"Shaimerden - our distant relative, but the camp of our village was located far away from them," - says the writer Zhaiyk Bekturov. - As a child, several times I had seen Shake. He spoke quickly. We called him "Mullah Shaike".
Kosshygulov Shaimerden (1874-1932) came from a noble family of Akmola merchants. Kazakh merchants spared no effort on the development of business in Akmolinsk. Kosshygulovs brothers first opened a confectionary in this region. The leader of Kosshygulov’s dynasty was Baimukhambet Kosshygulov. The company, which glorified his name, was in Akmolinsk (between a Trade Center and "Abai" hotel in the prospectus of Abai). At the time such enterprises were little in the country. The factory produced various sweets, candy, marshmallows, cookies, cakes. Baimukhambet opened three stores in the city. The number of visitors to these stores grew each day. Sons of Baimukhambet also engaged charitable deeds. Once burned the only mosque in Akmola, and his son Bekmukhambet built a new mosque and opened under it mektep madrasah. Factory passed to his other son Nurmukhambet. Until 1929, when the Soviet government did not take the company from merchants, they provided Akmola and nearby regions with their products.
Shaimerden, knowing the letter from aul mullah, learned from Nauan Khazret. After completing studies in madrasah, he started work as a teacher. At this time he started to gain popularity and authority among the people, engaged in politics, and the spread of Islam. Shaimerden actively opposed the colonial policy, especially against the agrarian reform and resettlement of the tsarist empire.
In 1900, representatives of the tsarist power came in Kokshetau in order to force people to renounce Islam and embrace Christianity. Arrived Troitsky gathered biys of Kokshetau County, and read the statute, "You, Kyrgyzs, before lived by Muslim law - Sheriat. This was an outdated statute. Now preachers of Sheriat law and mullahs would be punished". (Kazakh adebieti, number 49, 08.12.2000)
Shaimerden with his teacher Nahua Khazret was against this charter. They explained to the people that this was wrong policy and took measures to preserve Islam. They wrote a request to the tsar and began to collect signatures. Shaimerden sometimes had to pretend poor man for the task. Nahua and Shaimerden wrote letters to famous persons of the region to support them in this endeavor. Minions of the tsar felt it, and began to search all the suspects. During one of these searches, they found a letter of Shaimerden Kosshygulov in the house of the great Abai.
In 1903, for distributing leaflets in Kokchetav district against the colonial policy of Russia was arrested. The court passed on: "... Having considered the circumstances of the case of mullah Talasov and his assistant in custody Kosshygulov, decided to: send these two persons in Eastern Siberia in the countryside, at the discretion of the Irkutsk governor-general under strict supervision for a period: Koshegulov 5 years, Talasov 3 years, as the period from 12 June 1903".
Thus, Sh. Kosshygulov was expelled from the Steppe region in Yakutia. With the support of A. Bukeikhan and M. Serdalin in 1905 during the I-st Russian Revolution, he was able to return to homeland. After returning home, he continued an active struggle against the colonial policy of Russia.
At the end of 1905, he went to St. Petersburg and participated in the demonstration organized by students.
In the early twentieth century, the Muslim nations started the All-Russian Muslim congresses. The first Muslim congress was held August 15, 1905 in Nizhny Novgorod. This congress was attended by about 150 delegates from Turkestan, Siberian region, the Caucasus and Crimea. In this secret congress, chaired by I. Gasprinsky delegates criticized the colonial policy of the tsarist regime, limiting the rights of Muslims. They decided on the requirement of equal rights of citizens of Russia, regardless of language, religion, nation, sex.
The second All-Russian Muslim Congress, held from 15-23 January 1906 in St. Petersburg, was attended by Sh. Kosshygulov, Zhantorin S., U. Tanashev, M. Orazaev and other representatives of the Kazakh intelligentsia. Due to the lack of permission for holding such a congress, meetings were held secretly in hotels, apartments. On the agenda was discussed a question on the organization of the political authority of Muslims in Russia. By the decision of the delegates the organization was called the "Union of Russian Muslims" ("Ittifak ul-Muslimin"). According to the statute, it was decided to open branches of the party in 16 cities, among which were Orenburg, Astrakhan, Kyzylzhar, Semipalatinsk, Verny, Tashkent, Ashgabat.
Third All-Russian Muslim Congress by resolution of the tsarist power took place in 1906 in Nizhny Novgorod. This congress was attended by representatives of the Kazakh intelligentsia Sh. Kosshygulov, S. Zhantorin, Zh. Aldongarov, and N. Suleimenov. Shaimerden Kosshygulov was elected to the Commission on the development program of the party. At the Congress, the document was adopted, and despite the fact that the "Union of Russian Muslims" supported private ownership of land, as well as the party of the Cadets, but outlined the need to protect the interests of Muslim nations and cease resettlement of Russian peasants in remote regions. In the leadership of the party were elected A. Topchibaev, I. Gasprinsky, A. Ibragimov, M. Bigiyev, Sh. Kosshygulov and S. Zhantorin. (Kazakhstan. National Encyclopedia. // Almaty, 2005, "Kazakh encyclopedia")
During this time he corresponded with Mukhamedzhan Tynyshbayev, Sadvokas Shipabekov, Alikhan Bokeikhanov.
In June 1906 elections to the State Duma were held. Elections of deputies of the State Duma I from Kazakhs of Akmola region were held June 15, 1906 in the city of Kokshetau. Six people run for deputies. Mullah Shaimerden Kosshygulov received 94 electoral votes of Akmola region and won. Among his countrymen, he was known for having fought in defense of the interests of the nomadic population of colonization and migration, was an associate of a prominent religious figure Nahua Talasov for which was systematically persecuted by the authorities. However, despite the fact that he received the requisite number of votes, the regional commission did not recognize the election results, citing a violation of Article 55 of the "Regulations on the State Duma elections," according to which was forbidden to elect the Duma people who did not know the Russian language. But the right of deprivation of Kosshygulov regained deputy status was granted only to the State Duma. Therefore, he was included as a member of the I-st Duma in 1906.
In 1907 Kosshygulov was elected deputy to the II-nd State Duma of the Muslim faction. This Duma met briefly, just 104 days. Kazakh deputies were in favor of the termination of the resettlement of peasants in Kazakhstan. In March 1907 deputies said: "Cattle breeding are the only source of wealth among nomads, and nomadism is not a pleasant and idle walk of Kirghizs on boundless Asia steppes and hard work that caused a kind of a whim of nature, in order to support the single existence."
In 1907, he provided financial support "Serke" newspaper, which was published in St. Petersburg. Son of Sh. Kosshygulov, Faizyrakhman, told that his father distributed the newspaper "Serke" among Kazakhs in St. Petersburg. From the capital of Russia and other places, he brought the lead letters for printing books, newspapers. These letters were found in the mosque of Nahua.
Mukhamedzhan Seralin in an article on the history of the newspaper "Serke" wrote: "In 1907 in St. Petersburg was published the newspaper "Serke" on the initiative of a member of the State Duma II Shakhmardan Kosshygulov. But the newspaper was immediately shut down by government agencies". (“Aikap”, 1911, №1) Closed after two publication numbers, according to Sh. Kosshygulov, newspaper had the name "Serke" (Leader). It came as a supplement to the 67th issue of the newspaper "Ulfat". After the newspaper edition the police arrested the entire print run, and closed the office. The reason for this was the article of M. Dulatov against government policies.
At the beginning of March 1907 the newspaper "Serke" published announcement,
"Serke" is a guard of Kazakhs under Alash slogan. We want to release the magazine in the Kazakh language as "Serke". The first issue came out in March. The cost of subscription to the newspaper: "for a year two rubles, for half a ruble 25 kopecks. Cost per issue ten kopecks."
When "Serke" came out, "Ulfat" published the following announcement,
"We declare that we promised to release a magazine in the Kazakh language as "Serke". Indicative issue of the magazine came out.
Editor is deputy of Duma (Shaimerden) Kosshygulov". ("Ulfat", 67 issue, March 28, 1907, St. Petersburg).
In the years 1917-1919 Sh. Kosshygulov did not remain aloof from the movement Alash. Therefore, after the establishment of Soviet power, he was recognized as an enemy of the communist ideology and persecuted. According to Faizyrakhman, son of Sh. Kosshygulov, he was pursued by GPU officers. A figure, worn-out and exhausted of political persecution was arrested by the Soviet authorities in 1931; he was sentenced to 3 years and sent into exile.
In 1932 Shaimerden died of starvation near Mariyanovka station near Omsk. His remains were there (“Ana tili”, №11, 18.03.1993).
Unfortunately, for a long time the name of the great son of Kazakhs was in oblivion. The encyclopedia "Kazakh SSR" had no place for him. In the book "Akmola" he was devoted only one sentence: "the deputy of the State Duma." Injustice against Shaimerden was corrected only in the years of M.S. Gorbachev’s perestroika. September 19, 1989 by the decision of Kokchetav Regional Court, he was acquitted.
At one time Saduakas Gylmani gathered material, "the Kazakh people fight against Nicholas II. History about Shaimerden Kosshygulov – leader of uprising" (Kazakh khalkynyn Nikolayga karsy shyguy, ony bastaushy Shaimerden Kosshygulovtyn tarikhy) All this requires careful study.
And now, in the cities of Astana, Kokshetau, Stepnyak and other towns there are streets and schools named after Shaimerden Kosshygulov.
By Arman SULEIMENOV
Translated by Raushan MAKHMETZHANOVA
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