Kazakhstan in the period of the Great Patriotic War
The Great Patriotic War was a huge challenge for all peoplesof the Soviet Union, including the Kazakh people. Outstanding military leader, war hero Bauirzhan Momyshuly wrote: " The war was a turning point and the turning point in the history of the Kazakh people, leaving an indelible mark in the hearts of millions of our countrymen." And until now, part of Kazakhstan in World War II - a topic noble and concerned not only their contemporaries, but will be relevant in the future.
Many years passed, and the battle ended in a fight. A new interpretation of the theme , new research allows us to consider the history of the Great War more widely. Recent documentary evidence shows that the version of the treacherous attack of fascist Germany can not withstand serious scrutiny . Overall, the analysis shows that both sides - both Germany and the Soviet Union - is actively preparing for war. Stalin and his associates by the militarization of the strongest economies sought to outwit each other. But Hitler was ahead of the Bolshevik leaders , starting a war against the Soviet Union. In this case, the extremely severe consequences had the Molotov - Ribbentrop Pact, as a result of the agreement faded former Poland, the former buffer and narrow river Bug became the new border between the USSR and Germany.
The biggest strategic mistake of Stalin was a blatant mistrust of the information that is presented and the participants of " Red Orchestra " and Richard Sorge spy , diplomatic personnel that Germany is going to attack the Soviet Union in June 1941. The Soviet Union because of the biggest mistakes of his leadership was a war very poorly prepared .
In his memoirs, about the beginning of the war , Marshal Georgy Zhukov wrote: " In the office quickly entered Molotov and said : " The German government has declared war on us. " Stalin sat down at the table and thinking deeply. " For the Soviet leaders it was a severe shock. A few days after the start of the war, Stalin did not appear in the Kremlin.
So began the bloodiest war in human history. The attack on the Soviet forces began the 170 divisions from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea. Beginning of the war the Red Army proved disastrous. In a short time the whole Ukraine , Belarus , the Baltic States , Moldova , Russia , many areas have been occupied by the Nazis. Of the 5.4 million soldiers and officers of the Red Army were captured for the first 4 months of the war 3.9 million. The Germans did not expect such a large number of prisoners of war. According to statistics, by no means complete, by the end of 1941 killed 4 million people (70 % of the personnel of the Red Army on the Western Front ) , was lost 20,000 tanks, 17,000 planes. Our conclusion is confirmed in the memoirs of a German general F. Halder , celebrated June 22, 1941 in their diaries . He writes: " The attack German troops caught the enemy by surprise . The enemy's tactically were not adapted to the defense . " Gross output decreased by 2.1 times. And only untold human and material reserves of the country in the shortest time possible to make up for the huge losses.
July 26, 1941 N. Gastello crews and A. Maslov ( the latter was a member of the Kazakhstani B. Beysekbaev) , making bombing , were injured and sent thousands of planes on the accumulation tanks. Unfortunately, the crew feat A. Maslov was forgotten , and only in 1991, its members were awarded the title of Hero of Russia , and B. Beysekbaevu - " Halyk Қaһarmany ."
In early November 1941 the German forces approached Moscow . Significant contribution to the defense of the capital contributed 100th , 101st , 316th , and other infantry divisions formed in Kazakhstan. About half of the motorists who helped besieged Leningrad were Kazakhs .
Prominent role in the creation of the anti-Hitler coalition played Winston Churchill . It was his efforts a number of European countries , and most importantly - the United States with their huge financial resources were on the Soviet side . Lend -Lease Act has played a huge role in supplying the Soviet economy ( gunpowder , steel, gasoline , food , cars, radios , etc.) . And we should be grateful to the Allies for their help , especially in the most difficult first months of the war.
From its first days behind enemy lines emerged guerrilla groups , teams , and later connections. To deploy the resistance movement in the rear had special schools which trained specialists , demolition , sabotage , radio operators .
In Kazakhstan, the front was mobilized about 25 % of the population , which was significantly higher than the national average . Moreover, many Kazakhs got in the thick of war in the Battle of Moscow , Stalingrad and Kursk Bulge . Many of our countrymen have participated in the liberation of Europe and the capture of Berlin. The active participation of Kazakhstan in the decisive battles , in my opinion, due to the close proximity to the theater of operations (Moscow , Stalingrad ) and the presence in the country developed rail services . These reasons allow the military commissariat quickly select people to send to the front lines . It is estimated that the front left about 70 % of the male population of the country aged 18 to 50 years.
According to military establishments during the war years in Kazakhstan was formed 12 rifle , four cavalry divisions , seven brigades , about 50 separate regiments and battalions. And it is generally believed that the front was mobilized from 1 200 million to 1 million 400 thousand people. However, I believe that these numbers are not accurate and underestimated by objective indicators.
Because of top-down directives of the death toll during the war, the Soviet people are constantly hiding and decreased. For example , at one time , Stalin cited a figure of 7 million Khrushchev it " brought " up to 20 million people.
In the era of glasnost Ministry of Defense of the USSR brought the mournful score to 28 million A foreign researcher M. Haynes estimates the total loss of the Soviet Union in 42.7 million. A number of Russian scientists believed that the loss of the population of the Union exceeded 30 million numbers are terrible and unimaginable in recent history. At the same time, these figures show how wasteful, not sparing the people , fought the Soviet generals . Even during the war, the soldiers did not like many famous generals , calling them contemptuously " butchers ".
According to statistics, Kazakhstan lost in the war about 400,000 people. I think it's too understated figure . For example, counting the number went to the front , statistics do not take into account drafted into the Soviet army in 1939, 1940 , 1941 and earlier. Most enlisted in the pre-war years the war has already met in the army. In addition to all this we must take into account the ill -functioning system of accounting . We often had to work in the archives and view lists of military offices , businesses aimed at the front : the documents were not always meet the requirements. A lot of mistakes in the names of villages and villages, where the recruits were incorrectly recorded names , where, and under what circumstances soldiers going missing .
Kazakhs fought valiantly on the battlefields , more than 500 of them became Heroes of the Soviet Union , and four - Begeldinov T. , S. Lugansk , L. Pavlov and trouble - have twice Heroes . Two girls of the East - A.Moldagulova and M. Mametova - became Heroes of the Great War posthumously.
Kazakhstan has played a huge role in ensuring the front. Almost all businesses have switched to military production .
During the years 1941-1945 in the country was built 460 plants, factories, mines , mines and other industries. In Kazakhstan, 35% of the country's total smelted copper , 83 % lead , 60 % molybdenum , 65 % of the metal bismuth . Karaganda miners during the war produced 35 million tons of coal, a 39% increased oil production . Kazakhstan has really become an arsenal front.
In the difficult working conditions residents of the village where most of the work here vruchnuyu.Osnovnaya weight rests on the shoulders of women, children , school children , since the vast majority of men were at war. It is estimated that rural workers in Kazakhstan during the war put the country's 5,829 tons of grain , 734 tons of meat and other food products.
At the same time, practiced by the mass use of harsh ¬ production properties of the inhabitants of villages and villages . Was constantly mobilizing citizens for enterprise logistics . Shorten these production called "labor army" . Not less than 700-800 thousand people were employed in the mines , mines and other labor-intensive industries , helping the front.
Already during the war, the economy is widely and commonly used labor of so-called special immigrants : Koreans , Germans, Crimean Tatars, people of the Caucasus . Their contribution to the victory was significant.
Differently behaved soldiers of the Red Army. Some of them went to the service of Hitler's command. Others, on the contrary , creating pockets of resistance . Researcher B. Sadykova in the book "History of Turkestan Legion in documents " writes: " There have been cases of transition to the side of the Turkestan Legion guerrilla movements not only in France but in all countries of Europe. Such documents are preserved in the archives of these countries , this requires extensive and thorough search . " But it is very tragic was the fate of the Turkestan Legion , who returned to his homeland. As noted in the Commission for the rehabilitation of victims of political repression of the Russian Federation , "cruel , inhuman treatment to prisoners of war and lasted for many years after the victory ." The most famous case in Kazakhstan has become an unjust trial of 49 former legionnaires who received long sentences camps , and some were shot.
About his fate told in the book - confession Aytkesh Tolganbaev , a great musician . The former footballer , believed in the statement of the Soviet state , has returned to his homeland , here he was sentenced to ten years hard labor. After returning from prison, until the mid- 80s , he lived as an outcast , without a license, under constant surveillance by the state security organs .
At the same time the Soviet ideology constantly rejected the problem of war.
We found in the manuscript of memoirs in the archives of the Hoover U.S. passed I. Idelovym (name, probably fictional) , Tatar nationality , written sincerely and very talented. One can only marvel at the courage of the prisoner , who managed in hellish conditions, to preserve human dignity and civic conscience . The author found the exact name of his notes : " People outside the law" ( Notes of the Soviet prisoners of war in Germany).
Getting a grasp in the line of this sad story , could not help thinking: these people could be helped if such notes have been published immediately after the war.
We need to understand that being captured does not mean to be a traitor. In defense of the rights of prisoners of war at the time adopted the Geneva Convention, which refused to recognize Stalin . Such a move of the Soviet state turned torments of hell for many, many no-fault affected people.
1418 days of the Great Patriotic War were the most intense period in the history of the Soviet state , including Kazakhstan.
All her weight on his shoulders carried ordinary soldiers and officers . Not sparing lives, they have broken the back of the fascist beast and hoisted the Victory Banner over the Reichstag . Among those who took Berlin , there were plenty of Kazakhstan.
A hoisting the flag of victory also was Lieutenant Rakhimzhan Koshkarbaev and Private Gregory Bulatov of 674 th Infantry Regiment. Famous film director Romash Carmen in an interview to "Komsomolskaya Pravda " of May 8, 1949 said: " I still have pictures that show the valiant warrior at a time when he attached a red flag on the roof of the Reichstag ." Feat R. Koshkarbaeva was assessed only after independence , when he was awarded the title of " Halyk Қaһarmany ."
The Great Patriotic War was the fight of the whole country.
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