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Some questions of migratory policy of the period of the Soviet Kazakhstan: sources and consequences

Some questions of migratory policy of the period of the Soviet Kazakhstan: sources and consequences - e-history.kz
Problems of migratory policy need to be comprehended and analyzed on the basis of historical and social, political, scientific and archival sources.

It is difficult to imagine the relations of people in the conditions of non-performance of laws of the environment of public existence. When in society rules of behavior of people and laws, it are violated, certainly, promotes destabilization of peaceful co-existence and conducts to public crisis.

It is well-known that the full development of public life, implementation of the advanced plans yield results only when using peace and civilized methods. In Kazakhstan owing to violent change of a state system society came to the Soviet period to chaos, bloody civil war, to division on white and red, etc. All this affected emergence of public crisis, led to degradation of universal values as a whole.

The October revolution setting as the purpose establishment of a civilized society, as a result led to a totalitarian mode. For this reason the educated point of view of the political scientists dealing with issues of development of public life, has a leading role in the matter.

More than two and a half thousand years ago ancient thinker Socrat told: "I never contradicted laws, only sought to consider everything from the point of view of the law". For this reason he always urged not to contradict the law, not to build against it barricades, not to express intolerance, not to blacken someone, not to violate laws, and to improve and improve consciousness of the person, his humanity for improvement and society development.

In this regard words of east poet a sufiya of the seventh eyelid of Amir Hosrov Dekhlevi occur also: "… in hands of political scientists there has to be not a dagger destroying and destroying, and the word and the business promoting updating and improvement of public life" [1]. In the history of Kazakhstan when carrying out resettlement and kolonizatsionny policy of imperial Russia, and also during systematic carrying out migratory and resettlement policy by the Soviet state, it is possible to reveal actions which not only disturbed national thinking and social and psychological adaptation of the public environment, selection of spiritual heritage, but also led to idea of the critical relation to them. "Our leader Lenin" determined by one of ways of industrialization of the country settling of sparsely populated areas for complex use of all natural wealth. It connected the solution of this great task only with population resettlement from Russia, Belarus and Ukraine.

The basic rules of resettlement policy of the Soviet state, noted by V.I.Lenin in the Decree about the earth, received lighting at the II all-Russian congress of Councils: "In case of shortage of necessary resources of the earth to all local population one part of the population will be moved. The state" [2], etc. has to assume responsibility for the resettlement organization, expenses, providing with necessary things.

Already in the first documents of the Soviet government the socialist principles of resettlement of the population were specified. Despite ruin in economy, a financial system, the Soviet state took in hand material and financial expenses of resettlement of the people.

On January 27, 1918 at the III All-Russian congress of Councils the basic law was adopted about earth socialization" which reflected the main solutions of a question of migration ", and also methods of policy of resettlement were improved. At the second (II) all-Russian meeting of working bodies about the earth the special resolution "About resettlement" on March 2-8, 1924 was adopted. In it association in cooperatives, groups of agricultural workers" [3] was told, first, about "planned resettlement on undeveloped lands, secondly, about need for movement process. Thus, through planned resettlement economic problems had to be solved completely not only political, but also.

The solution of the first regional congress of Turgaysky peasants, Kyrgyz, soldiers and working deputies of March 19, 1918 about recognition of all farmland as a public terrestrial resource and "… subject to equitable distribution between the labor Kyrgyz and Russian population" [4] found the continuation in all local congresses of councils of Kazakhstan. In this regard it is clearly visible not only policy of migration, but also frank policy of the councils which have specified in the document the state status of Kazakhs as "Kyrgyz" without an ethnic origin of our nation. It indicates obvious isolation of the Russian nation in earth use. On February 13, 1929 bureau of the Kazakh Regional Committee, having considered a question of migration and a question of the organization of Management of migration in Kazakhstan, made the decision on the approval of the plan of measures on migration in the republic [5].

The seventh (VII) congress of Councils of the Kazakh ASSR (the eighth or fifteenth on April (8-15), 1929 I made the decision on opening of borders of the republic for immigrants from the territory of the Soviet Union, and from this year systematic migration to Kazakhstan began.

The general migration and works on resettlement coped "Center". Though till 1950 special migration also was carried out, in this work a certain unsystematic character was observed. In 1950 in the republic Management on resettlement, and in 1956 the bodies which were bringing together workers was organized, were united in "Orgnabor's" Management. Owing to migratory and resettlement policy of the Soviet state the number, national structure and population migro-economy changed.

On research of migratory process in the one thousand nine hundred sixtieth – one thousand nine hundred eightieth (1960-1980) were drawn years the following conclusions:

1) discrepancy of resettlement to interests of the Kazakh society;

2) influence on economic problems of development of a national economy of Kazakhstan, not found the timely decision and left on "then";

3) owing to absence of the law regulating resettlement of the population, the condition of resettlement prevented, it is possible to tell, and complicated actions for reorganization, for reforming of economy of that time [6].

Because of not carrying out at an appropriate level of policy of migration in the one thousand nine hundred sixtieth – one thousand nine hundred ninetieth (1960-1990), owing to its discrepancy with truly humanitarian ideas, complications of the international conflicts of one thousand nine hundred eighty sixth (1986), oppressions which were suffered for years by the Kazakh nation, led to certain shortcomings of national policy of the USSR, namely:

- artificial creation (autonomous republic, district, area) national and territorial educations (known only Russia);

- belittling of the Kazakh ethnos through violation of national and cultural features, intervention in national history, language, culture, violent assimilation (to be exact, russification);

- boundless Centralization in management of the people, all issues of the USSR were resolved only in Moscow, it actually deprived of independence the district, local government, as a whole, all population;

- it wasn't attached anybody significance to actions of the central departments "in the local territory", to association and the wrong division of a republican national resource, one-sided development of national economy (for example, Kazakhstan was engaged in agriculture, Uzbekistan only in cotton, etc.), to "squandering" of national economy and natural national wealth, development of public, ecological and cultural areas in districts.

Result of such policy of "great Russian" people – disorder of the centralized Soviet state. As shows world experiment, for the solution of universal problems important unity of the various nations.

As a result of migratory and resettlement policy of the Soviet state international intensity ripened. Therefore, from lessons of policy of the Soviet period the following highlights of ethno-social problems of Kazakhstan as for each Kazakhstan citizen the national consent, national development, national consciousness, and, finally, the world between the nations is important come to light. Thus, future world is connected with ethnic differentiation and integration tendencies [7].

Kazakhstan, having followed a way of independent development, I started formation of independent geopolitics. The president of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev characterized it as open and multisector, having allocated as a leading priority of a razvitiyegeopolitichesky vector with CIS countries, first of all, Russia and neighbors in the Central Asian region. In the foreign policy Kazakhstan to seek to develop the new rules of the behavior adequate to the changed world geopolitical situation and equitable its own national interests. Paramount value is gained in this regard by consecutive realization of priorities of welfare development of Kazakhstan.

In the modern world consider lessons of history and importance of policy of migration and resettlement. Therefore, choosing a way - "A civil choice of the people of Kazakhstan – historical literacy, the national world and demographic reforms", the President of RK N.A.Nazarbayev asks the critical, careful, attentive attitude towards them, and shows that a national consent it, first of all, not theoretical discussion, and the policy realized practically, day by day.

In 1992 - 1993 of every fourth Kazakhstan citizen deeply I excited an international question. In vanguard there was the idea of a national consent being a basis of political stability. In 1980 some part of inhabitants of Kazakhstan started moving abroad [8]. "Who could assume that in 1987 hundred thousand Germans will have a lawful opportunity to move to the developed and stable state – the German Federal Republic being their historical homeland. If such right is granted in 1970 - 1980, probably resettlement wave would be larger". Whether there was an opportunity in Soviet period to move to Greeks to Greece, to Poles to Poland, etc. without obstacles? No, such opportunity wasn't. The Vsovetsky state there was a ban on moving abroad, or such moving had political background".

Therefore it is necessary to recognize an indisputable role of the government of the Republic of Kazakhstan in change the direction of policy of the resettlement which have allowed at the choice to define a residence to inhabitants of the republic legally.

Peak of resettlement are 1992 - 1994. For example, by 1996 the number of migrating Russians by 3,2 times became less in relation to 1994. Together with a tendency of resettlement of Kazakhstan citizens abroad, there was the return tendency – return on historical родинуказахов (оралманов). And also it should be noted a tendency of reemigrant: if in 1994 their number was 50 thousand people, in 1997 already returned: 17 154 Russians, 1 410 Germans, 2 349 Ukrainians, and considerably increased in the country number of Uzbeks [9]. Therefore, zakonomernapryamy communication of migration with living conditions of the population, that is, with destiny of the nations as a whole that attracts need of the solution of similar difficult questions at high state level.

In the Republic of Kazakhstan the Assembly of the people of Kazakhstan, being unique public institute on realization of natsionalny policy was formed. Into its structure entered 27 republican and regional, more than 250 local natsionalno-cultural centers. On the first Kurultai in the history of Kazakhs – meeting of representatives of the world Kazakhs in 1992, the President of RK N.A.Nazarbayev told: "A main objective of Kurultai – considering of future world Kazakh society, discussion of further development of destiny of the nation during such special historical period" [10].

In 1980 in the republic disrespect for natsionalny culture, language, traditions is shown, about 600 Kazakh schools are closed.  In 1989 international распря between Kazakhs and shift workers from the Caucasian region poured out in bloody slaughter in the oil-extracting center of Zhanauzen who was stopped by efforts of employees of internal affairs and armies [11]. 

Thus, international complication generated an urgent need of revision of natsionalny policy. Acceptance in September, 1989 of the Law "About Language" which declared the Kazakh language – a state language, and Russian – language of international communication became the first step in regulation of natsionalny policy. It stabilized a condition of public policy of the republic and the ethnic conflicts.

In 1990-1991 years in the republic 482 Kazakh kindergartens, 155 comprehensive schools with the Kazakh language of training, 49 natsionalno-cultural centers opened. It testifies to continued activity of the head of state and the deputies of parliament promoting settlement of historical and political events, generated by policy of migration and the resettlement, carried out during the long period the Soviet state, and realization of conditions for an ethnodemography and civilized resettlement.

In this regard researcher E.Yu.Sadovskaya especially noted a question of language as the main reasons for migration of Russians from Kazakhstan in the 1990th, having assumed that Russian status as non-state according to the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the increase in percent of experts of indigenous people on high dolzhnost in state bodies for eighty (80) %, affected general resettlement from the republic of Russians. However, in 2004 to year, for the first time for the last forty-year history, number of immigrants exceeded number of emigrants of Kazakhstan. Foreign population shift passed to a new round in the last five years: total number of emigrants was reduced (from 165 thousand in 1999 to 65,5 thousand in 2004), the number of immigrants (from 41 thousand 1999 to 68,3 thousand) increased that influences positive balance of resettlement in the republic, from them kolichestvorussky emigrants from 92 thousand 1999 was reduced to 39 thousand people in two thousand fourth (2004) to year [12]. From what follows that contrary to estimated forecasts, overcoming any difficulties, "each Kazakhstan citizen regardless of belief and the nation, can and has to strengthen bases of free society, with the culture, tradition and belief" [13].

As confirmation of it the Law "About Population Shift" (on December 13, 1997) for come back on the historical Homeland and for the purpose of creation by it of conditions for an everyday life was issued, in it were отражены the main norms of the status, privileges of immigrants and their financing. [14] ] . Agencies, regional Managements and offices on migration and a demography were formed. In 2001 - 2010 the program of migratory policy promoting creation of necessary demographic and public conditions, on protection of the rights of migrants for the purpose of strengthening of state security of the country [15] was approved.

The aggravation of world environmental problems, condition of society affected continuation of a tendency of migration in the republic. At the present stage relevance of the birth of various researches in the field of the public, ethnodemographic phenomena, mechanisms of regulation of current trends of population shift doesn't decrease. In Kazakhstan closely scientists, experts, analytics deal with this problem. This process supervises migration Agency and a demography, formed in 1996.

Today, from the scientific point of view, comprehensive investigation of historical sources "Head department on resettlement and an orgnabor of working federal republics" the Soviet period not so much for disclosure of an objective truth of this phenomenon and identification of dark stains of history, how many for development of cultural and historical traditions of the nations and nationalities of multinational Kazakhstan and for identification of the scientific and reasonable points of view about destinies of the people which have undergone oppressions of policy of resettlement is important.

Thus, problems of migratory policy need to be comprehended and analyzed on the basis of historical and social, political, scientific and archival sources.


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12 . Kazakhstan today. Information and analytical collection. Almaty, 2005. 42 pages.

Source: Erimbetova K.M. Some questions of migratory policy in Kazakhstan: sources and consequences//"Historical space" - Moscow, 2009 No. 1. Page-191-196

The material is provided by Institute of history of the state of KN of MAUN of RK

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