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Kangyuy state

For the first time Kangyuy, in the Chinese pronunciation of Kantszyuy, is mentioned in written sources of the II century BC. In 138 g the Chinese emperor Fish Cheung Qian sent trade embassy to the West countries headed by the atheling. In 13 years, having many difficulties, Zhan Qian returned. In the note made by Zhan Qian earlier unknown in China  states were characterized for the first time. Kangyuy was called among them which headquarter of the governor Cheung Tsyan was succeeded to visit personally.

According to data of the Chinese ambassador, "Kangyuy state is situated almost in 200 li from Davani (Fergana) on the northwest. This nomadic nation perfectly corresponds to yuechzhisets; has about 90 thousand troops and because of the population rate recognizes in the south the power of yuechzhisets, in the east the power of Huns. Yantsay lies in 2000 li from on the northwest. And this nomadic state, perfectly resembles with Huns. The army of more than 100000 lies at the big lake which has no high coast. It is the North Sea". In "A narration" in "Han" about kangyuy tells to history of the senior house about the Western edge in more detail. So, it is reported that "the Kangyuy’s possessor has stay in Lyueni's country in the city of Bityan. It is seven days of traveling from Lyueni to summer residence.  The population consists of 120 000 families, 600000 souls; front army of 120 000 people".From the same sources we can be aware of the foreign policy of Kangyuy, when the state in 46 — 36 BC supported northern Huns led by Chzhichi, and then opposed them, cooperating with Wusuns and Chinese. In 85 Kangyuy  supported the Ferganets who have risen against the Chinese deputy of Kashgar Baths Ciao. It is also reported that " Kangyuy... it is proud and impudent and doesn't agree in any way to do worship before seniors. The officials sent to it from deputies, treat below isun ambassadors. To princes and foremen food is served before people who was sent from the deputy"

The finds made at excavation of ancient settlements and necropolises of kangyuys and inhabitants Yantsay-Alanya testify: the Chinese coins and mirrors, coral beads from India, bronze fibuly-fasteners from Europe, carved stones-intalio from Iran.

Generally, according to the foreign affairs policy, Kangyuy throughout the entire period of its existence desired to keep under it’s command or control a branch of Silk road from Fergana to Cisurals going across Syr-Darya. And Kangyuy state managed to be on target. In favor of active functioning of the Silk way across Syr-Darya up on the northwest to the Caucasus and in Black Sea Coast, and also to the south to Iran, to the Middle East and to India the findings made at excavation of ancient settlements and necropolises of kangyuys and inhabitants Yantsay-Alanya testify: the Chinese coins and mirrors, coral beads from India, bronze fibuly-fasteners from Europe, carved intaglio-stones from Iran.

 The issue of ethnic character of Kangyuy population is very difficult. Still there is no consensus about what language was spoken by kangyuys. According to A.M. Bernshtam, kangyuys were the Turkic speaking people. Other researchers believe that kangyuys belonged to the North Iranian cattle breeding tribes which only in the middle of the I millennium AD under the influence of resettlement for Syr-Darya of Turkic tribes began to change the ethnic shape and language. B.A.Litvinsky considers that kangyuys were descendants of Iran language speaking Saka nation. In his opinion, it is possible to interpret the name of Kangyuy as the name of one of saka tribes — "people in leather clothes" (or an armor)

Archaeological researches of the last years are able to demonstrate the appearance of kangyuys on drawings of their contemporaries. They reached us in the form of the engraved images on the bone plates which were once sewed on a leather basis. Laminations were found at the first excavation of kangyuy barrows of a turn of the first centuries near the ancient settlement Kurgan-Tepe in Samarkand area. The scene of battle of horse and dismounted heroes is represented on one of them and on another — horsed hunting. All participants of fight and hunting belong to one ethnic type. All have extended heads, pointed to the top with a low forehead. Hair are combed up, at temples are cleaned back for ears. Eyes diamond-shaped, noses large, with a small hump, vigorous chins. Portrait moustaches hanging down to a chin and a small beard crown. On soldiers a protective armor is put on caftans from the sewed lamellar, semi-oval or scaly plates; on the heads roundish helmets, necks are covered by armor ; the fitting trousers tense by straps under stoops.

The weapon is presented by long gavelocks with lanceolate tips; the long doublebladed swords, which sheath fasten to a belt two thongs, complex constructed bows, arrows with trihedral tips; long three-private quiver with wide bow compartment and two narrow — for arrows. The oval board is upholstered with plates. One of soldiers had a fighting hatchet — a pick. Armor horseback riders sit on the horses protected by an armor. Manes of horses are cut, between ears — a bang collected in a bunch.

Archaeological monuments.

In the regions where kangyuys once dominated, archeologists revealed big group of monuments and referred them to archaeological cultures (the culture is considered set of certain monuments, subjects, establishments, ideas, images of behavior etc.) — kaunchinsky and otrarsko-karatausky. The first was widespread in the Tashkent oasis, the second — in areas of the average Syr-Darya Current and Karatau's foothills to Talas.

Most well studied monument of kaunchinsk culture is the settlement of Aktobe near Chardara, located on the right coast of Syr-Darya. One of excavations completely opened the palace building, rectangular in the plan, 28 x 18,5 m in size. The palace consisted of five crosswisely located rooms, an entrance complex and two corridors which are bending around construction from the West and the East. In the center there was a square hall (3,6 x 3,6 m) which was reported with all other rooms arch passes. It was once blocked by a flat roof.

The rooms located round a hall, are blocked by Korobovs diminished arches, and one of them — a dome which is one of early types of dome overlaps in Central Asia and Kazakhstan. An important role in a design of the building was played by a roof on which it was possible to get on a ladder and via the hatch in the arch. Walls, overlaps, arch passes in the palace are executed from a rectangular and square gum state brick.

Kangyuy settlements are usually surrounded with barrowed burial grounds, part of them Zhaman-Togay, Torebay-Tumsyk were dug out Shaushukumsky. Burials were made in catacombs with dromosy, perpendicular their long axis. In graves there were pair single burials on one, two and more vessels, a beads, iron buckles, devices for paint of eyebrows.

Otrar oasis is one of the large location centers of otrar-karatau culture monuments. On the left coast of the river Arys in rather small territory (about 100 sq.m) there are remains of two tens hillocks — тобе — various size: Pshuk-Mardan, Kostobe, Chashtobe, Seytman-Tobe, Akhaytobe, Choltobe, etc.

The largest monument carries the name Kokmardan, according to the natural boundary name where the main number of monuments is concentrated. Ruins consist of two parts: the main hillock and hills near it. The main hillock — the central part of the ancient settlement — is on the island formed on a place of merge of two ancient canals - Arys. The area of a hillock is a little more than two hectares, and the greatest height is 15 m. To the north, in half a kilometer the city necropolis consisting of several tens become swollen barrows up to 2 — 2,5 high and with a diameter up to 15 m is found.

Excavation was conducted at the same time on the ancient settlement and a barrow a burial. As a rule houses are one-roomed (the second room was the storeroom), are buried to the earth, is more true in an occupation layer therefore with the street in them conducted three-five steps. It is noticed that doors at the house were arranged near one of corners. Opposite to an entrance, is closer to the center, there was a rectangular floor center.

On room against the walls were low sufy-stove benches. In corners, at walls, vessels for water and food were arranged, usually it is khoums, water-bearing jugs, pots.

Burrs and millstones lay near the center on a floor. They are found almost in each house whole or in fragments. Sometimes in houses it was constructed special post-avatars for a millstone.

Household, handicraft, agriculture. As usual, ceramics is the main material which is found by archeologists at excavation of the ancient cities and settlements : vessels for cooking — coppers, pots with covers, frying pans, fireplace supports; vessels for water carrying — wide-necked jugs with one or two handles, jugs with the horizontal handle, two-handled pots. As it was already noted, products were stored in big vessels — khoums which drove in the earth. And, at last, the gracefully made circles, jugs, bowls.

Kangyuys were able to melt iron, to do of it use subjects. Round broom — iron preparations from which smiths shaped sickles, knifes, tips of arrows were found.

Mending plate for complex bows, handles of knifes, pins, fasteners, different amulets were made of a bone. Interesting amulets made of phalanxes of a wolf, an eagle, a dog. The pins turned from a bone with figured heads are great.

Jewelry and chase were made of gold, bronze. For example, the plaque made of gold foil with red stone insert, outlined with false granulating was found. Beads were made of pomegranate, a cornelian, turquoise, multi-colored glass.

Subjects of arms are presented by iron rotary-vane tips of the arrows, complex bows with bone slips, short iron swords and one-bladed baselard. Lots of buckles from iron and the bronze which has remained from leather belts. Among jewelry — a stone, metal, glass beads, earrings and suspension brackets with inserts from color stones, with clusters of bronze or gold balls, the hryvnias weaved from wire glass tubing, hairpins.

Finds of grains of cereals, existence of grain holes, straw in a plastering of a floor and in a brick, a set a burrs and khoums for grain storage point to the developed agriculture. Processing of the soil was made by the stone mattocks which are usually found on settlements. Bone agricultural tools were also used.

The irrigation in the first centuries AD had the limited sizes. As a rule, it was reduced to use of water by means of the elementary receptions. Preliminary studying of an irrigation in Kokmardan natural boundary showed that bermed-up oxbow of Arysi and damed channels out of which the channels bringing water to fields and kitchen gardens were used for an irrigation.

Important branch of household was the cattle breeding. Large number of bone remains of pets: horses, sheep, goats, cattle on ancient settlements — rather visually testifies to the importance of cattle breeding.

Hunting played the big role in lives of settlers. Bones of the roe, tau-teke, mufflon, a saiga were found at excavation. Horns of red deer and mufflon were often found, that served as production materials for production of various items.

Hunted on a waterfowl — ducks, geese, pelicans. Fishery was developed. Finds of fish bones and scales testify this. Fish were beat by harpoons, were caught by various fishing tackles.

Collecting fruits of wild-growing apple-trees, pears, a dried apricots, a hawthorn, a pistachio played a big and one of the main roles in household.

Thus, at a boundary AD and in the first half of the I millennium AD in the south of Kazakhstan large powerful state association — Kangyuy who played an important role in the history of the East existed and developed. Its population was engaged in agriculture and cattle breeding, crafts, trade. Кангюй Parfiyey, Rome and Kushansky империей14 was connected by political, economic and cultural ties with China.

Thus, in the first half of the first millennium AD in the south part of Kazakhstan existed and developed large and very powerful Kangyuy state community, that played a big role in the East world. Population of this society was engaged in agriculture and cattle breeding, handicraft and trade. Kangyuy state was politically, economically and culturally connected with China, Parfia, Rome and Kushan empire. 


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