Influence of personality on the historical process: theory question (Case study of political activity of the President of Kazakhstan - the nation's leader N. Nazarbayev)
Study of the role of historical figure in the history of independent Kazakhstan belongs to the category of complex in theoretical and methodological aspects of historical science. This is due to the fact that the historical figure has a special place and a special function in the system of social reality. Remaining, to this day, the problem concerning the category of «eternal», the ambiguity of its decision is inextricably linked to the existing differences in the approaches to the heart of the historical process. Range of views on this subject is very broad, although generally it revolves around two polar views. The first is based on the laws of materialist dialectics, in which historical laws, determine the course of the historical process, and the second stating that an accident can always change the course of history. On the basis of these extremes, the ambiguity in the study of this problem continues to exist, despite the numerous scientific publications .
Study the role of historical figure in the history of Kazakhstan can largely contribute to solving one of the problems, which is the answer to the question of how the course of history, in certain cases, not whether this or that person? Given issue solve a twofold task: on the one hand there is not only understanding of the historical process, but involves an analysis of the influence of social processes on the needs, interests, personality logic of decisions.
For a detailed study of this phenomenon is necessary to start with an analysis of the internal state of society, most clearly manifested in two formats: stable and unstable states. This approach allows us to consider the formation and development of personality in the dynamics of social life.
However, both stability and instability especially have a lot of options, each of which has a very significant features (plus, of course, certain things). So different from the strength of stagnation under normal territorial or economic growth; and the more rapid growth conditions. Resistance may be at a slow degradation or decline. Even with stability, much depends on how the social system is focused on one person. Options of public breaking also diverse: reform differs from the revolution, a peaceful revolution differs from the civil war, etc.
So important are the only representation of the changes in society as a process of changing its states (phases).  Next example will show one of a number of models of this process consisting of three phases: stable (conservative) Society; social crisis; creation of a new order. When designing this model for the process of becoming independent Kazakhstan, he preceded the Soviet period, where emerging powers are willing to take the reform on itself.
During the development of stable (Soviet) society where political controls and the existing system of «checks and balances» were used correctly, it is possible for a long time to maintain its stability and protect the system from innovations (reforms) by individuals. That is a conservative society political activity of the person is relatively small.
In the 80 years of the twentieth century, further political processes in Soviet society showed the inability of the political elite of the country to begin reformation of society. Whereby emerging and escalating conflicts in society caused revitalization of individuals who offer the program to resolve the crisis peacefully.
In the late Soviet period such force was a young party nomenclature, ready to begin the process of reforming society. Activities of the individual in this case manifested in a particular situation and acted within certain tasks and conditions for themselves and the groups with which it identifies. The current reality, refracted in the person gradually became an important prerequisite for its future impact on society.
The objective prerequisites for changes in society that have developed in the late 90-ies of 20th century, allowed the individual talent to use opportunities provided for the implementation of decisions and strategies. Intensity of social tension, evident in an unstable society in the late 80-ies of 20th century, which began the process of destruction of the old Soviet structures and political institutions gave rise to such an auspicious moment (situation factor) , in which the individual could fully realize their ambitions, the program and personal qualities.
At this point, the force of personality is the determining or final approval for its own interests, as expressed the interests of the majority of the population of Kazakhstan. This volitional factor beneficial impact on the further development of the political situation in the society.
Based on the analysis, a favorable moment it can be argued that personality is a system of sustainable qualities, properties sold in social life, responsibly and consciously assumed the decision to continue the political struggle in the period of social crisis.
Parade of sovereignties in 1990, the democratization of society, the abolition of the sixth article of the Constitution of the USSR breaking the political power of the CPSU showed how Soviet society weakened, connections that fasten are ready to fall apart, rigid structures collapse. In fact, during the crisis, the Soviet Union was a very amorphous and therefore very malleable to power influences social organism.
On the background of historical reality with particular urgency and convexity manifested the strongest aspects of personality: dedication, perseverance, hard work, self-discipline, the ability to engage in dialogue, to take prompt decision, etc. Historical person could own deeds and actions, together with the existing deterministic public events. Decisions have gained immense social significance and have further impact on the fate of the nation and the people. At this stage of development, the role of personality had a controlled, predictable nature and not strong society gradually became formative force .
After independence in December 1991, Kazakhstan has been faced with a new phase of development. Political elite representing their leader starts the battle for new socio-economic and political transformation. At this stage, the impact of personality on the processes occurring is extremely high. New transformations associated with this person, begin to play a leading role in creating a kind of symbol of renewal. On what the leader, based on what his authority depended final version of the new framework in the winning direction. Consequently, the strength of the individual, his personal qualities, matching the selected role are enormous, often determining or terminating value. This strong-willed, often irrational and prone occasion factor beneficial effect on the formation of the modern Kazakh society.
Speaking as a political leader, the historical activity of the individual in the future is the ability to deep theoretical generalization of domestic and international environment, social practice of science and culture in general, the ability to keep the simplicity and clarity of thought in incredibly difficult conditions of social reality and execute our plans, program, implement the chosen strategy. Wise statesman vigilantly monitors not only for the general line of development of events, but also analyzes the many private events that are largely invisible people around him. Such a person notices the change in the ratio of social forces, before others can understand which path is to be elected as a ripened historic opportunity to transform into reality.
The history of independent Kazakhstan proves that the choice was made in favor of socio-economic transformation. Such a choice of country of Kazakhstan’s (own) way of development defined further form of government with an extension to the level of the head of state identity, which has played an extremely important role in the life and development of the Kazakh society. However, the implementation of the planned strategy, it shows the level of support for community development of the society, an understanding of their civic duty to the country, revealed the political forces that support the person in the situation.
During the evolution process in Kazakh society system of «checks and balances» showed its level of growing, forming the legal framework of stability, becoming a regulator of crisis-free development. If this does not happen, then the cycle with known changes could happen again, or at a new stage of development were initiated beneficial conversion.
Thus, the diversity of problems as historical personality in the history of Kazakhstan dependent requires a multilateral approach to solving it, without prejudging the final outcome of the study. The proposed projection (model of historical development) allows us to trace not only the dynamics, but also consider the activities of the person in the process of changing its state (phase). Study of internal state of society allows to predict the state of readiness for the start of reform and the emergence of the time on the political Olympus of such a person, which can lead society. The further development of society will largely depend on the choice.
Chief Researcher Associate at
the Institute of History of State CS MES RK
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