Innovative breakthrough scenario of economic development: opportunities and realization prospects in Kazakhstan
Nurlanova Nail Kapenovna,
Doctor of Economics, professor
Innovative breakthrough scenario of economic development:
opportunities and realization prospects in Kazakhstan
In the conditions of increase of the global crisis phenomena short-term measures for overcoming of their negative consequences need to be supplemented with the medium-term anti-recessionary program and the long-term strategy defining reference points of perspective scientific and technological development of the country. Proceeding expansion of processes of world economic recession sets many states thinking on a choice of long-term strategy of development.
Strategy by us is understood as a perspective trajectory of change of institutes and the economic policy, built by the state for achievement of desirable result in the future.
However dynamics of development both world, and national economic systems многофакторна and многовариантна therefore it is almost impossible to define one scenario on the long-term prospect, realized with high degree of probability. Therefore search of the best strategy assumes use of scenario approach and consideration of all known in the world theory and practice of models of economic development and their combinations. Thus the majority of scientists and practicians of the different countries has no unity of opinions on this matter.
For the Euroasian civilization to which it is possible to carry the former Soviet Union countries, including Kazakhstan and Russia, the choice of scenario forecasts can be limited to a certain set, In Particular, in the book of the Russian economists four possible scenarios of long-term development of the country are considered: "superindustrial modernization", ""the economic isolationism", "power autism" (1) is bright in globalization". From all listed scenarios only for the first scenario (strategy "superindustrial modernization") use of the progressive directions of economic policy – capitalization of comparative advantages of national economy and modernization of mass productions of manufacturing industry is characteristic. Other scenarios provide realization only one of these directions, and "power autism" isn't focused not on their development. Therefore the most preferable to the countries of the Euroasian civilization is the first scenario.
Other group of the Russian economists "SIGMA" also uses scenario approach for definition of alternative versions of strategic decisions. They allocated such possible options of long-term strategy, as "Investor", "Mobilization", "Inertia" and "Modernization" (2). Let's consider their short characteristics to define their applicability for Kazakhstan.
Realization of strategy of "Investor" means that all efforts and financial resources are concentrated on development of the branches connected with production and export of natural resources, and the natural rent is centralized and redistributed through the state budget generally only on social needs and country defense. Implementation of such scenario of development is favorable only to the companies relating to extracting and exporting branches (oil, gas, metals). However following to such scenario of development means the actual refusal of innovative and business activity outside extracting sector, curtailment of infrastructure projects, stagnation in productions of manufacturing industry, growth of import of goods and services. This scenario of development is unacceptable for Kazakhstan as has no prospect. In the future at development of such scenario it is possible to expect recession and in syryedobyvayushchy branches because of growing burden of social expenses and, certainly, owing to exhaustion of stocks of oil and gas.
The scenario "Mobilization" assumes "focal" modernization from the point of view of branches and regions, that is the state keeps development only those branches and productions which are in a directive way appointed priority, without dialogue with business and with orientation to existing reserves. Redistribution of resources from raw sector happens either through the budget, or through the state corporations created "from above" accumulating financial funds of the state. At expansion of such scenario interests of citizens are considered minimum, and development of other, low-priority branches is supported by the residual principle that gradually leads them to degradation. Redistribution of resources in favor of the chosen narrow priorities as shows world experiment, is often accompanied by redistribution of property and can lead to sharp decrease in efficiency of an expenditure of public funds. Therefore such scenario of long-term development is also unacceptable for our country. The choice of the mobilization scenario is dangerous to Kazakhstan also because he won't allow to improve structure of its economy and to reach long-term goals of development, and on the contrary, limits a scope for an initiative and innovations, can lead to further strengthening of polarization of the income and degradation of the human capital.
Realization of long-term strategy according to the scenario "Inertia" assumes a stability priority over development. According to this scenario prevailing tendencies proceed, technological lag of the country accrues, radical economic and institutional changes are denied, there are no innovations. Weaknesses of continuation of this scenario in Kazakhstan are obvious.
At last, the fourth scenario of long-term development under the name "Modernization" provides a complex of the institutional changes directed on creating favorable conditions and incentives for innovative development of economy and society. Actually implementation of this scenario means transition to innovative development not on the basis of redistribution of resources by the state, and on the basis of creation of new resources, on the basis of innovations and mechanisms of state-private partnership.
The last two options of realization of strategy of long-term development appear in the light of research of prospects of scientific and technological development of the countries of the Euroasian civilization till 2030.
For a choice of a possible trajectory of future economic dynamics of Kazakhstan we also choose two from a set of possible scenarios, having real preconditions for the implementation and representing a freedom of choice for socio-political forces: inertial and innovative and breakthrough.
In this regard it is necessary to consider preconditions, factors and consequences of implementation of these two basic scenarios:
§ inertial, assuming preservation, with these or those modifications, developed at the end of XX - the beginning of the XXI centuries of tendencies of economic development both the Euroasian civilization, and Kazakhstan;
§ the innovative and breakthrough scenario, which realization assumes not only technological, but also the economic innovations connected with formation of a post-industrial way of production, formation of effective multistructure economy, gradual overcoming of polarization of society and positive structural shifts.
It should be noted that both scenarios have common features and tendencies:
§ the general trend to the economic growth, labor productivity and standard of living increase, but different rates and with various extent of differentiation on regions of the country and possible change towards fall during the separate periods of time will remain, for example, during manifestation of tendencies of a global economic crisis;
§ influence of periodic economic crises, but with a different amplitude of fluctuations of economic parameters, depth, duration and consequences will remain;
§ the tendency of globalization of productive forces and economic institutes, but on different models and with different level of social and economic contradictions will proceed;
§ interference of dynamics of various elements of society and economy will proceed. However at the innovative and breakthrough scenario the balanced breakthrough technological, institutional and social innovations and transformations will be provided. And at the inertial scenario fluctuations, divergences in society, negative changes in institutes and mechanisms, and as a result, in different spheres and in various branches will amplify that considerably will reduce their total effect.
At the inertial scenario in modern conditions of increase of the crisis phenomena, continuation of nowadays prevailing tendencies in Kazakhstan can lead to the following undesirable consequences in long-term prospect:
- there is irreversible a degradation of scientific capacity of the republic because of aging of personnel potential, loss of scientific and design schools, decrease in the state support of branch science, lack of mechanisms of stimulation of private business for financing of the scientific projects, growing import of technologies;
- technological lag of Kazakhstan from the countries - leaders of a world civilization as a result of overdue development of the fifth and sixth technological ways will accrue;
- competitiveness of the domestic production which is based on backward technologies, in the conditions of prevalence in the world and foreign markets of foreign production of the fifth, and in the long term and the sixth ways will decrease;
- rates of economic growth, and on condition of deepening of an economic crisis possibly and production falling, and therefore, the unemployment growth, weak use of advantages of globalization will decrease;
- existing deformations of institutional structure of national economy will go deep;
- republic lag from the developed countries on a labor productivity level will increase;
- income of needy families that is fraught with growth of social instability will decrease; positions of middle class and basis for its further development will be undermined;
- possibility of achievement set in Strategy "Kazakhstan-2030" of the purposes and indicators of economic development of the republic will be called into question.
At tendencies prevailing nowadays and an existing alignment of forces there is a realization threat in long-term prospect of the inertial scenario. Rates of a gain of gross domestic product in comparison with planned in Kazakhstan can decrease. Potential of high growth rates in the conditions of the crisis phenomena decreases at the expense of external factors (first of all, decrease in the world prices for oil and other raw material resources), and lag with innovative updating of critically outdated fixed capital and economy as a whole reduces competitiveness of a domestic production not only on external, but also on internal the markets. Besides deficiency of innovations of shots suitable for development - scientists, designers, engineers, the skilled workers who are strategically conceiving of top managers and civil servants can increase.
Thus, the choice of the inertial scenario is dangerous to the future of our country.
One of preconditions of development of economy of the republic in the undesirable direction can become that fact that in world and domestic economic science still there is no scientific concept which has gained wide recognition of formation of post-industrial integrated economy.
Some scientists declare that the post-industrial economy already really exists in the developed countries of North America and Western Europe, and the countries of the Euroasian civilization will remain for a long time in the second echelon or among hopelessly lagged behind countries subject to modernization. Many domestic and foreign economists identify a post-industrial civilization with information society that means formation of society of technocratic character. We believe that for the present stage of development of economy and society of Kazakhstan characteristic processes are industrial modernization and gradual transition on this basis to post-industrial type of development which else should be approved in the world. Therefore still it is necessary to develop and achieve wide recognition of the concept of formation of post-industrial economy.
Only the reliable and real scenario of long-term development of Kazakhstan is innovative and breakthrough. Need of the innovative and breakthrough scenario is dictated by calls of the XXI century, economic imperatives of globalization and effective permission of the critical situations which have arisen owing to modern recession of world economy. In the conditions of world economic recession and decrease in growth rates of efficiency of reproduction formation of a post-industrial technological way of production, the fifth and sixth technological ways demands radical innovative updating of the production device (fixed capital), considerable investments in an innovation.
The innovative and breakthrough scenario recognizes that with transition to the society based on knowledge, opportunity to use set of favorable factors, quicker to overcome contradictions and dangers of the crisis period and to provide an optimum trajectory of macroeconomic dynamics taking into account objectively existing restrictions (first of all natural and ecological and demographic) appears formation of a post-industrial scientific paradigm. This scenario can be considered moderate and optimistic.
Meanwhile on a way of this process ripened certain obstacles.
First, in the world are saved up and outdated technologies which in big scales are imported to the countries of the Euroasian civilization and that number to Kazakhstan in the modified look gain distribution. The stream of pseudo-innovations, that is the improved technologies, but obsolete accrues. It interferes with implementation of the innovative and breakthrough scenario of economic development of the country and finds the expression in decrease in growth rates of labor productivity.
Permission of this critical situation is possible on the basis of growth of total amount of investments into innovative updating of economy and their share in gross domestic product, redistribution of investments for research and developmental works, development of innovations of the fifth and sixth technological ways.
Secondly, the critical situation of technological development in the countries of the Euroasian civilization is shown in irrational structure of economy and innovative and technological potential which are focused on priorities of industrial society and the strengthened operation of the nature. Permission of this critical situation can be found on ways of reorganization of structure of economy and its innovative and investment sector, increase of its share in gross domestic product, orientation to innovative development of the human capital and resource-saving technologies.
Thirdly, the technological gap between the vanguard countries and the majority of the lagging behind countries, between the countries of the Euroasian civilization and between certain regions of these countries increases. It predetermines low competitiveness of production of the lagging behind economy, a growing abyss between wealth and poverty.
The main scientific and technical and innovative potential concentrated in vanguard civilizations – North American, West European, Japanese. They spend for research and development of 1,92 - 3.15% of gross domestic product (per capita – from 1726 to 3690 dollars), take key positions in export of high technologies (the eurozone – 29,8%, the USA – 17,0, Japan – 9,9% of world export). China was made even to the USA on the volume of export of hi-tech goods (and taking into account Hong Kong – I overtook the USA), but considerably lags behind on a share of expenses for research and development in gross domestic product (1,44% against 2,68).
Russia and Kazakhstan lost during reorganization and crisis leading positions in the field of scientific researches. The share of expenses for science in Russia is almost twice lower average world (1,17% against 2.28%), and the share in world hi-tech export doesn't exceed 0,3%. Position of Kazakhstan is even worse, here costs of researches and development make only 0,28% to country gross domestic product.
The global economic crisis of the beginning of the XXI century will strengthen a gap between the countries due to the lack of minimum necessary own scientific, personnel and investment potentials for development of new technological ways. Exit – in partnership of vanguard and lagging behind civilizations, front lines and developing countries to pull together level of their economic and social development.
Fourthly, a serious brake of an innovative way of development is the acute shortage of the shots capable effectively to develop, master, make and exploit new technologies. It is a question of shots of all levels of a technological chain – scientists, designers, engineers, technicians, skilled workers, managers, civil servants. It isn't their quantity, and in a professional standard, ability to introduce radical innovations in the sphere of the activity, connected with a great risk, but also with an outstanding success in case of successful formation and development of new innovative market niches.
New calls of the XXI century demand large-scale, with high level of the starting capital, development of innovations of a post-industrial technological way of production. Such innovative break is possible only in the presence of the innovations of shots prepared and focused on active introduction, and also on the basis of innovative partnership of the state, business, science and education.
Implementation of the innovative and breakthrough scenario assumes development of partnership of civilizations and the organization on this basis of a powerful stream of innovative technologies from vanguard in lagging behind civilizations and the countries. However in order that the borrowed breakthrough technologies were adapted for conditions of the countries - recipients and effectively there were applied, special conditions are necessary.
First, own applied scientific and developmental base and the prepared personnel potential (the qualified researchers, designers, testers, analysts, engineers, skilled workers, managers) has to be developed.
The countries of the Euroasian civilization which number includes also Kazakhstan, take a special place in this stream of progressive technologies. They have rather high scientific base and educational level of workers that not only to borrow technologies, but also to be on a number of the directions of technological break among leaders.
But for this purpose it is necessary to pursue the consistent macroeconomic policy focused on innovative break, repeatedly to increase investments of the state and especially private business in development of domestic scientific and technical base, to refuse a present course on primary loan of technologies. Today expenses on research and development counting on 1 inhabitant in Kazakhstan make only 13 US dollars, while in the USA – 991; Japan – 816; Germany – 666; Russia – 98. Personnel potential of science was considerably reduced. So, if in Kazakhstan at the beginning of the 90th the number taken in research and development, made 40 thousand persons, in 2007 only 17,7 thousand people. It is less than in 1965 (18,2 thousand people). On security with scientific shots we concede not only to world leaders, but some CIS countries. For example, in our country the number of researchers on 1 million population makes 629 people, and in Ukraine-1774, in Belarus 1871, Russia 3319. Therefore it is necessary to strengthen schools of sciences in key and priority for Kazakhstan the directions of science and technologies.
Secondly, formation of the mechanism of innovative development of the country aimed at accelerated development and distribution of technologies of the fifth and sixth technological ways for the solution of global critical situations in the field of the food, power and ecology, in the fields of education and developments of the human capital is necessary. While this task is still far from the decision - the share of innovatively active enterprises in the industry of Kazakhstan makes only 4,8%, for comparison in Germany - 82,5; Sweden - 75,3; Australia - 60,8; Russia of-10,0%. Specific weight of innovative production in volume of an industrial output of the republic doesn't exceed 2,3%, and in Russia this indicator made 3,7%, Germany – 29; Australia – 31. In volume of export of our country the share of hi-tech production is even lower – only 2%, in Russia of 9%, and in the developed countries in times it is more - the USA – 32%; Japan – 24%.
Thirdly, active distribution of breakthrough innovations agrees innovative breakthrough to the scenario of development will demand reorganization of structure of investments, growth of investments in development, development and distribution of innovations of higher technological ways, increase in investment of new, quickly developing branches in spite of the fact that these investments differ at the beginning high risk and long payback periods. Therefore essential support of the state during the starting period of development of new generations of equipment and the scientific and technical directions is necessary.
Investments into the technologies corresponding on character to post-industrial technological way, and also into large-scale projects on training for innovative break, in development of information technologies and the Internet, in resource-saving, ecological pure technologies, in formation of national innovative systems have to become the priority.
Successful implementation of the innovative and breakthrough scenario in Kazakhstan assumes:
- promotion in the center of the medium-term stabilization program of the republic of strategy of innovative development and formation of long-term strategy of scientific and technological development;
- choice of a limited circle of priorities of innovative break;
- carrying out innovative modernization of the national economy focused on development of higher technological ways (the fifth and the sixth) in interests of increase of competitiveness of a domestic production in the world markets;
- formation of system of national innovative programs and projects, concentration of financial and other resources of the state and business on their realization;
- creation of new institutes and mechanisms of implementation of national innovative programs and the projects based on partnership of the state, business and society.
Reference point consequence on the innovative and breakthrough scenario becomes:
- gradual increase in rates of economic growth, as a result of attraction and development of progressive technologies of the fifth and sixth ways, overcoming of consequences of a global economic crisis, and also transition to new model of a sustainable development;
- gap reduction in economic and technological development with the developed countries that will allow to lift level and quality of life of the population of the republic;
- ensuring progressive structural shifts in national economy, development of institutes, overcoming of manifestations of shadow economy and corruption, an excessive separation of financial sector of economy from the real;
- formation of economy of the new quality based on knowledge, innovations, development of the human capital;
- strengthening of social and ecological orientation of economy, convergence of national economic system with systems of the countries of others and civilizations on the basis of an integrated economic way of production.
Rates of a gain of gross domestic product at the innovative scenario in Kazakhstan can be 1,5-2 times higher provided, and in the countries of the European and North American civilizations, on the contrary, can appear much less taking into account an internal and external debt, a big share of virtual economy. In other words, on condition of following innovative breakthrough to the scenario of development there is an opportunity significantly to reduce a gap in social and economic development of our republic and the countries – world leaders.
Implementation of the innovative and breakthrough scenario at national level will require accurate understanding of growing threats of globalization, elaboration of the effective long-term strategy, enormous efforts and resources for radical modernization of technological base, economic structure and institutes, and rather long period of time - not less than two decades. It will provide higher and steady growth rates and increases of welfare of the population in comparison with the inertial scenario.
Use of various approaches to formation and implementation of the innovative and breakthrough scenario of development is possible. One of them, so-called design approach, assumes that realization of innovative strategy of development leans on tools and methods of carrying out industrial policy and stimulation of economic growth: granting guarantees on the credits, a subsidy, tax privileges and other preferences. The second approach is guided by considerable institutional changes and the reforms connected with change of forms of ownership, for example, with privatization and privatization as it took place in the 90th years in all countries of post-socialist camp, or, on the contrary, with nationalization as it was observed during the periods of changes of a social order or global economic crises.
Supporters of both points of view (1,2,3) assume that the dominating role in realization of strategy of development and modernization of economy and society belongs to the state. Modern conditions of development are answered more by design approach since at low efficiency of economy institutional approach or creation of new market institutes can work for fixing of export and raw model of development. According to the design approach which is based on idea Forsyte, the main objective of the state is achievement of competitiveness by a way of capitalization of competitive advantages of national economy, that is by increase in investment investments in branches and the sectors having high competitive potential. Metallurgy, military industrial complex, transport, information and communication technologies, as a rule, belong to such branches in the conditions of the Euroasian civilization syryedobyvayushchy. Further, income gained in these branches can be directed on technological modernization of manufacturing industry.
The present macroeconomic policy pursued by the Kazakhstan government, as a whole is based on design approach of implementation of the chosen scenario of development. So, in Kazakhstan national projects, state programs are intensively developed and approved, new institutes of development, etc. are created. However it is necessary to consider that for rather technologically backward country, especially in the conditions of global financial crisis of use of separate branches it is obviously not enough "dot advantages". To realize the innovative and breakthrough scenario of development of economy and society in Kazakhstan, the third approach which would combine advantages of the first of two is necessary. Namely, the interactive approach based on an assessment of long-term tendencies of world economic and social development, use of a set of interactive methods and definition of the priority directions of domestic innovative activity is offered. This approach assumes simultaneous use of a totality of instruments of design approach, stimulation of economic growth, and the progressive institutional transformations based on strengthening of a role of the state and directed on overcoming of negative consequences of a world economic crisis. The approach chosen by us to implementation of the innovative and breakthrough scenario of development of economy and society provides:
- formation of national innovative system and innovative economy;
- creation of institutional system of interactive management by economic growth and development;
- improvement of quality of institutes, improvement of quality and increase of a role of public administration, decrease in level of corruption;
- carrying out effective social, structural and investment and industrial policy;
- ensuring growth of quality of the human capital;
- the adjusted interaction of the state, business and society.
However it isn't enough to define the possible scenario, conditions and ways of development of the country in long-term prospect. It is important to establish the factors having crucial importance for implementation of the optimistic, innovative and breakthrough scenario as a result to prove recommendations about development of the mechanism of its realization focused on partnership of the state, business and society.
Today the main factor of rapid economic growth of Kazakhstan are natural riches, first of all oil and gas. However not to correct the inherited from past structural, technological deformations if further as main source of economic development to consider only natural resources. After all Kazakhstan has such strategic factor of economic growth, competitiveness strengthening, as considerable scientific and educational potential. It is possible to involve it in market economy only through innovations. Without innovations in modern economy not to solve any radical problem.
Formation of innovative economy is uncontested option of development of Kazakhstan in the XXI century. It is demanded by national interests of the country, about it tell the main tendencies of world development.
In Kazakhstan the already many becomes in the direction of use of interactive approach of implementation of the innovative and breakthrough scenario of development. Recently the state undertakes wide measures for development of science and innovative activity. The Program of the forced industrial and innovative development of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2014, directed on achievement of a sustainable development of the country by economy diversification, withdrawal from raw orientation is approved and is successfully realized. Institutes of development finance 130 investment projects, for the sum of 2,5 bln. dollars.
The first among the CIS countries of Kazakhstan I developed the Program of formation and national innovative system (NIS) development. This concept new to us though in the developed countries of NIS allow to connect together all elements of innovative process – science, production and the market.
The set of elements, the main links of NIS is approximately identical to any country. But their ratio, interrelations between them change depending on features of the country, scales of its economy, security natural and a manpower, traditions in development of public institutes, sociocultural factors. For example, in the West the fundamental science is traditionally concentrated at universities. In Kazakhstan traditions of development of basic researches at the academic institutes took roots. It is clear, that on the configuration of NIS of our country will differ from NIS of the developed countries.
NIS of Kazakhstan is formed of "splinters" of the Soviet innovative system. Its main difference is, of course, that in it there were no market mechanisms of generating of innovations. The problem of innovations was put as an introduction problem, by the definition, assuming not natural advance of innovations in the favorable environment, and overcoming of a certain resistance of this Wednesday. Interest of the enterprises in innovations was absent, introduction of new equipment was caused by need of performance of the corresponding tasks arriving from above.
Communication of science with production was under construction by the linear principle. Dissociation of participants of an innovative cycle, institutional barriers between them took place. Scientific researches, design works, experimental and skilled development were considered as separate kinds of activity and were carried out isolated from each other. Scientific capacity of Kazakhstan, despite rather high general level of development, wasn't able to provide innovative processes, first of all because of weakness of links of a technological orientation. The enterprises of the republic differed low innovative activity, thus innovations carried generally partial, instead of radical character.
Transition to the market, finding of independence were accompanied by some changes in organizational structure of innovative potential. The limited network of the national scientific centers created on the basis of the academic and branch scientific, design and technological organizations, pilot productions, the industrial enterprises, ranges and other research and production structures is created, the academic institutes were given the status state, there was a small innovative business. However as a whole it is necessary to recognize, as on quantitative parameters, and according to qualitative characteristics innovative potential in a transition period degraded.
All stated should be considered, considering opportunities and features of formation of NIS of Kazakhstan. Being guided by the NIS models most widespread in the world, on the one hand, it is impossible "to reject" simply the inherited elements of the innovative sphere in the republic, on the other hand, it is necessary to realize that, first, they demand radical reorganization, and, secondly, - only on their basis of NIS not to create, absolutely new structures and new institutes are required.
Therefore, in 2002, the President of Kazakhstan N.A.Nazarbayev, acting in National academy of Sciences of RK, I set the task of creation of national innovative system. The Program accepted in Kazakhstan on formation and development of national innovative system is calculated on 2005-2015 and will be implemented in some stages. The purpose of the Program is formation of innovative system of the open type providing creation of the competitive final product on the basis of use of domestic, and also foreign scientific potential and technologies. Into its tasks enters:
• development of scientific potential;
• formation and support of development of the innovative enterprise environment;
• formation and development of multilevel innovative infrastructure;
• formation and development of elements and mechanisms of financial infrastructure regarding expansion of types of provided grants and creation of venture funds;
• ensuring effective interaction between elements of national innovative system;
• regulatory legal base improvement.
The following principles of formation of NIS are put in a basis of the Program: active role of the state; partnership with the private capital; open character of system.
Among the first most significant results of implementation of the Program it should be noted that it is laid the foundation for the venture industry, the Kazakhstan Kazsat satellite is started, the national science and technology park of Alatau IT city is open. Kernel of the created system is the National Innovative Fund (NIF) which is urged to promote growth of innovative activity, development of hi-tech and knowledge-intensive productions. Important activity of NIF is research and development financing. Five priority directions are chosen: alternative power engineering; IT technologies; biotechnologies and pharmaceutics; technologies for hydrocarbonic sector; new materials and nanotechnologies. On each of them projects in volume to 250 thousand dollars Besides, can be financed the main objectives of NIF include participation in creation of innovative infrastructure.
One of the main activities of National innovative fund is assistance to formation of venture funds, participation in formation of mechanisms and infrastructure of venture financing of innovative projects, initiation of innovative projects with involvement of other institutes of development as financial sources. Today the venture capital is presented by 12 funds created together with NIF: 6 domestic funds and 6 foreign. JSC National Innovative Fund I took part in creation and capitalization of 6 domestic venture funds: Venture Fund Advant LLP, JSC Almatyventurecapital, JSC AIFRI Venchurny fond DeltaTechnologyFund, JSC Fund of High Technologies Areket, JSC Venture Fund Sentras, JSC Logycomperspectiveinnovations. These funds consider 251 projects having perspective potential of commercialization. Are already begun financing of development of the centers, capable to provide all range of services in the field of digital technologies, development and creation of trial samples of the vortex heatgenerator, construction of new plant a ferrosilikoalyuminiya, production of heat-insulating materials from basalt fiber.
The volume of capitalization of 6 domestic venture funds by the size is comparable to expenses allocated for research and development from the republican budget in 2006 g – 13721 million tenges (114 mln. dollars). Now there is an active work on the organization of Association of venture investment in Kazakhstan as venture funds need consolidation for lobbying of interests, for example, in the field of lawmaking.
Activity of venture funds is at the initial stage of development. Within development of venture and innovative infrastructure in Kazakhstan mechanisms of stimulation of investments at the earliest stages of investment projects - crops and formation have to be created. These stages are the most risky (on the average only 10 percent of venture projects have expected development), and supports at bankers and businessmen can't find the majority of businessmen.
Along with stimulation of development of the venture industry of NIF finances innovative projects. The main priorities of financing of NIF are four sectors: technologies for oil and gas sector, the food industry, information technologies, and also biotechnologies and pharmaceutics. 70% of financing are allocated for these directions, other means accustom to sectors of alternative power engineering, nanotechnologies, space technologies.
NIF carries out financing of applied research and development through granting the following types of grants:
- predesign grants to 5 thousand dollars of the USA;
- small grants to 55 thousand dollars of the USA;
- big grants to 250 thousand dollars of the USA;
- grants for patenting abroad to 50 thousand dollars of the USA.
The fund approved obligations for financing of 55 innovative projects. Among large it is possible to note the "Automated 1-5 kW Vertical Wind Power Units" project, which purpose development, creation, test of prototypes and preparation for industrial production of the automated 1-5 kW wind power units (VEA). Other example is "Research on application of elastic elements from copper-beryllium alloys in knots of the equipment working in the conditions of slaboagressivny environments of the oil and gas industry".
In the field of pharmaceutics as an example it is possible to give creation of a pharmaceutical complex on production of the antineoplastic preparation "Arglabin" and development of the original preparation "Normogen". The fund also participates in implementation of the project on the organization and introduction in production of modern universal logging registrars of "Geoskan" of unlimited computing power for data recording каротажа and their subsequent express processing.
The fund initiated the joint research program with known American Fund of civil researches and development (CRDF). With it the Agreement on cooperation according to which cooperation in the field of examination of projects, carrying out joint research programs, and also conferences and seminars will be carried out was concluded. In 2006 of JSC NIF for the first time I started the international competition of innovative grants together with the Program of the European Union INTAS. Competition with the general budget in 500 thousand euros with an equal share from JSC NIF and INTAS collected over 10 projects, each of which applied for financing at the rate to 50 thousand euros. Duration of projects was from a year to two years. After independent scientific and technical examination of the submitted projects total number of the projects selected on financing made three. This competition shows importance and timeliness of the new mechanism developed by JSC NIF for the purpose of establishment and strengthening international cooperation in the field of innovations.
Today the Fund concluded Memorandums of cooperation with the known foreign technological companies Cisco Systems, CIFAL. Also work on establishment of mutually beneficial cooperation is conducted. M.V.Lomonosova is a question in this case of work with the German network of the applied centers Fraunhofer, and also with the Moscow State University to them. The partnership will have the most positive impact on innovative development of the country as a whole. In compliance with the planned joint actions, Fraunhofer and the Moscow State University it M.B. of Lomonosov will render the professional examination to developmental and surveying works of the Kazakhstan innovators and scientists, and also together with JSC NIF will develop new high-tech projects with accurate emphasis on receiving as a result of a surplus value.
One of the important directions of development of the international cooperation of Fund is development of the joint big program on creation of the general space of EU - Kazakhstan in the field of science and innovations. In this connection work with Representation the European Commission in Kazakhstan is conducted on a constant basis.
The national Innovative Fund holds the second year competition of business plans with a prize fund in 50 thousand US dollars for the best innovative solution. In 2007, except a traditional prize, the additional nomination "For the Best Ecological Project" and a prize of 25 thousand US dollars from the sponsor of competition - the Shell company is founded. And also two grants are allocated for training in a magistracy and doctoral studies of Oil university of Saudi Arabia.
One of the leading directions of formation of NIS is formation of innovative infrastructure. Full innovative activity is possible only in new economic and territorial educations - science and technology parks, business incubators. In Kazakhstan 15 science and technology parks and 16 business incubators work.
The Park of information technologies, Park of biotechnologies, Petrochemical park, Park of nuclear technologies, Park of space technologies, Park of new materials have the status of national science and technology parks. Regional science and technology parks are created in the cities of Astana, Almaty, Karaganda, Uralsk, Petropavlovsk, Shymkent, Ust Kamenogorsk. Technological business incubators are created in the territory of science and technology parks and at technical colleges in a number of republic regions.
The largest is NIF created with participation national science and technology park near Almaty – Alatau IT City which is a special economic zone with preferential tax and customs regulations for all companies working at the territory of park, in the sphere of information technologies and electronics.
Its activity is aimed at creation and development of the IT industry of Kazakhstan within the state priorities on diversification of economy, import substitution, development of high technologies and creation of workplaces for highly qualified personnel. Alatau IT City-is the first object of high-tech of the industry in Kazakhstan, intended to become the center of high technologies in Central Asia.
The leading world companies take part in work of Alatau IT City in the field of information technologies and communications, Memorandums of cooperation with Microsoft, Hewlett Packard, Siemens, Cisco Systems, Thales International, LG, Sun Microsystems, Samsung and other world leaders are signed.
In the territory of science and technology park the business incubator, the educational center, the logistic center, a data-center, the certified center, the exhibition centers are located.
Among realized projects in Alatau IT city — plant on production of the liquid crystal panels, being joint venture JSC NIF, Glotur firms and the DS Multimedia companies (Singapore). Here, in science and technology park, Thales Communications intends to make radio systems and accompanying accessories, and also the software within the Thales Communications Kazakhstan organization.
The national innovative fund can provide interaction between enterprise and scientific sectors and attract in process of financing of innovations internal and foreign investments, in the form of the private venture capital.
Development of innovative activity is a prerogative of business. At the same time, increases of innovative activity, especially at the initial stages not to achieve without strong state support. In Kazakhstan much attention is paid to creating favorable conditions for development of innovative activity from the state. In 2006 the special Law "About the State Support of Innovative Activity" which establishes legal, economic and organizational bases of stimulation of innovative activity in the Republic of Kazakhstan is adopted and defines measures of its state support.
The state support of innovative activity is carried out in the following main directions:
1) stimulation of innovative activity by creation of organizational and economic conditions, including investments providing attraction for realization of the state innovative policy;
2) definition of priorities of innovative development;
3) formation and development of innovative infrastructure;
4) participation of the state in creation and introduction of innovations;
5) advance of domestic innovations on foreign markets;
6) the international cooperation in the sphere of innovative activity, including a transfer of technologies.
The state support of innovative activity is carried out in the following main forms: participation in creation of specialized subjects of innovative activity; creation, coordination of activity and further development of existing state institutes of development; implementation of innovative projects at the expense of budgetary funds; granting innovative grants; organization of staffing of innovative activity.
The new stage of development of NIS of Kazakhstan is connected with realization of the tasks set in the last Messages of the President N. Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan. One of the major tasks is carrying out the uniform state strategy directed on introduction of high technologies and support of innovations.
For this purpose it is required to carry out actively a transfer of technologies, proceeding from national competitive advantages. It is necessary to promote creation of a network of design offices and the design organizations which will carry out as import of ready technologies and their completion, and introduction of domestic scientific development to production. It is necessary to create new structures on support of financing of projects in the sphere of high technologies, including, on the basis of venture financing.
A lot of work is necessary on development of system of stimulation of innovative activity of the Kazakhstan business. The private sector has to raise considerably the role in research and design activity, gradually replacing the state. The state order for research works has to be more system and cover only directions really demanded by economy.
The most important tendency of development of innovative activity is its globalization. Kazakhstan while in the world markets of high technologies is presented generally only as their recipient. Therefore an important task is the entry into these markets and occupation of the niche. The geographical position of the country allows to develop the hi-tech production focused on the regional market where Kazakhstan in the long term has to become the service and technological center of the region. The president of the country set a task of participation in the international business of high technologies. Kazakhstan plans to become the shareholder of a number of the leading world hi-tech companies.
The basic characteristic of NIS – the central role of the enterprises in innovative process. The science can produce knowledge and even to stimulate demand for them, offering new, earlier unknown technologies, mastering with which provides strengthening of competitive positions of the enterprises, but exactly the last I carry out practical realization of innovations, their advance to consumers and formation of feedback. The special role belongs to large technological corporations. In Kazakhstan of such corporations of unit.
In Kazakhstan the presentation of Industrial park in Astana where new technologies will be developed took place. Implementation of four projects begins: construction of plant on production of car tires which will occupy a favorable niche in the automobile market of Kazakhstan and the border countries; the project on construction of locomotive plant has to provide the railroad with domestic and quality cars, the transport and logistic center and plant on production of the cars "Nissan" will be constructed. In plant on release of tires of Nokian giant firm it is planned to enclose 200 million dollars of investments, in a year the enterprise will be able to let out to 4 million tires of the most different models. The second plant will let out the locomotives made on technologies of the General Electric company. In this project 78 million dollars will be enclosed. And, at last, 100 million will be invested in the enterprise for assembly of cars of the Nissan brand (jeeps, pickups and mini-veins). dollars, it will be able to let out about 30 thousand cars a year. It is supposed that the prices will be competitive. In industrial park the most different productions which will adjust release of construction materials, the lift equipment, furniture, and many other things will be placed.
Are put into operation the first starting complex of electrolysis plant in the Pavlodar region and the first stage of production of tantalic condenser powders in East Kazakhstan. Earned sortoprokatny production in the Karaganda region.
JSC Investment Fund of Kazakhstan the investment project "Construction of Plant on Production of Polycrystalline Silicon in Kazakhstan", initiated JSC KUN Renewables together with the company "financed Lancaster Industrial Pte. Ltd. ". Construction of plant is carried out on technology 2,5 thousand tons per year "Siemens" in the territory of Industrial park in Astana. Production of polycrystalline silicon is the main material for creation of solar elements and transformation of light energy to electricity. The plant is put in operation in 2010, and the exit to full capacity will be reached by the beginning of 2012. Thus, implementation of this project will render assistance to creation of competitive, hi-tech production in not raw sector and will give the chance to Kazakhstan to be fixed in the world market of renewable power.
In Ust Kamenogorsk it is supposed to let out titanic alloys and ingots, and also a certain material which can sustain temperature in 100 million degrees Celsius, and it is two and a half times higher, than on the Sun. It is possible to use this fire-resistant substance, for example, in space branch. In Almaty Shymbulak and Medeu is planned to turn into a ski resort of the European level. In the Old World similar resorts bring in the income to 12 billion dollars year.
In the Karaganda region the plant on production of metallurgical silicon worth 110 million euros and metallurgical silicon with power up to 25 thousand tons in a year is put into operation. For its production the local raw materials – vein quartz from fields of the Ulytausky region of the Karaganda region will be used. Production of Silicium Kazakhstan it will be completely export the focused.
In the Pavlodar region such projects, as are realized: first Kazakhstan electrolysis plant on production of pure aluminum; plant on production of chlorine and the caustic soda in JSC Kaustik; the enterprise for production of seamless pipes of various diameter for oil and gas branch; metallurgical complex of Kazelektrostal LLP on release of wheel couples and axes with a full production cycle for the railroad; commissioning of two power units on Ekibastuzsky GRES-2.
The electrolysis plant as a leader of a metallurgical cluster of the region, more precisely its starting complex with a productivity of 62,5 thousand tons of primary aluminum a year already started working with full loading. After input in 2011 of the second turn it reaches design capacity — annual 250 thousand tons of production. Thus, implementation of breakthrough projects already bears fruit -
Kazakhstan started letting out the aluminum. For development
metallurgical cluster in area also own production of the coal anodes giving a high-tension current to electrolyzers is planned.
The project belongs to number "breakthrough" in Zhambylsky area on the Khimprom-2030 LLP plant reshaping in. Tarazsky metallurgichesky zavod LLP, making the ferroalloy production, the electrocalcinated anthracite, cathodic blocks and anode weight
The project is financed by the domestic investor - the Central Asian investment consulting company, and the total amount of the enclosed investments made nearly 5 billion tenge. In 2007 the technology on processing of waste of manganese ore in the form of agglomerate here started accustoming and for the first time production of pellets from waste of manganese ore on the unique equipment for the purpose of their further use for production of a ferrosilikomarganets - a new type of export-oriented production is mastered.
Implementation of this "breakthrough" project provides high growth rate in a metallurgical industry of the region - by 1,5 times. Design capacity of ferroalloy production - 100 thousand tons per year. At plant at the expense of expansion, restoration and building of new objects 324 workplaces that is very important for stabilization of a social and economic situation in the region in the conditions of expansion of the crisis phenomena will be in addition created.
For successful implementation of the innovative and breakthrough scenario the priority in structural modernization should be given to emergence of the productions embodying progressive technological ways, for gap reduction with the countries – scientific and technical leaders. While it is impossible to expect mass emergence of own innovations, capable to create hi-tech sector. Therefore creation of preconditions for advancing formation of driving productions of the latest technological way (nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technologies) is necessary: material preconditions (modern communications, infrastructure) and intellectual (education, science development).
Along with development of a domestic production broad attraction of foreign technologies, multinational corporation of non-oil sector, hi-tech corporations is necessary.
The system of tax and other privileges and incentives among which positively proved recently "dot" investment injections of the state, tax incentives of the real economy, the centralized support of national producers in foreign markets is necessary. The Tax code adopted now in Kazakhstan is able to affect positively development of innovatively breakthrough scenario in the country.
The list of the used sources:
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