No one should be in doubt that leaders of Alash of the first quarter of XX century, when they planned the future of the country at formation of Kazakh society, future civilized Kazakh state, they wanted to see Kazakh rich people as pivot of the structure. They were the main driving force of the Alash movement and strongly contributed to the spread of its idea in the Kazakh steppe, were initiators and stand at the origin of its location. After the February revolution, when the tsarist regime was replaced by the interim government, the new government did not recognize the Alash autonomy, Kazakh wealthy people became its main economic reliance. All expenses of the newly formed government of Alashorda was compensated by the rich.
Among the rich landowners who were considered as the main reliance of the Alashorda government, who helped financially include the following people: Karazhan Ukibayev (Semey), Medeu Orazbayev, Ike Adilov (Shyngystau), Khasen Akayev, Bekmetov brothers, Ybray Akpayev (Karkaraly) Maman’s children from Zhetysu. Issa Kopzhassarov from Kobdy, great-grandson of Syrym batyr Salyk Omarov and famous bay from Mangystau Tobaniyaz Alniyazov supported financially Alashorda government in the western region.
Wealthy landowners contributed in the education of Kazakh youth in higher educational institutions of Russia and Western Europe. For example, Zhakhansha (Zhansha) Dosmukhamedov has graduated from Law faculty of St. Petersburg university with the support of great grandson of Syrym batyr Salyk Omarov. The history of philanthropy (scholarship and other kinds of support) of Kazakh wealthy landowners in the matter of getting education by Kazakh young people are not studied till present time.
It is believed, that rich landowners from Semey region were the first who supported Alashorda, because Semey was the center of the Alash movement. Kazakh rich people supported Alash movement since 1905. There were many wealthy people who signed and accepted Karkaralinsk petition of 1905.
Thus, the first successful joint action solidarized leaders of Alash for protection of the people’s interests. The tsarist administration strictly punished organizers and some of them were put in jail. At that time Kazakh landowners supported the leaders of Alash movement. This can be evidenced by the following facts.
When Mirzhakip Dulatuly was put in prison, June 17, 1906 Karazhan Ukibayev paid 2500 as a bail for him, Akayuly Khasen from Omsk released him paying 5000 for him. Medeu Urazbayuly after the news that Alikhan Bukeikhanov was ill after eight months in Semey prison said that Alikhan was very important person for Kazakh people. He had 10 mares in Shagyl in 1908 and drove a large jar of kumys and a lamb to the jail. He held a council with his people on this case.
The next milestone in philanthropic activity of Kazakh landowners were 1913-1918 years, when Kazakh newspapers issued for the first time. Kazakh bais (wealthy people) actively participated in formation, development and distribution of Kazakh newspapers and culture. They helped financially to Kazakh newspapers. In particular they helped to distribution and popularization of «Kazakh» newspaper among the population , which published 265 newspapers during 1913-1918.
He wrote an announcement «To the wealthy people of Alash» in «Kazakh» newspaper in 1915, where asked about financial support for this authority. Maman bay’s children under the lead of Esengul kazhy showed the most activity in this campaign.
Esengul Kazhy Mamanuly
Maman bay’s children who lived in Kapal county, Esengul and Turysbek made a big contribution in the opening of Kazakh schools, development of the national culture and became the bright representatives of Kazakh patrons. In 1913 Esengul Kazhy mamanov announced a competition for the best Kazakh novel in «Kazakh» newspaper, that caused a great resonance among the Kazakh readers.
The next bright representative- philanthropist who helped Kazakh newspapers was Karazhan Ukibayev. One of his good beginnings was publishment of the journal «Abay». Our great writer Mukhtar Auyezov asked financial support from Karazhan Ukibayev in 1918. Then he answered: «I will help financially, the only thing I want, that a journal will be published». All the examples above show, that leaders of Alash were witnesses what kind of wealthy people were in real life on the example of publishment of newspapers, development of the national culture.
The time of the truth for leaders of Alash and representatives of the national bourgeoisie came after the February revolution in 1917. When Alashorda government moved from Orenburg to Semey, they were supported by Kazakh wealthy people. In particular, Ukibayev Karazhan provided valuable assistance. All meetings of Semey district were held in Ukibayev Karazhan’s buildings which he gave to Alashorda government.
The following facts were written in Ike Adilov’s personal file: Adilov Ike, Kazakh. He lived in Shagan of Semey district, secondary education, had two wives, the family consisted from 7 members. He had 596 cattle, 900 small cattle. He was a former grave. He was awarded by golden medal and certificate of merit. During the civil war he actively helped to Alashorda government and he was in close relations with Annenkov in his battles against the Red Army.
In 1927 Adilov Ike with other wealthy people were sent to Rubtsov district. In 1928 he escaped and hid in Shagan mountains. He gathered all people who thought the same way, organized a group of people and fought against the Soviet power.
The following announcement was published in newspaper «Kazakh» in November 1917: «If we cannot defend ourselves, the times of riots and rebellion will come and Kazakh people will be victims...». It was announced that the Second All-Kazakh meeting will be held in Orenburg and all decent authoritative people are invited from all the regions. They discussed the moment when rebellious riots happened. Discussing these issues they agreed to form Kazakh militia. The regulation consisting of 12 points was accepted. All means for formation of volunteer units was reserved by the Alashorda government.
The national Alash militia could serve as security warrantor for protection of the Alash autonomy. Kazakh wealthy people played the main role in it. One of them was mentioned above Ukibayev Karazhan. His name appears as one of the organizers of the Alash horse army fought against the Soviet power.
There are the following facts in the personal file of Akpayev Ybray (he was a brother of Zhakyp Akbayev, who was a famous figure in Karkaraly district): He detached 600 men to the colonel of Alash regiment on Koyandy fair in 1918. The General Lukin of the second corps awarded Ybray Akpayev a gold medal. We consider that Akpayev Ybray could not detach 600 men. It is out of logic. JSPD just wanted to defame him. But it is a fact that Akpayev Ybray was a supporter of Alash movement and helped them. This issue requires further study.
The formation of the Alash militia actively took place in the western regions. Local wealthy man, a member of the party Alash Isa Kopzhasarov made a great contribution for the formation of the Alash militia. He allocated 100 horses from the personal herd. The great grandson of Syrym Datov Salyk Omarov allocated 200 horses for Alash army on the 3rd meeting of the Kazakh people of Ural in Karatobe. A group of Kazakh people led by Tobaniyaz from Mangystau also were supporters of the Alash movement and helped the army.
The Central Executive committee of the Kazakh ASSR and the Council of People’s Commissars was expropriated by the regulation dated August 27, 1928 «On the confiscation of large farms of wealthy landowners» and all wealthy, rich owners were liquidated. The regulation stated: the Kazakh republic was a culturally backward nation on its ethnic composition and they live in pre-revolutionary nomadic-tribal ties and backward way of life. The wealthy people and groups who still had social advantages strongly prohibited to the Soviet power in the villages in holding different events, held provocative actions and propaganda, arouse inter-ethnic and intergeneric disfavor. It primarily prevents an economic and cultural development of the republic and keep the poor in their dependence.
In a resolution by CEC of Kaz ASSR and People’s Commissariat dated August 27, 1928 was given an instruction on using wealthy people. In order to implement resolution of CEC Kaz SSR and the People’s Commissariat, wealthy people whose farms were expropriated, people who preserved the patriarchal-patrimonial relations, who had large feudal economy and big public authority, preventing the Sovietization of the village should be exiled.. They are subject to deportation.
1) In nomadic areas with more than 400 cattle. In semi-nomadic areas with more than 300 cattle. In settled areas −150.
People, who cause harm to local population using the peculiarities of generic relations, people establishing their economic superiority, people preventing to village Sovietization.
2) People who have less of mentioned cattle, but who are representatives of the local authorities, acknowledged as socially dangerous to society.
3) People related to the special group: the descendants of khans and sultans, the former district rulers who have special awards and incentives from the tsarist authorities, awarded for personal achievements and who had hereditary titles. By the regulation of CEC Kazakh ASSR and People’s Commissariat dated August 30, 1928 «On the determination of the place for deportation of people subjected for expropriation» the following regions of the republic were assigned: wealthy people of Zhetysu and Syrdarya regions were exiled to Ural region, from Ural region to Zhetysu, from Guryev region to the Petropavlovsk, Karakaraly to Kostanay, Semey from Syrdarya, Pavlodar to Aktobe, Kyzylorda to Aday, Akmola to Guryev, Aktobe to Karkaraly, Kostanay to Semey.
According to the researches of the historian T.Omarbekov, the campaign on confiscation should cover 696 farms. The first group consisted of 562 and the second one was consisted of 134 farms. Many farms from the first group was not large. Many of them were expropriated, because they were descendants of Kazakh khans and biis. Also prominent religious figures and people were persecuted because they were the members of Alashorda movement. It is will be in the following way if confiscated individuals are classified:
a) rulers, khans and their other descendants — 24;
b) government officials, aksakals, biis (former judges) — 76;
c) mullahs, religious leaders and others −8;
d) former leaders of Alashorda and officials −44;
Big cattle-owners and opponents of Sovietization of the village −323. 144474 cattle was confiscated.
N.A.Nazarbayev has written in his book «In the stream of the history»: «The cattle of each wealthy person was considered as a reserve stock of each tribal community on different cases of natural disasters. Terrible natural and climatic conditions, a full dependence of the people to its changes, the invasion of external enemies constantly were the threat of famine and pestilence over the nomadic tribes for our people. In such cases, the cattle and wealth of rich people was a kind of salvation for the whole community».
In conclusion, I would like to say that our historians-scientists study the history of the Alashorda movement and give an objective assessment to its leaders. However, Kazakh landowners of 20-30 years of XX century denounced as «alashordinets», «counter-revolutionary gang», «nationalist» have not been rehabilitated by our government till now. They were the first representatives of Kazakh people, the main reliance of the society who supported the Alash party, its leaders and unified around the idea on the revival of Kazakh statehood. They did not stay behind, when there were political and economic progressive processes in the early XX century. They supported financially and spiritually the leaders of the Alash movement by armed progressive ideas. They understood the importance of formation future state under the flag of the idea of Alashorda and that is why studying wealthy people who helped the Alash movement must be the subject of the future studies. All of them are entitled to rehabilitation, it is necessary to declare the complete list of these people and include to the encyclopedia of Alashorda. This must be the next stage of studying the history of Alash movement and there will not be any white marks in the issue of «Alash study».
Erkin RAKHMETULLIN, PhD of Gumilyev Eurasian National University