients, but also talk about the way the Hagans ruled, show their the wisdom and irrationality, strength and weakness, the ability to care about the people and to be firm and steadfast in the fight against enemies. Kagan — the main political, social, human figure of turk society. Therefore, along with a description of certain events, great attention is attached to hagans actions itself. It is described by a particular model, which is clearly illustrated by the founders of the early Turkic khanate Bumin-Kagan and Istemi-Kagan. From the text of Kultegin:
«The world is ruled by my ancestors — Bumin-Kagan and Istemi-Hagan» …
— «They arranged the Turkish people»;
— «Created a state and power»;
— «People living on the four corners, subdued, forced into the world»;
— «They were wise Hagans, they were mighty Hagans;
— «Their captains were also wise and powerful»;
— «Their lords and the people were right;
— «Their death saddened all grieving and crying came from everywhere.»
Hagan ends with praise — maxim, reproach, that the descendants were unworthy of their fathers. «After they succeeded to the throne of their brothers, their sons succeeded to the throne. Younger brothers were not like older, sons were not like their fathers, that means unreasonable Hagans sat on the throne. " (Zholdasbekov).
In Bugutinsky inscriptions fragments, which relates to the era of the early Turkic khanate, of the activity Mukhan-Kagan thrice repeated: „a well-nurtured people“, he performed many good deeds»," good things they praise «- which means that Mukhan-Hagan was a worthy Hagan and wise ruler, and a monument raised in his honor, perpetuate this image.
In Kultegin and Bilge-Hagan’s texts, Yollyg-tegin tells to the story about the difficulties being a sovereign of his father Kutlug Kagan, uncle Kapagan-Kagan and board Bilge-Kagan. In the understanding of the ancient Turks, if Hagan is strong and wise, then the property of the people is multiplied, improving their welfare, the state flourishes. «He forced to bow the knees those, who had knees, he forced to bow their heads those, who had heads», «poor people, he made rich, few people have made many.»
During the reign of Kutlug Kagan Turkic nation gained independence, and ancient Turkic state became powerful.
Kutluk-king was given the title «El-teris. (Total rule over the people, the government). Such a preamble is not accidental: by analogical transfer «el» in meaning of the state to designate the title Hagan for his services to this state. Turks awarded the title «el» for great contribution only to the founders of Empire. In early Turkic Kaganate this title was conferred to Bumin-Hagan, in the late Turkic Kaganate to Kutluk-kagan, In the United Turkic Kaganate to Turayyn-hagan.
Lyrics sites are saturated with appeals of hagans to people: «Oh! Turk people, if u lived in Otukan mob, then you would have lived, creating your eternal state." «Listen to me attentively, my hears, my younger brothers, the descendants, the peoples subject to me… This my speech carefully listen and heed it fast!», «In my speech is not true!» (Bilge-Kagan). Speeches and calls of Hagans are pragmatic, aimed at uniting the people and obedience in the name of a mighty and powerful state. For the ancient Turks the factor of unity of all social structures was as urgent as it is for the present. Therefore, despite the fact that in texts in general Hagan ruling is described positively, in fact, for ordinary people, the power of the Turkic Kagan was not always democratic.
Tonykok phenomenon. One of the distinguishing features of the representatives of the upper class of turk society is the ability to self-reflection, not just to express those events, but to analyze those events, to express their attitude towards them.
The process of mental activity of Tonykok throughout the text of the monument: «I thought," I thought, «" reasoned «," wise counselor, «" wise Tonykok — he was crafty and he understanding, «I myself had tried and rose.
Deeply symbolic is Tonykok’s reasoning at the end of the text:
«Then I was also an advisor and leader of the troops. Elteris-king… Turkic Begyu-kagan, Turk Bilge-kagan… Kapagan-kagan… I do not surfactants at night, did not rest during the day, shedding my red blood flow and causing my black sweat, I gave the people my work and power and I myself sent a long (far) military forays.
In this monologue, Tonykok self pronounces his activities:
— His ministry for the Turkic people during the reign of many Hagans;
— Assessment of his intellectual capabilities " I do not surfactants at night, did not rest during the day «;
— Use all his physical strength, which is expressed metaphorically «spilling my red blood flow and causing my black sweat»;
— Patriotic pathos, «I gave the people my work and power.»
Outstanding abilities and analytical thinking of Tonykok, his eloquence and talent make a wise counselor of Hagans one of the prominent personalities the ancient Turks world.
Turkic people. In ancient texts much attention is paid to public administration and to Hagans relationship with his people. Despite the fact that the basic content of texts devoted to the glorification of Hagans actions, military exploits of heroes such as Kultegina, Kuli- chora, a description of hikes, the common people (Kara Budun) is the main opposition to the supreme power of Hagans, Beks, commanders. As shown by the text of Kultegin, the common people was the exact the initiator of Kutluks uprising:
«Turkish people say: it was one a people who had a state. Where the state is now? Were people who had their own Hagan? Which king I give now my work and power? So saying, they became enemies to Tabgach Kagan (Zholdasbekov).
Turkic people experiencing bondage and freedom, falls and rises, as well as social upheavals in the form of hunger and slavery, it’s evidenced by the expression: «… they (the Turks) have become slaves in their male offspring and slaves in their feminine offspring." In the texts of the monuments different linguistic units levels the social deprivation of people:
— «Fifty years gave their works and power»;
— «Turkish people fell," «started going to the death»;
— «People weakened and wandering, walking and nude»;
— «The people, poor and weak, the people who lost Hagan;
— «People which was left without power, the people which was turned into slaves." etc.
Bilge-Kagan speaks on the plight of the Turkish people at the beginning of his reign: «I sat on (the kingdom) over the non-affluent people, I sat on (the kingdom) to the people inside — without food, from the outside — no clothes." In general, the description of the people in the text draws attention to two facts: he is rich or poor in the reign of a Kagan. The Turk people remain silent, and none of action is observed on his part.
Akbota Zholdasbekova — Cimadevila
Candidate of Historical Sciences
Chair, Department of External Policy,
Institute of Diplomacy,
Academy of Public Administration
under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan