The collapse of the Soviet Union, the Socialist system in the CIS countries and the independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan showed a burst of migratory movements of the population. These events have affected the migration of people of all regions of the Republic, which caused changes in the demographic development of the country. This was largely due to the expansion possible return of certain ethnic groups to their historic homeland. However, there are other types of migration, such as labor migration — it covers the movement of the population of working age. There is also the notion of «educational migration» means the movement (mainly young people) in relation to education.
All these factors greatly influenced on the situation of ethno-demographic situation of Arkalyk. Over the past years Arkalyk belongs to regions consistently losing its population through migration, the size of which depends, and will depend on the level and pace of socio-economic and demographic the crystallographic development of the region….
According to the census population of Arkalyk, due to the sharp deterioration of the demographic situation in 2005 decreased compared to the past 14 years (1991–2005 year). The population of Arkalyk and subordinate settlements decreased by 19.7 thousand people, or 26.1%, and as of January 1, 2001 amounted to 55.8 thousand people, of which the urban population — 40.5 thousand people. Closure of the area served as a sharp outflow of urban population, the number of which over the period 1998 — 2000 years decreased by 5.6 thousand, or 12.2%. In this case not only decreased the number population, but decreased and the proportion of it from 74.8% to 72.6%. The entire mass is concentrated in urban Arkalyk.
Arkalyk’s share in the total population at the beginning of Kostanay region in 1992 composed to 6.0%, in 2001 — 5.7%. The number of inhabitants Arkalyk ranks third among cities in the region after Kostanay Rudniy. The average population density was 5.4 people per 1 sq. m. km.
From 1991 — 1995, amount of the floating population had been increased. So, if in 1991 the number of retired people was 4 152, then in 1995 — 6 396 people. In 1996 there was a slight decline in the number of departures was 3 868 people. After closure of the area (April 1997), there was a new exodus and the number of emigrants amounted to 4469 people, that is 1.2 times higher than the level in 1996. Mass outflow occurred in 1998 which is 1.8 times higher than the amount of the floating population in 1997 and composed 8 102 people. In 1999, the outflow of population fell and the number of emigrants composed 3 563 people, (the lowest for 1991 — 2000). In 2000 floating population is 1.3 times higher than in 1999, and composed 4536 people, also in 10 months in the same year — 4796 people. In parallel with this there was a steady decline and the number of people was 6 822 in 1991 and 219 people in 2000. If in 1991migration balance was (2670 people), then in 2000 it was (4 317 people), excess of departures over arrivals. The largest volume of migration loss recorded in 1998 — (6 783 people).
It is not only the scale of migration, but also tendency of its flows. If among 4 469 people, who left in 1997 beyond Arkalyk and subordinate settlements 49.3% (2 203 people) accounted for external migration, among them 45.9% (2 050 people) — CIS countries, 50.7% (2 266 people) was 25.8% Republican migration (1154) — Interregional and 24.9% (1 112 people) intraregional migration to migration in 2000 was external 26.8% (1 219 people), including CIS-25, 6% (1159 people), 73.2% Republican migration, in which 67.2% (2 229 people) accounted for interregional, 32.8% (1,088 people) — on intraregional migration.
During the 10 months of this year migration flows distributed by following. Among the total number of arrived (4796 people), or 725 people was outmigration, 14.8% (711 people) among of them was in the CIS countries, 83.4%, or (4 071 people), on the Republican, of which 50.3% (2 412 people) was Interregional and 33.1% (1 586 people) — intraregional migration.
The largest volume of migration accounted for Arkalyk. During the period 1997 — 2000, urban areas in 4068 people came, retired 17 817 people, or 86.2% of total departures (20 670 people). And in total migration losses totaled 13 749 people, the maximum decline was in 1998 — 6 179 people.
Reduce the population on the one hand, promoted the migration outflow annually «absorb» a significant part of natural growth and completely «swallowed» him in 1998, on the other hand, there is a natural growth of population, steadily losing its value.
If in 1991 the number of births was 881 people, those who died- 519 people, as a result natural increase of 1 362 people. Number of births in 2000 compare to 1991 decreased by 1128 people. While reducing the number of deaths per 1 person was born 753 people, 518 people dead, leading to a reduction of natural population growth at 82.8%. Decline in the population reproduction types observed during 1991- 2000. The greatest decrease 86.1% was observed in 1991. Also the infant mortality rate in 1991 decreased from 70 people up to 15 people in 2000. And from January to September 2001the amount was 8 people: or 14, 74 deaths of infants under 1 year per 1,000 live births.
Low standard of living and instinct of self-survival pushes people to any form of self-defense, up to illegal, and that is one of the main reasons for the increase in crime. According to the Center for Legal Statistics and Information of the Prosecutor Kostanay region for 10 months of this year by Arkalyk registered 815 crimes that exceeds the level of 2000 by 23.9%.
Almost every seventh registered crime — serious, the number of reported homicides and attempted compared to the same period last year decreased by 53%, robberies — 40%. The number of robberies decreased almost by 2 times, 31.8% the number of thefts. Totality of existing both natural and socio-economic factors, led to a reduction of life-expectancy population from 70.1 in 1970 to 64.8 in 1999, including men, respectively, from 64.1 to 59.2 years, women — from 74.9 to 70.8 years.
If in 2002 the number of fertility was 587, the dead was 445, and in 2003 was 811births, 460 deaths and in 2004, 651 births and 387 deaths, in 2005 the number of births 628 and 437 deaths.
The number of urban population by ethnicity during 1989–1999 was: 28 769–11 459 Russian, Ukrainians 7 666–2 970 2 543–1 033 Belarusians, Tatars 3 639–1 462, 1 986–704 Germans, Bashkirs 1 978–560; Kazakhs 36 429–40 914. Due to the high emigration, low or negative natural increase declined by ethnic population at the end of 2003: 28 705 Kazakhs, Russian 6 869, 1 803, Ukrainians, Germans, 278 people, 641 — Belarusians, Tatars — 998, 414- Bashkirs, Koreans — 113, 256 -Azerbaijanis, Moldovans — 319, Mordovians — 46, as well as representatives of other nationalities.
Since our state is multi-confessional and tolerant, where more than hundred different nationalities live there. Throughout the republic were established national cultural centers, which are aimed at improving inter-ethnic relations, cultural interchange. In his message on February 18, 2005 Kazakhstan’s President Nursultan Nazarbayev said: «We are known to the world for its tolerance, interethnic, interfaith harmony and dialogue. Growing peacemaking potential of our country must continue to carefully preserved and developed. «In the city according to 1996 reported a total of five cultural centers — Kazakh, Russian, Ukrainian, German, and Korean. Sad fact that today operates only one German national-cultural center «Vidergeburt.»
Improving the lives of people outside of 2000 gives a chance to rectify the current demographic situation, which, given the considerable negative balance of external migration led in recent years to a systematic depopulation of Arkalyk. The total fertility rate after 2000 has been increasing due to increase of age fertility rate.
The actual dynamics of natural population growth shows some lag from the predicted values, covered by outperforming deficit reduction, external migration.
In this regard very timely is resolution by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the Government the task of developing a program consisting of an increase in fertility, mortality reduction by improving health and increasing the reception of immigrants, primarily from the former Kazakh people of working age.
Only an active demographic policy of ethnic state will ensure sustainability, demographic preconditions for sustainable human development of the population.
A.Akparova, N. EsimhanovaRSG Arkalyk State Pedagogical Institute named after Y.Altynsarin
5. Quick reference, Kostanay, 2004.