If a nation does not know its history, if the country loses its history, then its citizens have nowhere to go.
Mirzhakyp Dulatuly

On some problems in the study of the history of independent Kazakhstan

On some problems in the study of the history of independent Kazakhstan - e-history.kz

Kazakhstan is on the eve of the 20th anniversary of independence. These two decades go down in history on the importance of socio-political events, economic nature, the implementation of which required incredible strength and tension force compressed their lifetime.

U.S. presidential advisor in the 90s of the last century Brentano Scowcroft wrote to the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan: «…Your initiatives play an important role in strengthening regional and global security, the formation of a nuclear-free world, effectively countering the threats and challenges of our time». [1] In unison, they are the words of the Letter of King Fahd of Saudi Arabia bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, who emphasizes that all new initiatives of Kazakhstan, headed by its President N. Nazarbayev held «… in a time when all nations and peoples seek a world free of war, conflict, hatred and discrimination, striving for joint problem solving humanity and peace and security» and that one of them, such as organization and conducting of congresses of representatives of world religions on earth is ancient Kazakhs» the most successful way to achieve cooperation in the world» [1].

It is indisputable that such statements and arguments we take a well-deserved marks put on for the suffering «thorny path» of freedom, pain and humiliation experienced during the «voluntary association» and bitter disappointments that were due during the socialist transformation.

However, the pain will pass. Wounds will heal. The time and years for rethinking, about the past way of the country, awareness of the great values of unity, cohesion as saving power, opposing strife, conflict and civil peace as a tool for the future of humanity will only remain.

As well as, here there is a historical period where you should pay special attention on the history of independent Kazakhstan. As the Kazakh people in the period of colonial dependence and even during the brotherhood of the Union Republics «experts» of the history predicted not the flattering stories fate. A similar trend, apparently, was the reason that we have heard abroad not only applause in honor of achievements, but also kept skeptical statements that the taken measures are artificial in nature and designed to distract public opinion from the real state of affairs that cannot be called truly democratic. Particularly active in criticizing our country showed Western funds and non-governmental organizations, individual MEPs» [2, 11–12]

That long-awaited sovereignty and independence of the people of Kazakhstan allowed showing the advantages of national unity, cohesion and faith. It helped in the shortest possible time to make a parade showcasing new ideas and initiatives. They relate to all spheres of human activity: from the guarantee of security in international relations, to dialogue and trust between continents, religions, all peoples. Astana is the obvious example for it.

Moreover, the heard admiration and seen satisfaction it is not all. The flow of time is increasingly brings on a deep understanding of this brief history of the way, for people accustomed to perceive the Soviet period is happening in the form of a catechism, gradually give way to a new generation trail accomplishments, is designed to be at the forefront of competitive acts.

At the same time, the observers from the outside, and it’s not always the same sometimes tend to see only the positive achievements of Kazakhstan in the initial stage of independence. It would seem that really achieved? Billions debts? Opened windows of unfinished buildings? But we are not going to keep these facts behind seven locks. After the goals and objectives of conversion processes in Kazakhstan, as in other former Soviet republics, this is the eradication of disadvantages, whose roots go far back sometimes…

Is history of the world does not know such facts? Nevertheless, the difficult years of the «glorious revolution» is not erased from the pages of the history of England — developed country capital. Thanks to the efforts of historians, the country «would not let» the flow of information about the «Royal Admiral» — pirate plied once sea. America has not given up and is going to abandon the creators of «New England» — «founding fathers», which in its own way solved the problem at the time of collision of European civilization with civilization of the local Aboriginal Indians.

Lacking a coherent history of Kazakhstan from ancient period to the present, it would certainly be incorrect on our part to allow some criticisms on the history of America and New England. Here we allow ourselves to ascertain events far ago that took place in the history of Western civilization, preserved, apparently, the most unflattering pages of history and at the same time showing them as separate stages in the development of a new political system, new social relations, even noteworthy modern researchers.

Unfortunately, in the attempts of a new interpretation of the history of our country there is no general desired unity. There are significant gaps in the teaching of the humanities, including history, through the educational system. In our opinion, the state standards in secondary and higher education institutions are not differentiated between. This is does not allow a clear and focused presentation of historical events and their analysis, synthesis, concentration at all levels of the educational system in order to achieve the most important goals: patriotism, love and faith.

Perhaps this is why the famous queen of Saks — Tomiris in secondary school textbooks without any complications turns into Tumar. No reasoned linguistic and grammatical confirm distorted historical names (Atilla — EDT). (That’s when we are reproached that in modern textbooks we fail to properly present (or prove correct spelling) the names of the Kazakh tribes and clans, once included in the historical literature on the Russian-language transcription!). In what extent it is true? We do not write the history of the World, but from its pages trying to see the concerning history of our Motherland as it kept them. Maybe would be correct, if history has preserved the names of Attila and Tomiris as they entered the history of the world. It would be paradoxically, if after some time our descendants will begin to write scientific treatises and argue that Tumar is the famous queen of Saks Tomiris. Some readers, who think that professional historians with no grounds for it remain in large cases only passive observers, are right. For example, a dispute has arisen about Genghis Khan. Without going so far in the debate on this issue, but just noticing that «thanks to» Genghis Khan was just wiped out one of the cultural centers of medieval Kazakhstan — Otyrar city. The city, which at one time was the home of more than one dozen magnificent scientists… That Otyrar, where according to researchers’ information, was the second largest library in the world.
All this is happening due to the emergence of a large number of protected and approved by master’s and doctoral theses written monographs, countless in number of scientific and theoretical, scientific and practical conferences and other forums scholars and practitioners of international, national character., the Institute of the state’s history, less than a year of its activities, twice was the organizer of scientific conferences on topical issues in the history of Kazakhstan. Despite the fact that every time invited a large number of scientists in history, there is no desirable quorum at such events. In the west, according to some sources, at such forums professionals allowed only those persons who have their own fee for participation and honored to speak with approbation of scientific ideas. We also expect invitations. In the best case the cost of expenses for the publication will be pay. Recently, we were holding the conference proceedings of the five volumes containing more than a thousand articles. It can be agreed that there is no place for approbation…

Bookshelves stores are still not exempt from textbooks and manuals that have become «best sellers», written on the basis of Marxist -Leninist methodology. We continue to receive a lot of literature from neighboring states, including Russia. They, at first glance, are written according to a new historical approach to the analysis of historical events, backed by new historical data. However it has to state categorically reasoning inherent in the literature of post-Soviet period. Apparently, it follows for the roots of «why». New generation of Kazakhstan, showing a deep knowledge about the heroes — Spartans, connecting arguments in the debate on medieval history and knowing who this Joan of Arc, recognizing «the blood and iron " principles of Bismarck in the ways of German unification. It is negligible know and do not have a clue about «Kazakhstan Spartans» like Khan Zhangir, «Kazakh Joan»- Sapar Matenkyzy… Somehow fluctuate unambiguous evaluation of Khan Abulhair…

Today, as never before, there is a need to develop theoretical and methodological parameters to study the basics of Russian history. It is recognized only by scientists. However, there is one point, the fact that in the Marxist- Leninist methodology unshakable wall stood class approach in explaining any public manifestation process. Another word it is the exclusive interests of the proletariat. Behind the working class stood «the whole world is hungry and slaves», whose interests could be solved only by destroying the foundation of all previous existence. So, people believed it. Destroying at one time the best part of the national intelligentsia and the party and the Soviet bureaucracy was easy «spotlight» as their most ardent enemies of his people, without exception. As a result, a special difficulty experience in the analysis and synthesis of the political and ideological creed, for example, Soviet S. Seifulin and non-Soviet Mustafa Shokay. Also it’s in the assessment of the Turkestan Legion against the backdrop of the great feat of the Great Patriotic War. Explanation for it we see in preserved the in Soviet era tradition of unambiguous assessment of historical facts and events.

When we talk about a unique interpretation of historical facts, we mean that we have not yet learned to speak the language of facts. Fall in love with their modern interpretation. Stories of famous example: in the archives, together with the names of Shokan Ualihanov Kenesary Khan, there is information about Erden Sandybaev. It is also know that he once fought for position Senior — Sultan of Atbasar district. His opponent was Shokan Ualikhanov. As a result of big distortion of data on elections, Shokan Ualikhanov lost. Why do we remember about it? In the latest issue of the journal «Aqiqat»«Акикат» under the heading «Bіlgenge Marzhan» «Білгенге маржан» we read the article of S. Eszhanov «Erden warrior». We will not argue the attempt of the author to enlighten modern readers about the actual merits of Erden Sandybaev. We were surprised by the ease with which he tries to do it. For example, according to S.Eszhanov from childhood he was awarded with title batyr (hero). He gives a good example. However, considering that given example, just the same size as we have already met once in I. Yesenberlin, and it has been said about the Kenesary’s actions and his children. It is confusing: where is the truth? With whose name this historical novel about such a method of forming the courage of their children was known among Kazakhs?

Second, in order to somehow mitigate the «strained» relations between Shokan Ualihanov and Erden Sandybaevym author argues that legally defeating his rival «биліктен ұлы ғалымның, өзі бас тартады». What was not, that was not there. Shokan Ualikhanov was not going to give up the struggle for power, he was shocked by impudent Russian officials who committed serious electoral fraud and inhomogeneous been repeatedly reminded of this.

Today we try to read the «true page of history», without politicization and ideological view. However at the same time, it is difficult to agree with the interpretation of the historical events of limitations in favor of modernity. The name E. Sandybaeva is associated not only with the names Kenesary Kasymova or Shokan Ualihanov. According to writer D. Doszhan in his book «Abay’s spoul» («Абай айнасы»), a tense situation developed between Sandybaev and unknown to many readers, Baubek batyr (hero). In the works of famous writers there are his visions about the reasons of the conflict between the famous hero of his time and ruler of Atbasar… However, this is not a panacea. In order to answer to what happened between the individual characters of his time, it is necessary to compare more than one example.

Opening page of a magazine, under the heading «Spiritual Heritage» I again saw the words of edification of the great Abay. Including:«… to start learning science? How to understand the science, when there is nobody to exchange a smart word? To transmit the accumulated knowledge, ask for what you do not know? What good is that going to sit in the desolate steppes, spreading canvas, with a yardstick in hand? Knowledge turns into bitterness, bringing a premature old age, when there is no person next to you with whom you can share your joy and sorrow…» These words came from the mouth of Abay while Kazakh society still does not have enough educated people.

Today, our knowledge accumulated enough and there are to whom to pass them. But today’s reader is queasy. So, now «knowledge turn into bitterness» in case if a professional will present him unreadable material.

A.Kashkimbaev, Ph.D. and associate Professor

Source: "The collection of materials of scientific and practical conference" Constitutional Initiative President - factor for further development of democracy "August 28, 2009, page 117-122.

Material provided by the Institute of History of State CS MES of Kazakhstan