Home History of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan in the Russian Empire Joining of Kazakhstan to Russia Joining of Kazakhstan to Russia: occurrence, gain, colonization

Joining of Kazakhstan to Russia: occurrence, gain, colonization

27 July 2013
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Joining of Kazakhstan to Russia was preceded by considerable political connections between them. Russian state showed interest in expansion of their frontiers to the east. In process of centralization and government strengthening possibilities of a trade exchange and other forms of relationship with the people adjoining to east states considerably increased.

Gain of the Kazansk (1552), Astrakhan (1556) khanates and South Western Siberia by Ivan IV,  establishment of the Kamsk trade way facilitated direct contacts with the Kazakh khanate. Interest of the Russian state in Kazakhstan especially increased from the 2nd half of the XV—XVI centuries, a post of establishment of trade and diplomatic relations of Russia with the Central Asian khanates.

The Russian state interested in development of transit trade ways with the Central Asian khanates through Kazakhstan and seeking to ensure safety of passing of merchant caravans, took a keen interest to a political situation and relationship of the Kazakh khanate with neighboring countries. Therefore also the Moscow sovereigns sought for establishment of direct connections with the Kazakh khans. The big role in it was played by ambassadorial communications. In 1573 the Russian embassy was sent to the Kazakh steppe according to head with Tretiak Chebukov. The embassy had a problem of adjustment of trade with Kazakhs. However Chebukov's diplomatic mission didn't reach borders of Kazakhstan as it was exterminated by the nephew of the Siberian khan Kuchum Mametku-lom. In 1577 the Russian ambassador Boris Domozhirov who has come back from the Nogai Horde, noted that the Kazakh khan who was threatening nogays and having communications with Tashkent and Urgench, was with "the tsar and the grand duke in the world". In 1594 to Moscow the 1st Kazakh embassy arrived. The envoy of khan Tauyekel Kul - Mohammed had an assignment to release his nephew Uraz-Mohammed who was "amanat" in Moscow, i.e. the hostage, and to conclude the friendly agreement with the Russian government. Besides, he had to achieve from Boris Godunov "fiery  fight" I fight with next and conflicting feudal khanates. In the response diploma of the Russian tsar to khan Tauyekel the parcel "was promised host with fiery fight" and "protection" of Kazakhs of opponents from all of them. The Russian state which has achieved at the end of the XV—XVI centuries of noticeable successes in economic and political development, encouraged trade at east boundaries of the country, having, of course, and political goals. In Ivan I Groznyis's appointed diploma to Jacob and Grigory Stroganov of May 30, 1574 was allowed to trade with the people of Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

The Russian state interested in development of transit trade ways with the Central Asian khanates through Kazakhstan and seeking to ensure safety of passing of merchant caravans, took a keen interest to a political situation and relationship of the Kazakh khanate with neighboring countries. Therefore also the Moscow sovereigns sought for establishment of direct connections with the Kazakh khans. The big role in it was played by ambassadorial communications. In 1573 the Russian embassy was sent to the Kazakh steppe according to head with Tretiak Chebukov. The embassy had a problem of adjustment of trade with Kazakhs. However Chebukov's diplomatic mission didn't reach borders of Kazakhstan as it was exterminated by the nephew of the Siberian khan Kuchum Mametku-lom. In 1577 the Russian ambassador Boris Domozhirov who has come back from the Nogai Horde, noted that the Kazakh khan who was threatening nogays and having communications with Tashkent and Urgench, was with "the tsar and the grand duke in the world". In 1594 to Moscow the 1st Kazakh embassy arrived. The envoy of khan Tauyekel Kul - Mohammed had an assignment to release his nephew Uraz-Mohammed who was "amanat" in Moscow, i.e. the hostage, and to conclude the friendly agreement with the Russian government. Besides, he had to achieve from Boris Godunov "fiery  fight" I fight with next and conflicting feudal khanates. In the response diploma of the Russian tsar to khan Tauyekel the parcel "was promised host with fiery fight" and "protection" of Kazakhs of opponents from all of them. The Russian state which has achieved at the end of the XV—XVI centuries of noticeable successes in economic and political development, encouraged trade at east boundaries of the country, having, of course, and political goals. In Ivan I Groznyis's appointed diploma to Jacob and Grigory Stroganov of May 30, 1574 was allowed to trade with the people of Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

Both parties were equally interested in trade and economic relations. By barter Kazakhs acquired household goods, firearms, and Russians received from them various raw materials, cattle. Allies in fight against Kuchum's descendants, a free entry into the markets of Central Asia, safety lying through the territory of Kazakhstan of caravan routes were necessary to the Russian state. In turn, the Kazakhs who were exposed to continuous ruinous attacks of the Central Asian khanates, were interested in expansion of contacts with Moscow. For safety of commercial relations with Kazakhstan, Siberia, Central Asia the Russian state along with advance of  merchants, embassies and military groups started intensive construction on border with Kazakhstan the strengthened points fortresses.

Though occurrence of Average and Senior zhuzhes took place later, Abulkhair khan at the appeal to the imperial government spoke on behalf of all Kazakh people that, undoubtedly, guarded dzhungar and forced them to look with alarm at further development of the Russian-Kazakh relations. In the decree of the Russian empress there were the points guaranteeing inviolability already officially of subject Kazakhs against hostile actions of uneasy neighbors: "if on you, kaysaks (Kazakhs) enemies will attack you will be protected" 8.

Without denying an objective basis of acceptance Younger zhuz the Russian citizenship, it isn't necessary to lose sight and mercenary interests of Abulkhair who, leaning on the Russian administration, hoped to weaken positions of the political opponents, to tower over the potential rivals in fight for the individual power. In this question there was no consensus and in russian historiography. M. Maksheev, A.I.Dobrosmyslov, I.Zavalishin, V.N.Vitebsky, I.I.Kraft as a whole justified Abulkhair's actions during negotiations and signing of the document on citizenship. A.I.Levshin was inclined to consider citizenship as manifestation of personal will of Abulkhair and others "ambitious chiefs"  people, cherishing hope "to amplify protection of the powerful power".

However and after acceptance Younger zhuz the Russian citizenship situation in Kazakhstan remained difficult. Threat of dzhungar devastating invasions wasn't removed. In this difficult situation business of rescue of the country was assumed by the people. In the years of reflection of dzhungars aggression the talent of sultan Abylay of a military leader was shown. But also in this situation various classes of the Kazakh society set before themselves the different purposes. If workers of weight of nomads cattle-farmers dreamed of the world and pastures, trade with the adjacent countries as conditions of restoration and development of the undermined economy, the termination of infinite requisitions and robberies, impoverishments, part Kazakh the feudal lord looked for possibilities of strengthening of personal positions whereas known Biy Kazybek, Tole, Ayteke continued calling people for unity.

On November 24, 1732 Tevkelev, having finished the mission, left in a way back from Nayzakesks natural boundary. On January 2, 1733 he arrived to Ufa together with Abulkhair's sent to Petersburg embassy. In its structure there was son of Abulkhair Eraly sultan, cousin of sultan Niyaz, foremen Chadynbay, Murza Huday-Nazar, batyr Moore-zageldy, Murza Tugelbay, etc. As a result of negotiations in Petersburg the joining of Younger zhuz to citizenship of Russia was issued finally.

The first Russian city in the territory of Western Siberia, near borders of Kazakhstan, the "big Ob town" on the right coast of the Ob River was located "At a confluence of the Irtysh River in it. For a short time the existence (it is destroyed in 1594) it served as starting point for further advance of the Russian military of groups in depth of Siberia and to borders of Kazakhstan. Then were constructed Tyumen (1586), Tobolsk (1587), Taru (1594), Tomsk (1604).

Interest in establishment of more confidential relations with the Russian state was shown also by the Kazakh khanate, seeking to strengthen the international positions in the conditions of accruing external threat.

Formation of the Dzhungar khanate (1635) brought essential changes in Central Asia. Tauke khan expressing interests of ruling feudal group, being the far-sighted politician, constantly sought for consolidation of border of the state. Goodwill of Tauke to Russia was caused by his attempt to strengthen position of Kazakhstan, maintaining relations with Russia. In 1687 the Kazakh embassy was sent to Tobolsk led by batyr Tashim with an assignment to invite the Russian merchants to Kazakhstan. The structure of mission included the Kazakh dealers, intending to clear away the soil for economic relations with the Russian state through the Siberian cities. In 1689 – the beginning of 1690 other embassy is sent to Tobolsk was led by the Tuman batyr. However these communications weren't issued legally, signing of concrete mutually favorable agreements that, most likely, was caused, on the one hand, by aspiration of the Kazakh owners to keep an independent condition of the khanate, and with another – position of Russia occupied with the Polish and Turkish affairs. The domestic situation of the Kazakh khanate also didn't favor to quiet development of its external economic contacts with Russia.

Hakk-Nazar, Tauke's and other Kazakh khans attempts to create the large centralized state finally didn't crown success. Lack of stable political and economic relations between zhuzhes, interstine fight of the Kazakh feudal top encouraged aggressive neighbors, doomed the Kazakh people to the greatest disasters and deprivations. "The first decade of the XVIII century — C.Valikhanov wrote — was awful time in life of the Kazakh people. Dzhungars, Volga Kalmyks, yaitsk Kazaks and Bashkirs from the different parties smashed their uluses, drove away cattle and took away in captivity the whole families".  From the South the Central Asian khanates, seeking to tear away territories of Kazakhstan attacked. But Dzungaria representing real threat for existence of the Kazakh feudal state was the most dangerous enemy.

Years of board of Tsevan-Rabdan and his successor Galdan-Tseren were time of the greatest power of the Dzhungarsk khanate, its active role in life of the people of Central Azia. War with Kazakh khan Tauke was Tsevan-Rabdan's first large act. The Kazakh khanate was in great need in additional pasturable grounds, but didn't find free lands. The land narrowness, however, wasn't the only reason of military collisions. A certain value had aspiration of feudal groups of each party to establish control over trade ways, to profit riches of the opponent.

If in relation to Russia dzhungarsk governors took a waiting attitude, rather Kazakh childbirth didn't hide the aggressive intentions. The tense situation on northeast borders compelled the Kazakh khans and sultans to enter negotiations with Peter's I government and through the Siberian boundary authorities to declare the intentions to be at war with Dzungaria in the union with Russia.

In 1717 certain leaders of Kazakhs sultans Kaip and Abulkhair, considering complexity of foreign policy provision of the Kazakh childbirth and real threat from external opponents, addressed to Peter I with a request for a military alliance. The last, being occupied with war with Sweden and having data on internal disorders and interstine conflicts of the Kazakh childbirth, didn't decide on intervention in "the Kazakh affairs", continuing to watch events in Kazakhstan, Central Asia and Dzungaria. Peter's I desire to have a Kyrgyz-kaysatsk horde as a part of the Russian state was caused by its intention not only to expand borders of the state, but aspiration to secure eastern frontiers of Russia.

 In one of notes the senior translator in confidential affairs and future diplomat A.Tevkelev writes "... upon return from the Persian campaign its imperial majesty the sovereign emperor Peter the Great desired to have desire for the fatherland of the Russian Empire useful intention in reduction since ancient times heard, and in time of almost unknown Kyrgyz-kaysatsk hordes of that time in the Russian citizenship, and this monarchical special me the lowest to that to use intention had, with that this horde in exact citizenship won't wish, to try to me, despite great expenses at least to one million (rubles) to hold; that of that one leaf under a patronage of the Russian Empire undertook to be" 4.

Created according to Peter's I personal order military and engineering constructions — Yamyshevsk (1716), Omsk (1716), Zhelezinsk (1717) Semipalatinsk (1718), Ust Kamenogorsk, Koryakovsk (1720) and other military and defensive points which have made the Upper-Irtyshsk line, played a certain role in protection of Kazakhs against devastating attacks of dzhungar armies. Existence of artillery and well trained regular parts compelled dzhungar feudal lords to abstain from direct military operations.

Dzhungar invasions (1681 — 1684, 1694, 1711 — 1712, 1714 — 1717) broke the traditional directions and ways of movings and all system of a nomad developing by eyelids as a whole. It aggravated internal contradictions and intestine wars, fight of feudal lords for pastures, the intergeneric conflicts, collisions — it was possible to resolve which only at the expense of plentiful water and herbs and rather safe kocheviya at borders of Russia.

However the defining condition which has accelerated acceptance by part of Younger zguz by Kazakhs of the Russian citizenship, aggression of dzhungar feudal lords was. Years of "Great disaster" (1723 — 1727) brought hunger, suffering, destruction of material values, an irreplaceable loss to development of productive forces. The Kazakh childbirth under the pressure of dzhungar armies was compelled to leave for eyelids familiar spots that caused an moving of Kazakhs to adjacent areas. "... These transitions entailed for themselves inevitable ruin and death... poverty and sufferings became general, others died from hunger, others threw wives and the children" — A.I.Levshin wrote about it.

In this difficult situation fight against aggressors was headed by batyrs military leaders, such as Bukenbay, Kabanbay, Malaysara, Zhanibek, etc., the important role was played by an unbending will of Abylay.

Militarily the Dzhungar khanate represented serious force. On arms of huge dzhungar army at the end of the XVII century there was "a fiery weapon with a match" 6. The arms of Kazakhs considerably conceded to the dzhungars'.

Despite an adverse situation as a whole across Kazakhstan, the Kazakh people which possessed a crucial role in reflection unknown since the Mongolian invasion of an impact of dzhungar aggressors, won at times impressive victories. Groups of the Kazakh batyrs quite often, having forced out enemy forces, interfered on the territory of nearby lands of dzhungars. took a large number of the captured. One of large battles happened in 1726 on the bank of river of Bulanta, in the district Kara-Syiyr. The Kazakh soldiers inflicted here over dzhungar hordes sensitive defeat. The place of fight received the name "Kalmak-kyrylgan" (a death place kalma-kov).

In 1729 there was a bloody battle of Kazakh warriors with dzhungar conquerors in the southeast from Lake Balkhash, in the district Ankaray7 where integrated forces of three zhuzes won a brilliant victory. Armies of conquerors started receding on river. Or to the east. But during this time leaders of the Kazakh militia in connection with death of khan Bolat quarreled because of the power that facilitated actions of oyrats and nullified numerous victims and efforts of the Kazakh people in fight with dzhungars.

Complexity of foreign policy position of Kazakhs induced to look for exit ways from the created situation. In 1726 the khan of Younger zhuz Abulkhair, foremen Sugur, Edikbay, Hadzhibay, Kulymbay, etc. sent to Russia of a post of Koybagar "to ask protection" for Kazakhs of Younger zhuz. This embassy remained ineffectual, but Abulkhair doesn't leave the intentions and in September, 1730 again sent embassy through Ufa to Petersburg with the letter to the Russian empress Anna Ioannovna and an oral request for citizenship and protection. On February 19, 1731 empress Anna Ioannovna signed the appointed diploma to khan Abulkhair about acceptance in the Russian citizenship of Younger zhuz. For adoption of the corresponding oath ambassadors were sent to Kazakhstan with the diploma to khan Abulkhair led by the translator of the Commission of foreign affairs A.I.Tevkelevym.

Based on Abulkhair's assurances, in Petersburg decided that the desire to enter the Russian citizenship is shared by all sultans and foremen of Younger zhuz. However, when Tevkelev arrived on October 5, 1731 to Abulkhair which was on the river Irgiz's the rate, it became clear that concerning acceptance of the Russian citizenship among a feudal top there were essential disagreements. Attempts of "opposite party" headed by the sultan Barrack to counteract negotiations and to exclude registration of the act of accession of Younger zhuz to Russia failed and on October 10, 1731 the considerable part of meeting of the Kazakh foremen supported its acceptance.

Though enterting of Average and Senior zhuzhes took place later, Abulkhair khan at the appeal to the imperial government spoke on behalf of all Kazakh people that, undoubtedly, guarded dzhungar and forced them to look with alarm at further development of the Russian-Kazakh relations. In the decree of the Russian empress there were the points guaranteeing inviolability already officially of subject Kazakhs against hostile actions of uneasy neighbors: "if on you, kaysaks (Kazakhs) enemies will attack you will be protected" 8.

Without denying an objective basis of acceptance Younger zhuz the Russian citizenship, it isn't necessary to lose sight and mercenary interests of Abulkhair who, leaning on the Russian administration, hoped to weaken positions of the political opponents, to tower over the potential rivals in fight for the individual power. In this question there was no consensus and in russian historiography. M. Maksheev, A.I.Dobrosmyslov, I.Zavalishin, V.N.Vitebsky, I.I.Kraft as a whole justified Abulkhair's actions during negotiations and signing of the document on citizenship. A.I.Levshin was inclined to consider citizenship as manifestation of personal will of Abulkhair and others "ambitious chiefs"  people, cherishing hope "to amplify protection of the powerful power".

However and after acceptance Younger zhuz the Russian citizenship situation in Kazakhstan remained difficult. Threat of dzhungar devastating invasions wasn't removed. In this difficult situation business of rescue of the country was assumed by the people. In the years of reflection of dzhungars aggression the talent of sultan Abylay of a military leader was shown. But also in this situation various classes of the Kazakh society set before themselves the different purposes. If workers of weight of nomads cattle-farmers dreamed of the world and pastures, trade with the adjacent countries as conditions of restoration and development of the undermined economy, the termination of infinite requisitions and robberies, impoverishments, part Kazakh the feudal lord looked for possibilities of strengthening of personal positions whereas known Biy Kazybek, Tole, Ayteke continued calling people for unity.

On November 24, 1732 Tevkelev, having finished the mission, left in a way back from Nayzakesks natural boundary. On January 2, 1733 he arrived to Ufa together with Abulkhair's sent to Petersburg embassy. In its structure there was son of Abulkhair Eraly sultan, cousin of sultan Niyaz, foremen Chadynbay, Murza Huday-Nazar, batyr Moore-zageldy, Murza Tugelbay, etc. As a result of negotiations in Petersburg the entering of Younger zhuz to citizenship of Russia was issued finally.





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