The twentieth century is the golden age of the Kazakh intelligentsia, that united the dreams of the six Alash intellectuals into national ideas and national unity. All of them are educated, intelligent, smart, creative intellectuals from different areas of society. Many of them have higher education, and studied in Moscow, Omsk, Kazan, Tomsk, St. Petersburg, Russia, and they are selfless for the future of the Kazakh nation. The historical figures who broke the shackles of slavery, brought a national spirit of the Kazakhs, and also were held captive for 300 years. They were headed by Alikhan Bokeikhan, Mirjakyp Dulatuly, Akhmet Baitursynov, Akhmet Birimzhan, Zhakhansha Dosmukhameduly, Mukhamedzhan Karabay, Barlybek Syrtan, Zhakhansha Seidalin, Khalel Dosmukhameduly, Sadyk Amanzhol, Isa Kashkynbay, Bakhytkerei Kulman, Aidarkhan Turlybay, Yeldes Omar, Mustafa Shokay, Jakyp Akbay. All this is a group of Kazakh intellectuals united under the banner of “Alash”. There are many other unnamed national figures as well.
Alash figures were distinguished not only by party organization, political activity, they left their mark on the Kazakh history and literature, science and education, culture and spirituality. The idea of Alash, that unites the lions of this nation, led to the creation of Alash autonomy. Their unique vision of building a state has become a bright idea of today's Kazakh state. According to Mirjakyp Dulatuly, “Autonomy is the same as a state. We consider ourselves a state now”. Thus, today's Kazakh statehood is the fulfillment of the lifelong dream of the Alash intellectuals over the century.
Under the banner of Alash ideology, the nation's intellectuals united the Kazakh youth with liberal, and national slogans. Most of them were elected to the State Duma of Russia in order to address the crucial issues. He held the regional, district congresses and gatherings of Muslims from all Kazakh regions, and raised the issues that were of concern to the Kazakhs of that time. First of all, the issues of land, language, religion and mentality were raised there. They didn't just say and shout about them. All of them were propagandized in the “Kazakh” newspaper, “Aikap” magazine and other media. Due to this, the above-mentioned intellectuals have paved the way for the creation of a state system in which the Alash intelligentsia could protect a national interest.
The issue of Earth is the main focus of the Alash Orda government. Even the last item of the Alash party's program was dedicated to the “Earth`s issue”. The Kazakh Khanate helped us to preserve our land, that is as flat as the Sahara, and to live as a nation. And, the idea of Alash created an independent autonomous state and raised the spirit of our nation. The President said: “Formation of the national idea is possible only on the basis of re-reading our own history. Therefore, the formula of the national idea is in the national history. The main issue in the formation of the state system of Alash intellectuals was the issue of land, national history, army, unity, party, national language.
The main idea of Alash intellectuals was to create a sovereign, the independent nation-state of the Kazakh people. The fact that the Kazakh state is considered as a federal body of the Russian Republic, and the autonomy of the Kazakh people, is immediately independent, that means a lot.
An Alash leader Akhmet Baitursynov once said, “Language is the most powerful factor in the preservation and loss of a nation”. That is why, the Alash intellectuals considered the issue of the “State language” as the first important issue. According to them, only the national language raises the culture, national spirit and political leadership of the Kazakh nation. M.Shokai's spiritual harmony “The basis of the national spirit is the national language” was based on the reasonable opinion of the President: “National consciousness is formed by the national language”. Magzhan Zhumabay says, “Turkish children who say they speak Turkish will come to Kazakh one day and use the Kazakh language” (in “Pedagogy”). How can you not be inspired to read this series of thoughts, how can you not be proud?
Russia has done a lot to deprive the national language of its language. Actually it wanted to baptize the Kazakh people, convert them to their religion and teach them in Russian-language schools. But the intellectuals of Alash, shining like a giant star, prevented this obstacle. One of them compiled the alphabet of the state language, the other opened the newspaper “Kazakh”. A. Baitursynov's books “Til kuraly”, “Adebiet tanytkysh” became a valuable heritage for the future of the Kazakh language. Alikhan Bokeikhan, Telzhan Shona, Koshke Kemenger, Akhmet Baitursyn, Magzhan Zhumabay, M. Dulat, Zh. Aitmautuly wrote the articles and valuable researches about our native language.
However, it is difficult to assess the current level of the “Language issue”, one of the national ideas of the Alash party. Within the framework of the state language policy, the work is being done and various measures are being taken. But the result is small. We need to work hard, and not lose hope. If we saw the important work and compassion of our leaders in power, would the language problem have been solved long time ago? We hope so. At the same time, the Agency for the Civil Service Affairs stated that 95% of the civil servants are illiterate in the state language, at least when it comes to applying for the leave. It is true that the leaders and the people of November also had an impact on the development of the language. But historically, the government has often had to reckon with the people. Therefore, if we start from the top of the state language, the idea of alash will inevitably reach its peak.
There is a folk wisdom: “If the country joins the country, there will be the blessing”. It is clear that the fate of our compatriots, who were once far from home, has a great concern to anyone. This issue is one of the concerns of Alash intellectuals. From the words of the leader of Alash Alikhan Bokeikhan: “Kazakhs who have a deep roots will not be Kazakhs without a head”, we understand that Alash wanted to unite the Kazakhs with the motto Alash, without dividing the dream.
An Alash activist Khalel Dosmukhambetuly: “Our goal was to unite all Kazakhs. Therefore, we considered the inclusion of Kazakhs in China. Of course, we thought that the Kazakhs there should join the Alash Horde with the territory where they live. A plan remained a fantasy, but nothing was done in practice. I do not know how the Kazakhs from Kazakhstan will react to this. We thought that the situation of foreigners is very difficult, the standard of living is low, so it is impossible to oppose the merger”, he said. This was the ultimate goal of Alash leader Alikhan Bokeikhan. The fruits of this idea were reflected in the Kazakh newspaper. In it, the Alashorda residents claimed about the political emigration: “Kazakhs have no homeland except Kazakhstan. Therefore, the members of the Kazakh government must remain within the Kazakh people. If we want to achieve equality, we need to think deeply from now onwards. What we sow today, we will reap tomorrow”. This is the idea of Alash and the main philosophy of national unity. It is a branch of the ideology of the Kazakh nation in the policy of full unification.
The conceptual views of Alash intellectuals on the Kazakhs in China are also analyzed in the article “Aset Singer” by Kaliolla Nurtazauly in the №3 issue of the journal of the Xinjiang Institute of Social Sciences in 2004. It notes that the Head of the Alash Horde government, Alikhan Bokeikhan, wrote an appeal to the Chinese Kazakhs and instructed them to deliver it to the Kazakhs of Xinjiang, such as Akhmet Baitursynuly, Mirjakyp Dulatuly, Raimzhan Marsek. However, the article does not specify the content of this letter. However, we can see from the content of the letter that the above citizens held a meeting in Shaueshek with the good people of Kulja and Tarbagatai regions and Akhmet Baitursynov wrote a letter to the Altai Kazakhs and handed it over to Aset.
In 2007, Uakhap Kydyrkhanuly's article “The footprints of Mirjakyp in the Altai Mountains” was published in the “Ana Tili” newspaper №33. One of it is to know the situation in the country, that was frightened by the turmoil between white and red, and to relocate. The second was to increase the size of the Alash Horde in the country”, he said. From the above historical data of the Kazakhs it Xinjiang, it goes without saying that the idea of Alash in those twenties had been the essence of the idea of national unification.
The Alash activists have done a lot for the Kazakhs in Kobda (Mongolia). There is a historical event in the history of the Kazakhs of Mongolia called “Years of the slander”. The Kalmyk Da Lama Dambiyjantsan, who gained the prestige among the Mongols by participating in the liberation of the Mongolian city of Kobda from the Qin Empire in 1911, intended to separate the western part of Mongolia from the center and reorganize the Western Mongol Khanate or the former Dzungar Khanate. According to the information from the Wikipedia, “The self-proclaimed Amirsana's great-grandson changed the center of western Mongolia to a small, insignificant church called Shartsekh, that located 60 kilometers from Kobda, forcing the Kazakhs in the west to move to the east side of the Mongol-dominated state.
The Kazakhs of Kobda, who experienced the tragedy of the exile of these years, crossed the Altai and entered into the Xinjiang region, and one of them crossed into the Shui plain of Russia. There was a historical factor in its passage. “Kazakhs, who were humiliated, killed a part of the Zhalama army and crossed into Russia”, he said. Akhmet Baitursynov and Alikhan Bokeikhanov, who openly opposed the extradition of Zhalama to a pro-government government, raised the alarm in the Russian State Duma that Kazakhs would be allowed to live in Shui on taxes”, said Asyl. Akhmet Baitursynov greeted this tragedy with shock and wrote an article in the Kazakh newspaper in 1913 entitled “Russian kindness” in order to take care of his brothers. “There was a big conflict between the Kazakhs and Mongol judges on the Mongol side of the Altai Mountains, and 11 judges had died. After that, the Mongols sent the troops against the Kazakhs. Fearing for their lives, the Kazakhs fled to Russia with 1,000 houses and 120,000 livestock and filed a complaint with the Russian government, asking them to take them into the custody. When the Kazakhs' petition reached St. Petersburg, they dismissed them and ordered them to return to the Mongols. When the Kazakhs did not return voluntarily to the Mongols, they were evacuated forcibly. On this day, the Mongol army had been waiting for the return of the Kazakhs. They wanted to take revenge and punish them for going to another kingdom. How can the poor Kazakhs survive without bloodshed and destruction? Nekrasov said, “Are Mongolian judges so dear to us that we will sacrifice several thousand Kazakhs to avenge them?” (A. Baitursynov. Ak Zhol. Almaty, “Zhalyn” publishing house.), - said the Kazakh Akhan.
In addition to the struggle between white and red, it is known that during the uprising of the thirties, the Kazakhs moved over the Dzungarian Alatau. At that time, despite the fall of the Alash Horde government, a group of big bolsheviks who encouraged the movement took the idea of Alash to Xinjiang without killing it. This fact is reflected in the article by Uakhap Kydyrkhanuly. In the end, the idea of uniting the Kazakhs in the brotherhood of the Alash movement did not achieve its goal, but it became true when Kazakhstan gained independence. The idea of Alash became the first national ideology, that was the basis for the reorganization and development of our nation, which was scattered around the world.
“As a result of the most purposeful activity of Alash intellectuals in the Kazakh society and the purposeful activity of the nation's intellectuals, the structures that emerged that year were the Alash Party and the Alash Horde government. While the Alash Party emerged as a socio-political organization representing the common goals of the Kazakh nation during the same difficult period, the Alash Horde government is a state structure that can ensure the integrity of the Kazakh land and the free development of the Kazakh nation. It should have been”, said the historian Mambet Koigeldy. For the structure of the state, a political party must implement the national idea. However, we can not say that political parties have acquired a national character and played a key role in economic, national and social policy as in the civilized countries. We can not say that the issues raised by the Alash party under the banner of the national idea were propagandized by the current ruling parties. They do not even know that their political party originated from the Alash party. Don't want to know. However, it is impossible to spray the soil for a long time. Among the political ruling parties, the “Ak Zhol” party, that adheres to the idea of the Alash party, is a beacon of the national idea. “Our party is one of the followers of the Alash movement, that aimed to gradually adapt the Kazakh society to the realities of that time on the basis of a reasonable combination of advanced achievements of civilization at the beginning of the twentieth century”. Azat Peruashev, who was elected as the new leader of the “Ak Zhol” party on July 2, 2011, said this at the VIII Congress of the DPK “Ak Zhol”. The party is the spiritual successor of the former Alash party, that raised the flag of Kazakhstan's independence. The party continues a good path started by such great people as Alikhan Bokeikhanov, Ahmet Baitursynov, Mirjakyp Dulat, who fought for the freedom of the Kazakh people”, said the deputy of the Majilis, A. Peruashev.
Amankeldy Aitaly said: “Of course, we agree with all the ideas of Alash. However, we are not able to achieve the above five goals. Can we solve the problems that have accumulated over the centuries in 18 years? Maybe time is running out. However, it is possible to say that some issues could not be resolved at this time ... Therefore, the issues raised are very relevant, there are many things to think about. On the one hand, we can justify “Short time”, on the other hand, in those 18 years we have neglected the work that is often done in comparison with other countries. Now, the question is, in fact, speaking philosophically, “It is not terrible in what society we live, but it is terrible from what society we came out”. “The communist, atheistic psychology, coldness towards the nation still continues. Yes, it can be said that the influence of the previous policy is still going on”, he said. Thus, the national idea raised by the Alash party is a key issue on the agenda of the “Ak Zhol” party. Despite the influence of the previous policy, we hope that the leaders of the Alash government, Alash scholars will fully propagandize Alikhan Bokeikhan, Alash Horde and introduce them to the spirituality of the nation. The “Ak Zhol” party celebrated the 150th anniversary of Alikhan Bokeikhan at the height of UNESCO as a spiritual successor of the idea of Alash. There was an appreciation dinner in his native land. The “Ak Zhol” party organized a national competition named after Alikhan Bokeikhan and helped to publish the legacy of the Alash intellectuals.
Alash intellectuals came up with the idea of creating a national army and becoming a powerful state before creating autonomy. After all, the mainstay of the state is the army. The formation of the people's army of Alash activists in the pursuit of national independence at the beginning of the last century is a prerequisite for the formation of today's Kazakh army. “In order to protect ourselves, we need to create an all-Kazakhstan military ... If we do not defend ourselves, the Kazakh people will die when the insurgency escalates”, the Kazakh newspaper noted that in a statement published on November 14, 1917. This was reported by a scientist who investigated the Alash army. It is mentioned in Nurpeis's book “Alash and Alashorda”.
According to archival sources cited by historians, the formation and activity of the Alash army covered the entire period from the beginning of 1918 until the end of 1919. According to the historian Seitkali Dyusen, “The main task of the Alash army is not to go to war between whites and reds, but to keep the peace of the country, to stand up to foreign enemies and defend the country”. Initially based on this principle, the Alash figures formed a type of national army – the cavalry and the regular army. Mirjakyp Dulatuly also said: “The answer is one: we will be people only if we have an army!”
In general, if we look back at the history of Alash, there is an attempt to create a national army, first of all, as a people's militia. For example, it was stated at the First All-Kazakh Congress of 1917, “There is a danger of anarchy, so let's build a people's militia instead of today's developed and approved army”. The historian Kulpash Ilyasova argues that the Alash or Alash army was originally called by different names, such as “People's militia”, “People's army”, “Alash army”, “Kazakh regiment”.
It should be noted that the national leaders did a great job in the formation of the army in Alashorda. A historian and doctoral student at ENU named after L.N. Gumilyov, Erkin Rakhmetullin wrote: “Alash leaders Alikhan Bokeikhan, Akhmet Baitursynov, Abikei Satbay, Akhmetzhan Kozybagar, Biakhmet Sarsen took an active part in the formation of the army in Alashorda”. E. Rakhmetullin's article “The role of Alash figures in the formation of the national army” states about this: “A three-member military council should be set up under the Alash Horde, that will include the Ministry of Defense in order to open the military councils at the district and regional divisions of Alash Orda. The military council is obliged to recruit young men to fight in the war against the Bolsheviks”.
We can say that the idea of forming a national army for the Alash government in order to become a strong, powerful country was formed a century ago. It was noted that the main factor is the creation of a national army to ensure the security of the state structure. It is necessary to consider the creation of a national military reform on the basis of the Alash Army, making today's young Kazakhstan a major power, maintaining the defense system and the status of statehood.
In conclusion, today's generation is indebted to the Alash intellectuals. In front of the native people, the Alash intellectuals worked hard for the independence of the Kazakh people. “Without them, Kazakh history would be empty, gold and ashes. It is impossible to create the history of political struggle without the Alash party, economic doctrines and reforms without the Alash Horde government, the foundation of Kazakhstan's statehood without Alash autonomy, the history of the great pillars of the nation without Alash veterans”, the scientist M. Kul-Muhammed said. After the independence of our country, the history of the Alash movement was investigated in depth and in a new way. The topic of Alash has been explored in detail. The legacy of the dusty archives attracted the reader. The literary and historical works about Alash intellectuals were written, and the feature films were made as well. It is definitely true that all of them contribute to the revival of the motto of Alash in the minds of future generations. However, the work of our brothers and sisters Kenes Nurpeis, Mambet Koigeldy, Dikhan Kamzabekuly, Sultankhan Akkululy, Dametken Suleimen, Tursyn Zhurtbay is invaluable in introducing the alash to the Kazakhs. Therefore, in a few years, the investigation of intellectuals in Kazakhstan has become a major scientific field in many areas. The works of the above brothers are headed by them. The main thing is that the heritage of Alash figures had been reunited with the native people. An idea of Alash began to serve the independent Kazakh state. This is the fulfillment of a great legacy to our ancestors.