The last two decades the History of Science of Kazakhstan gradually released from the scholastic concepts and made significant progress in study of little developed problems of history. It was planned a new approach in the treatment of many aspects of political and public processes, also introduce with socio-economic relations.
The study of the genesis of Kazakh statehood and independence along with a number of other challenges of Kazakhstan’s history demanded the attention of researchers to create a unified concept of historical science, the development of new areas of national history and research methods.
At the present stage of development of historical science of Kazakhstan it was observed the emergence of the research on the global level. It was contributed by the process of humanization and greening of scientific knowledge, as well as participation in historical research of specialists in various scientific fields and countries. This fact has a significant impact on the expansion of the knowledge base and methodology of historical science. The rise of terrorism, religious fundamentalism, nationalism and many other processes of today’s reality require the historical explanation.
Today the national history for Kazakhstan is the most problematic area of science. Historical past of Kazakhstan is an important part of humanitarian space at different level of social consciousness – from politicians to the political language of everyday life. Thus, historical events and facts that match geopolitical interests in Kazakhstan should be described. So it must come not only when it comes to interstate issues, but also the internal problems of Kazakhstan.
The concept of historical science should be based on the unity of views on historical events. The new approach of presenting the historical events as a continuous process of finding a national identity that is not reduced to the enumeration of names and creative achievements. Also present creative achievements that consistent with historical past, political and socio-economic development of the country. Only on the basis of scientific historical analysis is possible to obtain a new historical knowledge, fresh ideas and positive contribution of historical science in modernization of the country, its humanitarian support without of which is impossible to solve any social and economic problems.
The main priorities of the national history of the Republic of Kazakhstan are:
— Development of interdisciplinary and historical research (sociology, demography, geography, politics, philosophy, geoinformation (the geographic information system (GIS) and so on) ;
— Improvement ofmethods of historical and religious cartography.
From the moment when in the hands of historian appeared the computer the cartographic method has undergone the great changes. Relatively weak enforcement of cartographic method is largely due to its labor-intensive. The scientists of Kazakhstan face with big challenges to improve techniques of computer information processing methods, development of graphical programs. They are necessary to create maps and implementation of geographic information systems that integrate the database with digital maps and Kazakhstan has all the necessary conditions for that.
— Use of GIS technologies in historical research.
For example, the study of historical events, which relate to study of historical patterns in spatial form: the movement of population (conquest and migration), national and liberation movements, dynamics of the administrative and territorial divisions, history of infrastructure, settlements, dynamic changes and so on. It is not difficult to notice that their study is important for the National history of Kazakhstan including the history of Kazakhstan of modern times.
—Extension of methods of historical research.
It should make great use of spatial approach when presenting historical events that allows a truthful and complete to explore the history of Kazakhstan within a specific local and historical time.
From the end of the 20th century, the scientific priorities in historical science in Kazakhstan began to change. Concepts, geographical area began to arouse a great interest in the history, ethnography and research, which related to national liberation movement, World War and so on, compare to just the study of the events themselves.
In that place where historians and anthologists once studied individual personalities of the historical process, now there is a desire to explore their space. Space does not exist apart from human culture. It is a man who built a spatial identity for a specific geographical location, traditions and culture. Space is not an simple material, it is the product of mass human consciousness, it is the result of certain traditions, culture and actions of individuals that effect the historical process.
—Future direction in historical scholarship is “Historical Study of Regions” or (History of regions).
“Historical Study of Region” takes the form of the development of scientifically justified recommendation on the issues of public authorities. They are involved in the conduct of regional and foreign policy, the various scientific, educational, informational and cultural exchanges in the implementation of trade and economic cooperation, bilateral and multirateral modern communication links. Also, theyinvolvesolutionsoftheglobalenvironmentalproblems.
Historical Study of Region includes the study of the main stages of historical and cultural development of the state. It analyzes the current situation and shows the ability to predict the possible ways of development of the region, exploring its past, present and future. Historical Study of Region aimed at a comprehensive study of the region, country or group of countries including their people, history, geography economics, politics, science, culture, religion, language, literature, traditions and values. In general, the concept of “Historical Study of Region” involves the study of the people or peoples, who occupy certain territory and existing common cultural dominance in the historic space, understanding of their development and existence in the world process.
Currently, there are the following global problems of historical regional studies:
— History of the region in the context of world-historical process. The history of the formation and development of the region and its role in world history;
— The ethnic composition and characteristics of the religious life of the region;
—State and territorial system. The region's place in the administrative and territorial division of the whole community;
—The system of territorial administration, the nature of relationships in the region and the center (vertical relationship, the role of the center in the development of the region;
— Social and economic system in the region – type and principal features of economy;
— Economic and geographic condition of the region, which characterizes the territorial location of production, the ration of “core business units” and “periphery of the region”, the presence of the priority sectors that determine the specialization of the region;
— Regional and geopolitical problems of the border regions;
— International cooperation and coordination of historical and regional studies in order to optimize the development of the region;
— Localization of regional studies of historical events;
— Problems of settlement and economic development of the territories, the history of communications;
— Historical geoecology;
— Regional historical-geographical research;
— Historical and regional studies for the development of tourism, etc.
— Long-term goal of research on the historical regional studies, precisely, the practical realization of historical research may be the creation of atlases, reference books, encyclopedias and maps.
Thus, the basic concept of the development of the National History of Kazakhstan in the modern period should correspond to the geopolitical interest of Kazakhstan. Also it base on modern technologies of information system in compliance with the basic principles to ensure the accuracy and completeness of the information on the investigational historic property.
Institure of History and Ethnology named after Sh.Uailihanov, Almaty.
The head of department of modern history of Kazakhstan, PhD, Associate Professor, academician of International Academy of Agricultural Education (IAAE).